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ROKY .OU.NTAIN I.t SBANDMAN
;.;.-. ......... . ... . .... ........ --~-- ;L -C -.._-3_-.7 - L .-Z _. i. .. =L -. . _-- _ :- . _L. . . . ... . . . .. . .. . 7. :; F -= - 7 - 7... 7.... .. -- : . . . . . L i A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live.stock, Home Reading, and General News. P i E sOPY. VOL. 2. DIAMOND CITY M... T., JULY 19, 1877. N CO.Y. VOL. 2. DIAIMOND CITY, M. T., JULY 19, 1877. NO. 35. f) 1, p1.11 LIEI) WE El i X1 BY RI. N. SUTHERLIN, Ll)I'rOA)IANI PRO l J'KII"OR Tlic Itt t~v llItt .I_ýIN HSBANDMN ls'dc~igneedl to iu;, as fire J'I I11 indicate;<( , it husl.,;tnrl( mntnt. iA every ,jien' th t1)1 1 ii (lillil ing in its columins eveCry lU~n~ttel t : t :\r:ýulture', tHtcenk-raiciltjg, Ilort -` ,"u Itur. i anl )omLItic Economiv. l)>\ I LI''ING\ ItRA'Z'ES. Ilcwk $$ i $B $ 7I$" $ 11$20 :30 dekIl4 i 10 12 T1 23 40 I month Jo I IL l 1:1 2 40 60 mnntlr 10 it, 3 lf)' .;v 4-1 O 1 12 .t1 ' 0 ( 120 1 ea to 4:) i8 751 00u1 1051 180) I 2..0 l'r:inm. t avlvit i(einCnts ifltZtle in advance. hi 11111 - cr tcent. added for spoe.:.1 advertise 1111111 A IICJULTU IRA L. 'TIE f'armers were lnever more fav",red sincls the t setcik menC t of Montilna than they hlre b,,en this season. i There has been con siderablc lain, ml in many localities irrigat ing has been wholly unnecessary. Farming hes thteretore been easy and inexpensive. 'The ve:lthlier has bthen cool, and the snow 2 still lingers on the ountallins in abuind.ille. keeping up a steady supply of water, so that there is no danger of its becoming se.lree, as is soietimes the case iin thickly settled loaalities. A.nd with the exception of ,a po' tioon of Bitter Roott there have been no pests to )ot Ihe. Notwithstanding the weather hais 1en quiite cool, the crops have grownl spleIndhily, and are as far a(lvanced as is usual it tlhis season of the year, in fact, they are tar superior now to what we had one yea' atgo. A large aecreage has been sown. :1and if nothling tran-pites to destroy it Moo1 tan;t will soon be a grand harvest field. But it will inot tdo to build up our hopes tOo soon ; the gr:tsshioppers are liable to sweepl in upon us any day. The news from the Bitter Boot is to the eflect that large numbers have been ldestroyed by tl e,fly, atild what remain arei 1ot thought to be in suth.iient force to do any material danlge. East;of ua, in 3Miunesota, the fly has also imade such ilroads upon the pest a0s to make the farm ers' prospects there much better than the most S1nilg iue had hoped. Whet.jer the great plains between here and there are in fested this year we do not know, nor do we know whether the hoppers, oven were they in sntficient force. could migrate so great a distance. There are said to be great num bers iu the Big lhorn country. These are inear enough to sweep Gallatin and Madison counties if they sholdhl tigrate in that; direc tiont, but their course is usually to!ward the south-west. lence, all things considered, W\c think the chances fur 1iMontana to escape l'l.e good. With a: good crop the country will flour ihll once more. Some chronic grumbhlers claim that it would be better if half the growing crop was destroyed, but such per-. sons l.would like their own tields to escape and their neighbors sifler. There is no fear as to tie market ; though the product should he large the consumption will be large also. And it any degree of judgment is used on the I;ltrt of the farmers prices will be remllun erative. The stock men are also blesset with a good outlook. Grass was never better; fat t-:r beef never trad the prairies of ipy couu try than are to b~e .found at.mig the green hills of Montagno, to-day. For the past few years t mere has, been a lack of market for beef, but thllis year .:there is no difficulty in 4disposing of grown steers. .There are nu Vlerous buyers in diflferent. sections of the le'rritory, auid steers three years old atid nliw'tards are ready sale at from .$2s to $26. Th ± is not What was fnCe s'reliZed for such1 t'.ck, but cattle raiising iat such prices is hIard to excel as a but4uaess ill any country. In Texas $1i i eon.idered a good price for', a three yea: r o.tl anud S18i is tiq toip of tl., market for four anid live year olds. In somlie portion(s of the State they are not worth i near these figures. There is also a markedl demand for stock cattle. The prospect of still r~iore remuneralive markets than now exist has stimulated capital to seek thli brianch of industry. Thus we may safely conclhle that if the grasshoppers but pass u.s bly a month or so longer the first snows of winter will find the people of Montana in a better fix to weather its storms thaluiany .previous one ham, They will have tiloney in their pockets, and their granarlhs will smile with plenty. TRIAL OF PLOWS. A correspondent, writing to the 'ra.iric. Farmer, gives the following account of the plow trial, which w as,, made b)y the Missouri Agricutltural College anti the Oranrges of Boone coiuty, at Columbia, May 16: On walking plows only three points were consiuercd. quality of work, durability ant draft. In sulky pllows, quality of work, ad justability, durability, simplicity and draft were conlsi(dered(I. Of the prairie breaktrs, the one entered, by the Moline Plow Company, of Kansas City, Mo., ranked highest. Thi's plow is known, as the '"Evans" 1plow. andl has gain ed( an enviable popularity throughoult Mis souri, audl is the plow which is recoummend ed by the State Grange. For, plowing in blue grass sod the "Star ling" plow, made by the PrI'iceton Manu fat(t!r'ing Company, of Princeton, Ill., re ceived the highest standing, not only o0 the total average, but on quality of work, ad justability. durability, and simplicity ; more points than were won by any other plow in any field. Its manyv good points, the beauty of its work, and above all the ease of manI-, a;.ciment, gained it many friend~. and Imade it one of the most popular plow on exhibi tion. Of the walking plows on sod ground, the "h75" plo)w. tna'ie by A. Speer & Son, of Pittsbuig. Pa., (lid altogether the best work, and, consequently, received the awartl. The great interest of the trial centered ill the tests of the plows on cultivated land, and each lof the folurteen sulkies which were ill the lield fotind many admirers. The (txiIard of the judges was in tfvor of the "Iuugl:es" plow, made by thl IIhglies Rid ing Plow Co.. of St: Louis. The "Corr" plow, made by' the Marsh! Harvest er Co.. of Sycamore, Ill.. also gained a creditable record, and was by many coil sidered to be tlhe plow for general use. As a comlbined sod and old:( gr|ound l(pllow, the '.Urowne''" sulky, nlllde by B. 1). Buford & Co., of IRock Island, Ill., madel the best recordl. Among the walkillg plows, a 16-inch plow nmule by Morrisoln Bro:s., of Madison, lown,; would probably I;ave received the best rec ord ; but unfortunately, in nmkiug the dy namlomneter tests, it failed to reach the re quired depth of 8 inches. This plow not only came off victorious over all w:alking plows, but had it made a furrow 8 inches deep instead of 7j with the. satn, propor tionate dratt, it would have shown the light est draft of any plow in the tield. At the close of the trial proper an exhibi tion of corn cultivators was held on the col lege tarm, where the Buford pllow headed the list. Taken as a whole, the trial was a conmplete success. It was more extensive thanl anlly other plow trial ever held in the Unitec4 States, anmd at its close the nlillfiC eturers present, %%itilout anl exception, declared themselves thoroughly satisfied with its thoroughness and impartiality. The otlici:tl report will soon be published in pamphlet form. ald in this report each plow will be given full credit for each item of work performed. The report will be illustrated with cuts of most of the plows tested, and will doubtless be the most comr rel:entsi.et re port of t.h!.e i4td'Wcr is t I, EARLY CUTTING OF WHEAT. Some farmers cut their wheat when they are ready to get at it, not when thei wheat ought to be cut. We say ought to be cut, and We say it .idvisedly. Every observing farmer will admit that the risks run in al lowing their \iheat to become dead-ripe are many, and one or more of them are sure to turfrsp. RI:iins may come and bl.cken it, and Itmay be delayed so long as to shatter out considerably when the harvesting takes plcce. But above all, the rust may interpose ,and destroy half the crop. This injury sel dlom ever makes its appearance until the last bf June. while in ordinary seasons the crop is fit to he cut by the 25th of June. That is to say, when the grain can just be mnashed betwpen the thumb and linger is the best time to cut it. This early harvesting not on ly secures the crop against the risks unmed, but it seem es also better flour and more ot it, while the straw is brighter and contains more nutri-tion as food for cattle than when the cutting is delayed. Again, as most wheat fields in certain parts of the country are sown with clover, it gives the young plants an earlier opportunity to push ahead, so that it can he pastured in early autumn, when it afbIrds an excellent food for amilch covs, w\ithout in the least reducing the crop the ensuing y a:'.-Ger.nanfoovn Telegrap;h. IHORTICULIURE. CARE OF EASPBEEIfRY PLANTATION. To reach the highest suaOcess in fruit cul ture, you must give it seasonable antd tunre nitting attention. This it particulariy true of small fruit culture, as a few da'ys' neglect in the rowinýg seasoin may make quite a difference in the results. If you put a cul tivator to work in a plantation of small fruits as soon as the grass and weeds appear, or a little before, you will find no difficulty in distroying them. Wait a few days, and perlhaps you will not be able to work with a cultivalor, but will be obliged to take a plow andi turn up sods in ridge, which will re quire a great i'e:tl of subsequent work to level down and make fine. So in regard to keeping down the suckers of raspberries and blackberries. If you commence with their lirst appearance, and cuLt dlowi all that you do not \ ishl to grow, with' as iucli persistency as you would noxious weed(s, there will be but little trouble in keeping them down ; but if you spaire them iintil roots and canes have ex parnded, it will require double or three-fold the amount of labor to stubdlue thenL. But we comimenced writing mroro partic ularly about the raspberry plantatlon,, w*\ch needs pruning the early part of this. month, and if it is not atten(led to plro.Ibptly, it will prove a losing ra.h r thamn a, paying enterprise. There are two ways oft training raspberry c:nes. One Ls to tie them up to stakes, and the other is to pinch themii back soUme so that they will grow stouter, self-sutpporting I canes, and their pruning should delpetul up on their training. If they are, to be trained up tied jro. stakes, which maty be the best ad most profitable in the long run, we should sufter the new canes to grow about lour feet in hight, and then pinch off the end of the leading shoots so as, to stop their growing. There are varieties of the red raspberry; that are partially tender and can only he re lied upon to produce full crops when betib down :an(i covered in winter. These should be trained lp rather slender, and to itsure them from falling down when loaded with frui', should he tied to stake s. Hardy varieties aid all varieties of black cap4, may be pruned so as to t.e sufficiently self supporting to bear up the most of their berries out of the dirt, But you wan\\':t to commence soon, early in Junte, when the canes are about two feet high, and pinch go t thle trailht llhal.s \-1,, wlli will, t oaw th.. sap Into the lateral bads, causing then to start and form strong; brancheI.. After a week or so. go over the plantation again, when those that were too short topiuch the first time will probably be tall enow~t. This pruning, or pinching must be seasonably attended to if the plantation is to be kept inl good ordcr.--Rural Home. DOMESTIC EC6 c MY. PHILOSOPHIES IN COOKING. A writer in the American Ciltivater says: The various processes of cooklug often de terline both the taste for food and its. ulti mate benefclcfil effect on the system. IT tihe case of animal food. whatevec: rion(lers its tilber harder, makes the imeat less digestable, the flesh of young animals, or those that ]have never b)een ov'ervworked, is easily distinguish ed from that of older, tougher cattle. Keep inir tends very miuch to improve the tei)der ness of meat. Few animals are fit to eat the day they are killed, and yet, for, thllt lluk of .a supply of ice and otelhQr coltveul ielces of trilling cost. and trouble, itnii.ense quantities of tough and unfit: meat are, iun nually consumed in country places. By the action of salt on lean I1ellaelt, a considetlble quantity Qf the ulltural juites and flavDr is extracted and absorbed, rend]ring the flb r harder. drier andl more iundigetanble. Occa sionally salt meat is agreeahlp, but its a reg ular article of diet, it is obj< t3Ionable, since thi introduction of so muclh salt into the, systf em is prejudicial to health, lessens the relish for food, induces cravings for fluids, produces indigestioni; they have no water to lose, hence salt numkes themt no harder, ad in ftact, fat pork .ts. rendered more di gestible by salting t4d will digest, quicker than freshli/prk-y y o beef long salted, re q(ltires two hours longer for tilgestlon than roast fresh heef. I bliling, beef looses .15 of its weight; roajtet, .20 ; boiled mutton shrinks .10, and roasted .2-1; fowl cooked by boiliplg .13, and tlhey show .25 loss by roasting. To boil meat 1)roperly, it. shouldhi be plunged at once into boiling water; if intended for soup, use cold water and £rradually heat it. Boil ed mitat eateu wvitliont the soup formed ini boiliing. loves lx)rt of its nx.tritina. Broil ing meat seals ntp the pores through which the juices midghlt escape,. Roast meat is iuore dligestibi than boiled, because . the coating on tihe oltitsiloi produced by sudden contact with great heat, retains the savory antl soluble elements. Frying is most oh jectionable,,and unless handlled with great slkil,.fit not only renders the meat harder and more indigestihle, but it inmbunes';t with boiling ailt and dhitroy the flavor.. No meat diet is so economical as the preparation of soups and stews, since even shihl-bnne?:, broken up, have a nltritive value of one third that of beef hi. carbon anrd one-sixth in n)itrogl ... Circamn Crackers.-.One pint of cream, six eg s, a little salt, ilour enougll to form a mstf' dough. Beat the ergs very light, mix all the ingredients togethoel:, atd poulttl tbe dough halft an hour. Joll out thin, cut In to any tancy shape, and bake in a moderate Fr'ench lVay of Cooklin Lamnb Chops.--Ctlt a loiti Ot lamb into chops. Remove all the. fat, trhi therm nicely, Ill!ma see that they are all the sanme length. Having drained the chops from t1M oil. cover theni with a mixt tire of lbiely gra tecd bread-crumbs, a little lxineed' parsley, stasonled with pepper andl sa:lt, andl some grateld nuttmeg ; then broil thenl over a bed of hot cozds or a btttered gridiron, or you maty bakethein a nice brown iin a quick oven. Ilav reanly soea nmisha d potatoes 3eaptk hig o. h ot Ia. hot dihl, iln theilt fortlh of a lole or beehive, arl place tlhe aulrlsh chlups t1R roa.nd it, so that they stand tip awl k.ll tiagilst it with the broad end oft each choef daiwliwiard. Orrtlluneit the, top of the cone with a bandltSo 'o.e ol -t bu.nch of crIq4 !.ai.eiy,'