THE EFFECT OF BREEDING ON MARES.
We have often been asked what we
thounght of breeding a filly which has to be
trained after breeding acolt or two. The in
stances that we have known have proved that
it was not detrimental to speed. Princess,
Lady Palmer and Lucy had each one foal
before they were trained, and Flora Belle
two ; and in a late number of Bell's Life in
London is the following fiom one of the
correspondents of that paper. Ils article
is in relation to the breeding of hunters:
"It does not hurt a three-year-old filly at
all to breed from her. She has a foal at
four, and the autumn of that year she is
broken. Some have even bred advantage
ously from two year olds. I fancy it spreads
a lightish animal to have a foal. and that it
does not hurt their constitution in the slight,
est degree is proved by the numerous mares
that have dlone real good things after they
have had several foals. I have seen Theo
dora, by the Emperor, run in the same stee
ple-chase with her son, Valentine, who was
then five; and I remember seeing an old
mare called Regate beat a good field in one
of the best contested steeple-chases I ever
saw; and she had been thrown out of train
ing after running up to four years old; then
she had five or six foals, and was subse
quently put to steeple-chasing. I do not be
lieve, either, that moderate work hurts foal
ing mares. I have seen them do great per
formances when tolerably far gone. I saw
Neolie, the dam afterwards of Don Carlos,
win the great four-mile race at Paris, late
in October, after a tremendous struggle,
and she foaled early in the following April.
It could not have hurt her constitution, for
she has produced some good animals, and I
believe she is alive now." Some of the very
best brood mares have had foals when quite
quite young, and the failure of some of the
best performers, when put to breeding, may
have arisen from the lateness of the time
they commmnced the duty of maternity, al
though it has been generally ascribed to
hard training and severe races they have
From the Michigan Farmer, one of the
best posted lournals in the United States we
quote the following:
The wool market is beginninf to be re
ferred to pretty generally ill the country,
and is about tile only subject that is talked
about. We have seen a good many sheep
washed preparatory to shearing, and there
are i good many already shorn. As yet we
have heard of no sales and no offers, and it
is generally thought that the market will
drag a good deal and clips be slow to move,
as the prices will be lower than many farm
ers will care about accepting with the expe
rience of the past year before them.
The total amount of wool sold in Boston
for the past week wa.s nearly a million and
a half pounds, almost all being domestic.
MIot.t of the dealers are closing out their
stock preparatory to the reception of the
new clil , and the m;anufactlurers have take:n
the opportunity to stock up. Most of the
sales were California, Oregon, Texas and
Territorial wools, ranging from 19 for hall
clip to 25Th for the last spring clips. We
note that scoured Calltornia sold at 45 to
47k. All sales of Australian and Cape wools
were on private terms.
The latest advices from the London sales
by telegraph, indicate that at better feeling
had set in, and there were no reports of any
purchase by American buyers, as the de
cline of ten per cent. on wool in the Uinited
States and the rise in gold and higher rates
of exchaunge had about equalized the dte
cline ill the prices at London. We think
the general aspect of the atflirs in the wool
trade iF more encouraging., and gives prom
ise of 0tirtiness at least.
The clip of this year will not be any less
th;lan that of last year, and with the natural
i:lcr+ase of sheep in the Western and Pacific
States, we must look for some illnrease, and
the large mass of it will come hrotm that
source. The increase in this State, Ohio and
Pennsylvania, and the States cast of the
SMississippi a:d north of the Ohio will prove
to be light and moderate. There have beenl
large numbers of sheep fed in this State tht
plast year, Lut thty are mostly sold witl:
their wool on and have already gone, an I
hence our wool clip will be omp uosed large
ly ot the standard flocks and the general av
erage of supply of the past five years.
ADVANTAGE OF GOOD STOCK.
Uncle Story says., in the A,ner ican Stock
jourinal, that with all the labor and enter
prise of breeders of live stock to spread:l in
formation throughout the country in rela
tion to the best breeds of stock, there are
still nmany farmers who keep on breeding
scrubs. It is to such flrmers as do this that
I wish to address my remarks in this arti
Look around yon and see who are the
most successful. It is the farmer or stock
raiser that takes the best care of his stock
and selects the best sires-then when he gets
good blood and gives it Puch attention as all
stock should have, lie will be well paid for
the money invested and labor bestowed.
Breed to good animals that are well bred,
be they cattle, horses, sheep or swine-and
you can by this means improve your coin
mon stock. A few dollars spent for a good
bull, boar or ram, will prove to be money
well invested. Often the ordiinary farmer
cannot afford to buy thoroughbred stocl at
fancy prices, but all farmers and stock
raisers can afford to patronlize their more
fortunate neighbors, who can afford to have
thoroughbreds by paying liberally for the
services of their bulls, boars or rams. Most
farmers have one or more extra grade cows,
ewes or sows. that they could take sonic
distance to be served by a thoroughbred,
and thus materially improve their stock.
There is no stock on the farm that pays
as well and can be improved and increased
in numbers as fast as the hog. Buy a boar
of some improved stock and breed your
common sows to him. Next spring you
will have finue pigs that will make you from
one hundred and fifty to two hundred and
fifty pounds apiece at killing time next fall.
You cannot do this with '' laud pikes" or
" subsoilers"-you must have good blood.
Poland-Chinas are quick growers, and
small eaters to the amount of flesh laid on
in a short time. Yorkshire mixed with
Chester White makes an excellent crossto
improve common sows. Overgrown hogs
:lo not pay. There is not a single advan
tage in having hogs above the medium
size. There never was a monster hog that
did not make the man who fed and raised it,
pay well for each pound it weighed. The
most salable porkers, therefore, and those
that will make the most profitable return
for the amount of food consumed, are spring
pigs fattened the same fall. With care and
attention, almost any of the improved breeds
can be made to weigh from one hundred
and fifty to two hundred and fifty pounds
at nine months old.
I have written more particularly on the
hog in this article, but you can also look out
for good bulls and ratus. Try a thorough
bred boar, and be convinced that it pays to
have one to breed from. Your neighbor
will patronize you, and your stock of hogs
will be so im.proved that you will wonder
why you did not try the experiment long
I hope the hints hastily thrown out in
this article may be the meanus of some one
trying to improve their stock of hogs at last.
Stock rightly managed will be attended
with success, but to make it successful,
good stock is absolutely necessary.
HOGS ON THE FARM.
The following valuable suggestions by
the California Agriculturi; t and Artisan to
the farmers of Pacific Slope, would apply
well to the farmers of Montana:
Every year tile imlportance of raising our
own perk becomes more apparent on this
coast. Our farmers find that there is policy
as well as profit in raising pork upon the
thrm. Alfailtf lield.d make the best kind of
hog pastiures at any seasont of the year.
Grail fields are easily harvested by hogs,
and the stubble fields are gicaud by them.
Oil manlly flrms, p)articularly where dairy
ing and grain-growing are carried on to
gether, tile cost of raising a few hogs each
y( ar is nothing, as tllhey get their living up
on what would otherwise go to waste. But
it pays to feed hogs well; to keep them in
good growing order froln their birth till
tl:cy are ready for the butcher. The hog
should be looked upon as a necessary part
of every good farmer's stock. And while
hle saves what wouId( othlerise .ro to w.aste,
lie should also be provided for in times
when there is no waste feed. A ljew see
tidrls of moveable fence will allow any graLi
..rower to pasture hiog upon the growing
crop? in seetiollS, as oll-vellienco llay Msug
lest. In this way the expense of leeping
whhere often pastura'e is not obtaiablle,
will be greatiy lesseucl. No good farmer
can atlord to neglect the matter of providing
pastuirage in this. or in some other economi
cal manner. While swine in the great pork
producing States are dying off with the hog
cholera, the herds here are are remarkably free
from all diseases. We can produce healthier
n(d better pork on this coast than in any
other section of the United States. Farm
ers who feel the effect of hard times should
think upon this subject, and by taking ad
vantage of every sure means of profit turn
their attention to all branches of farming
that will pay and not neglect so profitable a
resource as the growing and fattening of
swine to supply our home demand.
T HE DAIRY.
CURDS IN BUTTERMILK.
We have the following upon this subject
from C. G. 'T., in Country Gentlcnma.n :
On page 283, Mlrs. 'T M. P. complains of
laving " cheesy particles" remaining in the
buttermilk after taking out the butter. The
explanation there given and enclosed within
the brackets is entirely difierent from my
experience. The writer says these white
cheesy specks are usually attributed to keep
ing the cream in too warm a place after it is
skimmed and before it is put into the
churn." These white cheesy specks, that
are too often found in buttermilk and more
or less in the butter, are not particles of
curd in any sense, nor are they the results
of acidity. They are not hardened curdled
milk, nor curd becoming so hard as not to
be broken by the process of churning. Nei
ther are they disposed of or hindered from
appearing by " keeping the cream perfectly
cool" " after skinmning and before churn
ing," as there stated.
After cream is ,kimmed, quantities of the
milk taken off with the cream will settle to
the bottom, and if allowed to remain too
long before churning become more or less
sour. Whey and very soft curd will be the
result at the bottom. The cream will float
or rise to the top, as it is lighter than the
watery parts. But in no case will the curd
become so hard as to resist the churning
This sour milk at the bottom of the cream
wrill soon seriously atlhect the purity of the
cream ; thus the necessity of churning often.
My experience has ever been that these
white specks or flecks are only caused by
too much dry air passing over the surface of
the cream while in the pans before skim
ming. Where a current of dry air from
doors or windows in the milk room passes
rapidly over the cream, it becomes smooth,
leathery, and more or less hard all over tihe
entire surface, and particularly so next to
the pan. The milk will evaporate some,
thus leaving the cream that first forms
higher on the side of the pans than that
farther trom it. It is thus that particles on
the outer border become so hard and so dry
that the churn dash will not crush them ful
ly. Where the milk pans are set in a room
near the stove, as is often the case in spring
and fill, the air also becomes too dry, and
this dry, heated air causes a crust to form
more rapidly over the cream directly from
out of doors. It is of the case that many of
these flecks will wash out of the fresh but
ter, as they are harder than the butter, and
willseparate more or less from it. But all
cannot be disposed of in that way. The la
d!e will press too rmally of them into the
butter, to remain there. These specks are
iore unpleasaut to the eye than to the taste
as they are nothing more or less than very
hard dried cream.
To prevent this occurrence, the milk
should not be set where it is exposed to a
current of dry air, nor in a room where the
air is kept too dry by the heat of the stove.
Many who keep only a few cows may not
have just the right place and the right air
for the milk. The cream should, before
churning, pass through a fine colander or
wire strainer. In this way all dry, hard
cream is crushed and made tine and uni
LIVE STOCK DIRECTORY
E\ N ETT & UOODAL;
ImpNorteL rsI ar 1rcders of Ilre-bloo(1
COTSWOLD S ~i tP
Are ]low Wp'QIparedl to supplv the "ool.g' o
the Territory with pu'e-hlood) of either er]
s1hec tIafinvited. 1'. 0. add irelss: C jeIi1
BI3 E1 ISIIIRtE 11 005.
I c~laiml to hIaive this celebrate d breed ie all
purity. Iigs Wetll s eleed in pairs or trioa
:skin, at low figUrcs. T
Colt Sprint tanceh, three miles ott of 'l
JLIES MA LD)EN,
Percherou--1\ornlan oIr9e ,
YOUNG STOCK FOI SALE.
Correspondclcco stolicited. AddIress, lnt,
15eaivorhead ('oauty, Montauna. _- ý'
(1 IV. COOK & BU).,
iM1POR'I'EItS ANI) B RtE1:Dlf op
Thoroughbred Cotswol(I S11ee
Offer for sale a few choice thoroughlred ran
and have also some fine grade.-o1ee-half Td
three-f.ourthso Iboods. L' otofllc address, (·i
Itaker, 1iM ntuinui.
ST' AR of the WET
Will stand at Trepp Bros.' Ranch,;on Ri.re.
Season commences May 1, and ends July 1i. illars
fromn a distance pastured free and taken Care.fo but
all accidents and (scapes, at owner's risk. Jill
must he settlIed at time of ,ervice with cash, orl
no te due on the first of September, wtilhlyerca
interest from that date.
T i'nMs, $1i.00 Fon THE SEA%.
The well-proved Stallion, will make the sae
the same place and at the same ternls.
2-23-6w MARTIN TREPP, Superinlendet.
JOHN MORGA ,
This celebrated Stallion will stand during the.
curring season at
Diamond City and Rader's Rach,
His time will be: Sunday, Monday andhTean ,
at l)ianmond City. Thursday, Friday and .itulasf,
at Rader's Ranch.
lie will serve Mares at the followkig
SINGLE LEAP, $10.00. SEASgO~$2OA
Money due at close of season.
SEASON OF 18T1.
Dapple grey. ten years old, 1I hands hi .l.
1,600 lbs. and a horse of fine form fallu w'
action. imported from Perche, Frac%, a
Will serve at $40 the season.
MIN O, -
7-8 PERCIIERO ORMN~
Dapple grey, five years old, 1( 1-2 bUnd b
and weighs 1,700 lbs. Will surve a. iqthe
Pedigree: Sired by St. Iaur(nt (4, (4 z
from France in 1870; I)Daue lb Napoleon i
imported from France i 18C67. G.ula . 1 b8. 1 0..
poleon (281), imported tfom Fraelite 1 6,'
D. by imported Flan1uAtr.
Bright lay, four. -arrs old, 151-2 -an .
weighs aLout 1,3t0 S l~ . Sired .,ill c
dam the a Oregon Ianare..
follrs owing sp`N6-aW. A.~l bf..ll .n Iatm
folIowing-seatst . 411 bill's a7«3 1usottl ad4
time of serviea or beforet the lr. lltk " fI l
Good ,astur5f furni.e.e at $ 12Ur ,.s.#
taken of stoAd; but all ereidEu 2s -
owner's risk. 1 .
Season com.eQlCCes Jy ast anhd ln8 d Ala( .
Youngsterct4. be seen at my rancia seet.,u
of the princsal stock-growers infthi
country, are a sufficient guarantce of the
of these stsns.> Aa.
Horses and youngsters for sale.
For particu~ rs addrdessiJAMES iA
20enm Watson, Beaveh1e.# ' "
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