Newspaper Page Text
It 0CKY MOUNTAIN HTUSBANDMAN
010 .Ct .. X41' q . A~JdJ £ulrnal Devoted t Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Heading, and General News. PER1 SNG OPY. VOL. 8. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., JANUARY 17, '78. NO. 9. _3rUBI1LISlD WEEK.LY BY R. N. SlT H.ERLIN, E)D ITO R AND PROPRIETOR the IocIIt Mo.o.NTAux IIUSBANDMAN is designed ,- tO, a. tair I1audl itlllic Ltt3, a hu )ht i udmar_ Lt. (cvery S4'of tt te0 i'I, eimira(cing L i its Colimn,8s every . -et 11 f A4c lioratur.o Stock-rdi:.g, Horti 4tl'tre. Si:tl an0 Domeotic Eoo Inomi. ---- I) VEIRTTISNG RATES. ... k . 2..----- ` 3 , t . $ 11 $20 $30 ,- I 1 191 21, - 40 GO ,trh 10 16 241 30 .; 4 80 120 Iyear 31 40o 6, 75 00r 105 l 1801 M'0 i '1 ttipenIt pal-I'IV IIIn advance. Itol ;.l iitorti.seme5nt± pavyshlo ,ul:ti terly. Twe+ty-tivc per cont. added for spec. I. advertise. A(RRI(CULTIR AL. PEN NOTES ABOUT THE FARM. FARM GATES. Last week we bhilt the fence, but there is ~till somlcthing wanting to encldoe the :ri.m in lpro-tr shape. The feiee alone is tot comtplete without gates. It is true that slip ga:ps or tira w hars counl be got, along wsth., buht a gate would be bl.ter, and, in tact, a good ten.e and a good T'arm 'is not ,ainplete without gates at the mainit en tranlces. I htave noticed that the farmer who hafs good sublstantial fences, .with gates in good rep:ir, is the mosi t successful. TI e larmer wholets his fiences go to raoe.e and. instead of re'etting', props themi up and stops the cracks with clchunks and broken pt.bs, :.1and never has a good( gate, stable or corral, is uu:dtly quite as negligent about his seeditnig, irrig'atitg and harvesting. And such at taraner is sheldom Inl owu to harvestUa goor yieil of proidultps. '1hinking of this subtjeet of farm gates, re (ails to tieltmory a conversation that occur ed in my hearinig last summer, aiin which furnishes a thtdme for pages of sound argu ment in favor of good gates, good fences aad good farmers. .\WVe have," `said a laborer, "to put these prop<, poles and chunks in to fasten the bar rails so that the cattle cannot move them. Besides the unpleasantness of takinff dlown and propping up the draw bars three times a day, the value of the time thrown away is equal to nearly ten per cent. of imy wagne." At first 1 thought the assertion rather ex travagant, but after a little relleclion-I com menced to figure. Mr. A- had two men employed at $50 a month, and was paying $10 a month tor letting down and putting ..... o,.. ....... a Io mI;,··hh,. hne*a warn l firm nlg on a larger scale, and at the sanme esti mates were paying $20, and some $30, per month for the same useless labor. Then nmy thoughts wandered over the country, in specting huhdretd of farms that I h~ad visit ed, until the figures footed up thousands of dollatrs thaLt were being paid laborers, and which the farmers could save if they only had gates to their farms. This little item of making gate's for the firmn fence is often postponed, sometimes for the want of suitable material and tools, but cftener because it can be got along without. hat the winter still holds on; it. is comniOrt able :working in the shop, and there are p'lehty of poles lelt from the fence, so the timee cannlt bt better employed than in mrakhug new ga:es for the farm. The gate made of polk s may be called a rustic farm gate. - It wil nolit be as styli.i or good as th one nm tle of sawed lumber, butt it is in keeping with the fence. andt will last quite as lonb . To make the gate, the width be tween tlhe plsts s'iould be at least 12 feet, so th lt w:lt ).i load:l d with hay or grain mnay P:ass through,. and they should be as muich :,s 17 t'-.t ih'gh. so that a cap beam can be placed f'o.n one to the other on the upper Sn 1. ''h:i wil prevent the- posts from 'preading,-..nd the beam can dso be made t-o.,rve as a holdes, or .king-. ,:a thu-ave lie expense of getting ir:n hinges. Hlew si he posts at least on one si(le, frame and tit n >n the cr1.s' beam, and then set in the earth tl irmly. The main upright for the gate 11 ;hould be'straight, free of knot.s, aid be six fi mclhes in diameter at the lower end.' First a iew off a tilce side., true up and strike a line v >ver the centre from one end to the-other, I iqutare the large eia}, measure to the centre. ind strike a line on the opposite side. Lay n itfrand bore 3 inch holes through tihe centre v rom the line on one side to th,, other. The - rout upright may he of lighter timber, but a .t must be hewed or two sides, lined and I mored so as to mate the other. After (ent ing the gate raile, orpoles. the right length. c aw in, shoudder, arnd ake tenantS to lit c ine three inch holew.; Place in position on i evel ground and drive together, and pin C each tenant. Brace-on each side of the rails % with small straight' poles, ripped through i he centre; tit an" lpin the brales to the c iain uprig!lt near the bottomn end, and let them extend to the front upright junt above tlie top rail of the panel.' lnstead of an irbn hinge at the bottom, the uprighit can be I shaved down to a point 3 inches in-diameter, ( mnd set in a sill planted in the ground. The t hoie in the sill should go through it, and a i very good plan to make a secure rest for the I :ate is to cut a notch in the under"'side of the sill and 'place a boulder unlder the sill 1 tld in the notch, so that the end of the up right will pass through the sill and rest up- I on. the stone. Iii this way the sill act. as a hinge, and the boulder is a solid rest for the gate. WILL. MONTANA .WA..RAMIKOG. For general tlrmiing the Territory is not so well adapted as Cali(ornia ; wheat, rye, oats and polatoes may be raii-ed with protit. but vegetanbles, excepting beets and cabbu ges, can he cultivated only in the low val leys. inot;bly the Missoultt valley (Bitterr Root) where the Nez Perce Indians passed through on their remarkable muarch. The above was written from Bannack, Montana, to the Philade)lphia New Nortl Wes;t, from which it is taken. The wrlter eviutently intened to do Montana justice, but diil not. As there are dense settlements in thel'mountains ot France where the grape does not flourish. so theire are localities' in Mon:tatna where the cultivation of tender vegetabhle is not attended with success, but lest the writer above quoted should produce an imprression adverse to our' interests as settlers'in a new country, we submit i few facts. As file crops of wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes have been raised in Mobhtmna, take them onr an aver:age, as any raised on the Pacilic coast. The enterprising settlers of the Bitter IRoot and Missoula valleys aer ly (rlemonlstrated the productiveness of the soil in those localities, and found but little trouble ii climatizllhg the teinder vegetables. ThIe settlements in these valleys were from tifty to one hundret+ miles distant from the nearest mines, and' farmers went to work making permanent homes, striving all the time to make the soil produce the test of crops, and, too, the greatest possible variety. In other valleys, in closer proximity to the mines, mnore. attenrtion was given to grain, and stock raising, aidl settlements were not, .i, firt of that neranrment character indicat e(I in the Mioiola val}ll('$. I3ut tfrnmers hmave been growing in wealth, and11 as the years rolled ly Lhey graduallY became better co~otenteCl, 11nti1 now muine-tenths of our Granigers reg rtl Maiontama tns their preiezt a:nd permanent home. As a natural conse quenee they aie dliposed to nmllnune tIhe tlozn try do its level best, andi the re-sult of whhic has beet the productiont ot mte'.a"u, potatoes and cmLCttrntber.: inl nearly every valley of any emmnslerdihle extent in) tile Termit ºry. matoC'e ':tCItlbtlr5 acid melouns r m in i ' open air in the Missouri valleys. but therem1,4 U.nt a p)roft( ional horticultttu 1t wvmrth: Ihe name bntWe'ii Fnton mmcd tIcim'fhree PI r s" Mr. 1Iozse; of ?iisounl. hr~s keemm Ino!tihg cutf fi motable !noeatiofl in tt:e MliiissoutclIVa _-e·~\?s~:tIc,+i!ti i5 ",We-Itt~~o -of .4-rawkwrinb, g 'The ite of his producti )ts td a.point nearer to market. HIe claims that he can raise any thing that can be produced in Missoula, and that lie will thereby make a great saving in freight. Apples, plums, cherries. peaches ald currants, are produced in Missoula, and will;. in the course of time, be produced in mnst of our valleys. Take Deer Lodge, a town forty-five miles northeof the Deer Lodge Pass, with a level valley road nearly to the 'summit, and no place on the road where a team need break a trot if the driver is anxious to make good time, and see what are Its productions. Wheat; oats, barley and corn are among the cereal productions; large mealy potatoes, cabbages, cauliflower. asparagus, radishes, bIeets, celery, strawberries, blackberries, currants and gaoseberr:e4 have been ra.ised without the least trouble in the valley, and in several localities cucumbers have been suecessfullS.i.brought t', perfection. A few fruit trees,' planted in the town a few 'years ago, will be large enough to bear next'year, when we h6pe to be tble to report the Deer Lodge valley among the fruit-producing lo calities of'tilt Territchy. The fact is, Mon tana proCdthtions will yet surprise the oldest inhabitants, and whether it be from laziness, lack of fidth, or indifference, our Granger triends have not yet put forth their best ef torts to prove our country to be what it will eventually prove to be-a country adapted to raising all the hrardy fruits.--Neio North WVest. CULTURE OF POTATOES. We have' the following method of potatoe growing from a Fun du Lac, Wis., corres pondent of the Country Gentleman: Although my ground is plowed in thi fall, [ plow it again in the spring. I then harrowi .il it l~e ry mellow. With a planker 1 then make it very .smooth and level; and with a shovel plow I make ittrrows 'threc and one-half feet apart, and four or"'five inches deep. In the furrows I drop, twelve inches apart, potatoes cut in halves (split from end to end, or'cut through the seed end), each piece being-pressed intt6 the earth by stepping on It. I then attach % chain or rope to 'aclhetd of a 4,by 4 inch scantling; making a ball six feet from the scantling iti the centre; then hitch a span of horses to the centre of the rope and ride over the fur rows lengthwise. Should any rcnmain un, covered, a man with a hoe can complete the job in a very short time.- My potatoes are thu$scovered evenly, and coume up even. As soon as they are thirly up; I go over them again with my seautliwig and cover them again. The last covering levels the ground smooth, cnltses the potatoes to-set early, and delays the ravages of the bugs a week or more. When the potatoes are of a suitable lieigh.i1 take a shovel-plow and hill up the drills slightly. When the bugs appear, 1 4o over the drills with a coinmmon sprinkler holding 12 quarts, with a talflespoonful of Paris green in it. - A man can sprinkle ihs fast as he can walk. When weeds make their appearance, I go over-the field with the shovel-plow, r·aising the earth a little highei' than before.: The third time I put on the flanges, and thus scatter 'earth among the tops, to cover the weeds remaining in the hills. 1 never' use a hoe. but go through and pull out any wLeds that may remain. As often as the bugs hatch anew crop.4' u e the sprinkler. I plant the early variOties, ;and as soon as ripe I dig them with the ,ho vel-plow, having the flanges an. By plow ing dieep nearly all the potatoes are thro.vn 'o tlhe sirfu:ce. They are then sorted and u: int:a the cellar, or marketed. 1y avecr age yield, one year with another, is 159 bulhels ; average price, 40c. per biuheel. The expemnse are, for man and team plow ing fall :ard spring, half day each time. $2 50; drazging and planting, halt day, $1.25; cu: tine" :.n-l.:.dropping, one find one-half days, $1..50 ; covring twice, man and team, one 4-tu7thtA,,j'ggikq'uiating tý ice, man sathl horse, one dlay, $1.5Y°; weeding, man, one lay, $? ; Paris green, one pound, 75e.; sprinkling three times, one-fourth day each time, 75~.; plowing out when digging, man and team, one-half day. $1.235; picking rii and storing, two men. one anti one-halt day., $2.50; seed, four bushels, 40c., $1.600; and rent of land, $4; cost if 150 bushels, $14.418 value, at 40c., $G0; profits on one acre, $lH 55. Since I adopted the above mode of cu ture my lightest yield was 140 bushels, an.ti the highest 200: 1 never have any sun-burst potatoes. My customers have learned thia, and I have no trouble in finding a rent( market. E. . WHAT 'MAKES A BUSHEL. For the benefit of those who are not thoer oughly posted in such matters, we publish. statement showing what constitutes a bush el: Corn, shelled, 58 pounds; rye, 66 ponlids; Irish potatoes. 00 pounuds; wheat, 60 l~unds; corn :on the cob, 70 pounds; buckwheat, 52 ptunds; outs, 32 poundsy sweet potatoes, 50 pounds; onions, 51 poutnus; beans, 62 pounds; bran, 20 poundsl clover seed, 45 pounds; timothy seed, 6d pounds; flax seed, 66 pounds ; hemp seed, 45 pounds; blue grass, 14 ponunds; dried apples, 24 pounds; dried peaches, 33 pounds of pared, and 36 of uIlmupared. STHE '-HOUSEHOUI. RECIPES. Spoiine Cake.-The recipe is, six eggs, two teacups of sugar, two cups ofl fhlltr two te. spoonsful of baking powder. Flavor to suit the taste. To Matsk Brtad.-Takeasr much thick sour milk asy y want to make your bread, heat it till it separates, then scald your flour with the whey. Don't have if too hot, or your bread will be sticky; jut6ae I.t will scald to the best.; thean le it cool ; put in yo.r yeast and make in the lusual way'; hut don't let it stand too long before baking. Stewed Pork aAd Vegetables.--Pit into an iron pot a large, tender cabbage.' cut intb quarters, six carrots and three turnips halr e; lengthwise, eight midll-'-sized whole po tatoes, and a couple of pohndt of fresh pork, tat and leain together. Season with Depper a;Lud salt, and pnut in one pint of bo:Iing wa ter. O Close the pot tightly, and sat it over'a small Are, and let it stew slowly for two hours : til a half. When served, place the pork in the 'middle of the platter, and lay the ve.etables about it, and pour the gravy over thi whore: The potatoes' should be adlded when tht'pork has stewed an hour. This is a'Germatfi' dish thaiMs hlghlW'rSlished by farm hands. JumbtiA.--A cutpful of bntt r, a ctuitul of .sngar, half a cuplul of souftm milk, a wiell heaten egg, a halt tenaspoodful of soda. Mold in just flour enough to roll out a quar ter of an lnch in thtilkness. SiJrinkle sugar over the top, cut them out and bake. Sugar Cak.--One pound of sugyar dilutedt in three gills of milkl or:water, half teacuh'$" of butter, one egg, half pint ot atllk or ood' water, two pounda sell-raising flour. Bake" immeftdiately.. Boiling Pothtoes.--ILerels a quick way of ' boiling potatoes t Boil potatoes of uniform size till two-thirds done; ibur tff the water, resnlove the skins, place in a hot oven'mand bake till done. Genuinl' Ginger Snaps.'-An old hotie keeper su]gests that all so-called "ghllier snaps" in which soda or anything of that nature. is foun1l. :re "simply cookthl$"' which, like all s-ich prep€l'rk.tions, soon d'ry aicd heconre sita?6. 'I'Tht'following recipe will make cri, rich slt.ji, which can be kept in an air-tihiht casklor a long tinrr. :-. Oe puanld of shortening (equal prttts of hbnt tar :iiadl lard), ..ne pint othlolasses, halfp'lit Lof browtn suggr, one tabr.spoonfil ginger, one teaspoouiftll 'cloves or clinnmtlnn flour; well diixe(d u.t it it becomes a pllhht. doutgh. To-r'rolehllt thinnwaed ltIaed in a ug'ck 'oen.