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OCKY Mi UNTAIN 1H UiSBANDMADN
1,4.oO 0 A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Beading, and General News. 1 PER SNG OP. OL. 3. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., APRIL 4, '78. NO. 20. ilLlSItED wEEIKLY BY R, N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR OCKUY MONTAUIN IUSOBANDMAN is designed a the nemC indjiates, a hulsb¶nldmnflf ii every 'a the naterm, embracing in its columns every of the ter f riculture, Stock-raisiLg, Lortl _lenctjl and D.omestic Ecoonmyv. RVET'NISING lRATES. r - t a . G J r S$9 $11 $20 $30 3 1 10 10 2 15 28 40 i I 8 12 15 19 21 40 64 10 Ii 24 3030 h' 4 80 120 the 25 36j 4" 54 65 I 120 200 3o0 40 6o0 75 90 o 105 I 180 2.50 ent idvertisoments pavatle in advance. jIar 5tvertisemlnet- pay ale quarterly. e1yive per cent. added for spcea.1 advertise b RICULTURAL. ANY of the most progressive farmers nghout our principal valleys have made rs during the past winter for fruit trees, bs, etc., to be delivered this spring, avliew of introducing fruit growing. is, indeed, a good start in the right di oui. Nothing will add more to the at tiveness of home than a neat orchard small fruit garden, and few things assure more of the comforts of life. average Montana home has a dry, k, naked look about. It lacks ornamen reed, creeping vines and flowery walks. cks a fruit garden to lend coziness to general appearance, and yield fruits, lch, put up for winter, would be a sub tial blessing, and place our mountain es on an equal footing with those of the es. ut it must be remembered that horticul ,as well as any other branch of h usban is a science, in which success is only red in proportion as it is understood. erience and research are both requisite roficieney, but in the absence of the ier the latter is the only guide, and too t diligence cannot be employed. ruit culture in Montana differs very ma Ily from many portions of the States, as already been demonstrated by practical criments, yet it is not any more difficult, is as equally sure of success. When the le of the Western States first began to I their attention to fruit growing they on Eastern nurseries for their trees, met with more failure by far than we of tana have with trees from the same ries. The difference is not so much in ! latitudes as in the mode of culture. re are some localities in Montana where ill prove a failure, but this should not urage experiments. It should not be ted that in a country possessed of such onderful variety of soil and, climate every would be adapted to the culture of one thing. But the nmjority ot our rs have some suitable locality for an ard. Those who have ordered trees for -spring should be careful to select a good tion, since on the success of their exper nt depends in a great measure, the im late adoption of fruit culture in our Ter ry. There need not be a single failure pter care is exereiseQ . The orchard hid not be along the creek banks,.on t.soil, a spot that is so frequently select blnking that the willows will ward off northern blasts. Trees or small fruits uch localities are kept green and grow until late in the fall, and are apt to win kill. while, it planted on dry, gravelly ,the water may be turned off the first Gust, which will give opportunity for tree or shrub to harden before winter in. We think it best to select a high, elly bar. Very little water:is required, this should not be run near the trees. not as yet been fully demonstrated ch is best, a southern or northern expo experiments having been confined Vipally to the southern, but we believe, r ryaa-ofthe.natij,e fxuits.of,tbe. country, that the northern hill side, though not as early, will finally prove to be the best. We would, however, advise a western and rather steep side hill when such can be secured, as it is an intermediate, until further experiment has been made. This is a broad subject, and cannot be too well ventilated. We therefore trust thAt our friends may communicate their experience, that the new beginner may not make the same blunder as those who first undertook the business. It is a matter of general interest to our country, and we invite discussion through our columns. NOW- --N PEN NOTES ABOUT THE FARM. BUTTER MIAKING-NO. VI. After working, the butter is ready for packing, or, if intended for market while fresh, it should be molded in the prints and set away on tin shelves, not in a damp cellar but in a cool room which has ventilation and an even temperature. If to be consumed very soon ice may be used to keep it cool, but it not use no ice. In printing for mar ket it should be wrapped in a clean wet lin en cloth and placed on a tin holder-this should all be done without touching it with the hands. I recommend tin vesseli, hold ers, etc., because they are cheapest and best. To put butter in a pine wood box when starting for market, even when it is. only to remain for a short time, is injurious. The butter takes up the taint of wood very quick, and care should be taken to not let it touch wood at all. A market box may easily be made with tin lining, and arranged with slip drawers, so that the prints can be placed on shelves so as to not touch each other or come in cointact with the wood. With this plan the butter need never be touched by the hands, not even in delivering to the pur chaser. If the merchants of Montana will observe this care in keeping butter, there will be much less complaint about poor but ter. No person can make butter that will keep fresh in a damp cellar, nor can butter be made that will not take up the taint. of wood when brought in contact with it. hi packing butter for home use,.I know of no better plan than to press it into earthern jars when fresh, filling to within one inch of the top, then cut a cloth to fit and lay in on the butter, and fill to the brim with a thick brine. Care should be taken to get jars that are not porous, andcwhich are well glazed. Jars or vessels in which vinegar or pickles have been kept will not do for but ter. New jars are best. When fillea they hhould be kept in a cool place. In packing for market, tin cans holding from five to fif teen pounds are in general use. They are filled with butter nearly to the top, then covered with a strong bri.e and soldered. Packing in barrels has also been very suc cessfully done. It is foundt, however,.that a vinegar or whisky barrel will not do..Those who have been most successful have used the pork barrels which were broughb to the country filled with pickled pork. After cleining them thoroughly, the butter is pressed into five and tei, pound rolls wrap ped with a clean cloth and placed in the bar rel, weighted down, and covered with fresh brine made in the following manner :. To three gallons.cf water add about five pounds of salt, or enough to make brine that will bear up an egg,. one-quartecrof a pound of white su.ar'and a tablspoonfal of saltpetre. Before putting down the first layer of but tel.,.cover the bottom of the barrel with salt about a half inch deep, and on top of it lay a cloth. The rolls of butter should be so packed in the barrel that the ends will stand toward the outside, and if possible leaving a small space lbetween them and the sides of the barrel. The brine should entirely cover the butter,. and the barrel should be kept in a cool place. It has sometimes happened Sthat butter packed in this manner became rancid where the rolls touched the sides of . the barreLb. 'uThol.oK ocuns w.hetta.ba rel is exposed to too much heat, but by packing the rolls in such a manner as to avoid touching the sides and be entirely sur rounded with the brine, rancidness may be entirely avoided. The rolls may be taken out at will. This mode of packing is cheap est, and good butter thus packed will keep perfectly sweet for twelve months or even more. WILL. THE POULTRY YARD. WHY HENS ARE NOT LAYING. A correspondent says his late May pullets have not yet begun to lay, and his two year old hens have as yet (Feb.) not commenced this year to give him eggs. He has a good house, supplies them with plenty of food, gravel, etc., but he can get no eggs this win ter from his Games,,common fowls, or a few young Plymouth Rocks. At all of which he is "greatly surprised," etc., etc. We judge from his detailed account that various causes, combined, operate to disap point him.. Firstly; 1My pullets very rarely lay as early in the season as in January following. They do not mature before cold weather sets in-and this "sets them back" as to lay ing in mid-winter. In the case ot his old', hens, these never, or very seldom, get to laying early in the season of the second year of their lives. Usually they moult late, and later, annually; and they cannot lay much until their new coating of teathers comes· out fully. Nature does not ordinarily supply new plumage and egg-growing substance in fowls at the L~ame time. We recommend a judi cious use of the Imperial egg-food advertis ed i. our columns. This is a grand stimu lant. Fed to them properly, that is. by mirting it with their warm morning mash his hens and pullets will very shortly begin to "discount," and lay vigorously, this sea son.-American Poultry Yardi .n- , n . BEST LAYE8 wi No breed of fowls will lay winter and summer. J. F. S. wants winter layers and hardy fowls. All the Cochins and Brahmas are winter layers. J. F. S. will not miss it by getting Light Brahmas. If there 13is any breed that lays more eggs in winter and spring, an.J a hardier fowl, let their advo cates rise and explain,. The non-setters are all summer layers;: they commence in Feb ruary and lay untiU moulting season with out clucking, except In rare cases, and are allhardy.towls, and:brisk while young, ifs proper care it given them. As the Spanish and Leghorns have large head gear. they are not adapted for "apple tree roosters" in winter, anditherefore are not called hardy by many. What 1s more sprightly than a clutch of Spanish chicks? They are out early in. the morning, chirping for their fos ter mother to.,be let out of the coop so that they can run at will. So it is with all sum mer breeds. But there is no advantage in hatchingt hem.early. It is best to wait un til April or May before setting. rThen there is little trouble in raising any of the improv. ed breeds.-'Cor. Indiana Farmer.. FEED REGULARLY; It should always be borne in mind that it is net the gross amount or quantity of. food that we give our fowl stock, but the mode in which it is distributed to them, .that tells to the best and most economical advantage. It you scatter over large q~uantities of:food among the flocks--or more than they need at a feeding--they gorge themselves, and will very quickly become- cloyed;, however choice maybe the provender that you aflord 'them. F this reason we deem it important fre quently to remind, those who are endeavor ing to breed poultry to fair profit-no mat ter whether for fancy or formarketing pur poses-that a fixed system should be adopt e% ab to eontinuously,.we would make the most of the food given the fowls and chickens. Three times a day is a good plan as to ap portioning the feeds. Early in the morning a mash of scalded corn meal, rye meal and boiled vegetables. At noon green food, the best you can afford, and twice a week soak ed "scraps" or chopped cooked meat, at this hour. At evening give them all the whole grain you feed at alL Let this be crushed corn, whole wheat,. eats, rye or barley-and, in variety, fromttthe to time. Such a metheodfollowed out regularly, is, the best we ever tried. And as to quantity,. it is well to recollect that orAy what the birds will eat up clean, every time, should be the "regulatiou fare."--American Poultry, Yard. 8HIPPING EGGS. The season for shipping eggs is rapidly approaohting, and a few hints about the best method are appropriate,. Careless packing is th blame for many of the anathemas that are cor.tinually hurled at shippers, and, express companies. A good plan is to roll eaoh. egg separately in soft paper, much as oranges are packed for the voyage from the, south... Lay a thin layer on the bottom of, the box and build up the eggs in layers, filling in the spaces with some short. cut hay, or some packing that will not "slouch" when the box is handled. The box must be sohdly nailed together, so 'that it will not rack and cause shifting of the ;Ieggs, and consequent jarring. The cover of ,the box must be made fast by screws to :avoid the pounding in fastening up and in ..pening.,- x. . . THE HOUSEHOLD. RECIPES. Noodflos.-Two egg, half cup of water, one, teaspoon salt; worlk in as much flour as yotm, can, roll very thin; sprinkle flour on it, roll; up, cut in very thin slices, shal~ them out and put them in boiling water and boil fif teen minutes; lay them in a dish, fill with. sweet milk to cover, adding a small lump of, butter; grate cheese over th'etop and bake. half an hour-. Wen wantee'for soup, boil fifteen minutes in the soup and serve with it. Salad' Dessiing--Yolks of four eggs well beaten.. one teaspoon white sugar, one salt spoon salt, one small saltspoon cayenne, two teaspoons made mastard, six table spoons salad ioil or melted butter, five table ,spoons vinegar; boil until thick as cream ; let it cool before using. Nice for cold boiled . potatoes choppedi ne;,. some like half at. onion chopped fih-acnd added. SMeal: Loaf...-Beii two pounds or veal'or" beef until tender,..chop it very fine, add two .eggs, siaBoston crackers rolled fine, ond :tablespoon of salt, one teaspoon ot pepper, one teacup of water ; pack in a pan and bake one hour. To be eaten cold, sliced. ,thin. It is very nice for tea. Lalla Rookh.-Boil macaroni atri cover the bottom of the dish (which. must be as. pudding dish), thent put in clopped.cold.. meat, cut tfine seasoned.i with pepper, salt,. curry, chopped parsldy,.. and either a cup of." gravy or piece of butter. Over this pour tomatoes,. and, after being well stewed,.. sprinkle with thie cheese and bread: crumbs;., then put in theovenaad,d bakl.-. This is a new Bostoe dish.. Cream..P...-'Take"one and' one-half tea Fupful of. sugar and.? one. tablespoonful of flour, mix.well, and add one-half pint good,. sweet cream, and aIdump of butter the size.. of a small walnut; .grate iit a little Imtmneg;, mix well together. and..bakein a quick oven., .Before done, take a.spoon and stir a little,., :so it will be thick. After doing this, let it bake.till donob. Thi uakeago good,. ie.. C~ld Slao.--For .q.uart of fine, out cab- bage take one oup.f sweet erets ..one-half cup of sugar, salt and pepper to taste;; pound the cabbage well before adding thoe. cream awLvineg.r., with a potato ppuaders.