OtCKY M IO UN IAIN HK SiBAN DIMAN
I .o . A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. PER 10 CtOPY.
rOL. 3. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., APRIL 18, '78. NO. 22.
_ " --' -- - -- .. m. - m - ·· - - -. - - nmmmm mm
Bl1SIIElD W ELK:LY BY
R. N. SUTHERLIN,
EI) 1TOIt A N D Plt.O PRIETOIR'
-, .),,-T-'r.t': IIvus' A Dx.s A- is designed
o ti~ h0a 0 inic,.ates, a hus.iuldlrna.t . . every
tl'the , r 0 inrAci;g n its :ctunits every
o"the . ri'ulturIe, Stock-raitihg, lHorti
tone n th t, gt, - Io fc t t 1 t V1 1
S '- 71 10 12 15 28 40
h I 1 16 ; 1 ' , l I 4. 0 120
tit 10 , 1 ;,3 45i 5 5 120 200
tI· 1, 16 'L I ,5ol I Io.., . 0l 1,,
th 3* + I : . 0 . I . O 105. 180 - 10
: -ient Ici ,rtide ,ncIts p a). ,.t. il :ad it't O.
it :civortisemeinti pni Qyabidu terly.
'il-live per cent. added forspos . l advertise
i: agricultural papers of the W'etern
as speak in the'hlighest terms of the En
alogical Commnission, say that.it has ac
lished a great work for the people of
evastatedl regions of those States, and
their 'verdict that it is a practical suc
and worth all it costs to the nation.
as yet, we of Montana have' failed 'to
ve any beneictial effect therefrom.. We
not if the, Comnnission has discovered
the ravenous hordes that sweep down
ields are locusts,, "and that.there is no
thing as ,"grasshopper." The matter
teir destruction, which only is ot vital
est to our ftmrmers, is stilllProblenl to
ved. Although we, lave react the cir
s ptblisiecd by the Commission, and
td the most interesting. portions thereof
'e our readers, they are still left to rely
their own resources, and' are indebted
e Coninissiont for very little. - But this
id not discourage. Our farmers have
Sgreat progress during the last year,
learned much of better modes of war
than had previously been employed.
partial success of the past assures us
with improved appliances and' increased
y good crops may be. raised.. HIIeret6
tnany of our farmers have ignored- the
of warring. against these pests, and
tolded their a111ns complacently. saying
re vain to attempt to protect their fields,
e their neighbors, knowing that they
exert every nerve or come to walit,
succeeded in raising good'brops. With
-expeorence to guide them, our people
enter upon the season's 'work withl
,pper'eggs were deposited on most of
valleys last fall, and the youtig ones are
lhatchin - in great numbers. Some of
armners have sown, others are sowin;'
a few are'wvait.in;g : The greatest ditfli
to be encounter'ed is when the 'hoppers
l olt on the field and are pretty gener
Scattered, all over it. When this is the
Mollt:uians have no remedies, and it
do to wait for the 'hoppers to move off;
h they must do in a few days for want
ed, but if there are-no deposits on the
s the best plan is to sow as early as pos
,tnd trust to such appliances as water,
urning:of straw. etc., to keep them oftf
sionally a very late fieAld may come out
but we would not advise this except
small scale, suflicient for houte, con
ptio. The diflerent tnodes of wtrttare
been to flequelntly rehearsed il' out
atI thi.t they ure familiar to ourwread
and heed hot he reproduced. T 'T'hema.
s used in other counritpes 'hav never
introdliledm in Mo~ntanan4' is. can we
k with certainty as to tlheir utlity. iA
ment once appeared tiatu PIf.'R~ite.
Invented a machine tor the desreuttoti
Oppers of all ages and sizes. and' which
1 he manufaetu.ed tor $10. It was alse
8 that.it was h iantentio net to pqtol..
i;-.or that, it' it, became necessary to patent
it for-protection, no royalty wvould be charg
ed on their manufacture. But, as the time
arriVes for such a machine to be put into
use, we are able to learn nothing more of it.
The Commission busies itself compiling sta
tistics, while our farmers are left to fight it'
out. as best they may, -and with contrivances
of their own invention. But the settlers-of
Montana are an industrious and progressive
people, and will yet prove themselvesrmias
ters of the situation.
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PEN NOTES ABOUT THIE FARM..
GOOD AGRICCL'rURAL PRODUCTS.
Recent articles on the stubject of produc
ing Montana, pork and bacon suggest a few
pen notes about the same. - A few Montana
faimners have already introduced this buranch
of agriculture,; and I may state that a major
ity have found it profitAble in a sMdall way,
that is to say, in produeIng pork and bacon
for their own user The lrincipal reason
why this industry'has not been more uM
versally adop.ted is-that the first farms were
made with but three or four rails to the
panel of fence. "The settlers, then having ith
view the project of amassing an early for
time and abaindoniag the country in a short
time, did not, take the pains to mnake'them
secure against hlog; and the meddling of
the Legislature, who undertook, to- make
these tences h1iwful, tended to retard' rather
than advance' this inadustry. I: am glad,
however,:to note that the farmers through
out the country are generally encouraged
by the little success already attained, ,and
,tre making improvements of-their facilities
for the enlargement of the bushiess.
The, belief that bacon cannot be profitably
raised where there is no mast or wild feed
is fast being overcome -by the results oflex
perirn'ets. It is true that the best success
yet attained was upon the Bitter Root val
ley, where the hogs had. the benefit of a good
range, feeding in summer, on the butter-root,
aplant peculiar to that section, and which
is claimed to be as good' hog food as the
acorns and nut food of the States. But this
does not justify the conclusion that bacon
cannot be-produced' in other parts of Monr
tana. Besides the field pea, which is conu
ceded to be-as strong food as corn, it is found
thilt barley.is also .excellent food -for hogs
and equally as reliable a crop. The-mixture'
of barley With peas and, other food Is advan-
talous, -since it gives the nuimal a greater
variety. A great advantage in producing
barley is that it can be used for other pur
poses. The six-row barley is especially
preferable,. for the reason that it is one of
the few cereals which are not so liable to be
destroyed by, the grasshoppers. To many
this may seem quite unreasonable, but it is
nevertheless true. The grassloppers0 will
single out- and cut offi- the bud of the
two-rowed ,barley and -leave the six-rowed
variety standing onl the, same land. This
was well dtmonstrated -on the fields of a
number of Gallatin- county farmers last
summer, of whom I may mention W. O. P.
HayS, II. C. Reding anud'the Street Bros., of
East Gallatin valley. On the farms of these
gentlemneq.I rioticed crops of six-rowed bar
ley beihmg, harvested which yielded a fair halt
crop, after the two,-rowed variety had been
cut down.-before ripening by the-'hoppers.
When first the'hoppers arrived they des
troyed the-oat lield, and then went into the
barley fielt . I walked through· one ot these
fields ot miwed barley at harvest time, and,
notwithstanding the ground was literally
covered w'ith barley heads, cut down by the'
pests, I noticed that the~ six-rowed variety
was standing, while the two-rowed w~a
nearly all cut down. This convinced mn
that the six-rowed variety is the best and
safest crop. It yields fully as well as any
other grain, and since it canu be used for
other purposes than hog feed, it is a good
crop to sow. The season is still good for
,sa,(wing ,barley .or bogs. -i Wa'
Afn item in. a French journal, sent us by t
Mr. Chrystie, relates to potato 'planting, andl
we translate it, with slight condensation, as
"It appears, as we read in the Univers,
that to the present day we have never learn
ed how to plant potatoes. We cut them in
tweo and put them into deep trenches; and
fill in the earth over them. Nov the potato,
being originally froft Peru, needs warmth
and air. To bury it in a cold, damp grave
of this kind, says M. Calloigne, is to arrest
its flight. Put it simply on a soil deeply
plowed or spaded-say in 2O-incý squares if
the potato is cut, or in 30-inch squares if un
cut-and' cover it lightly witht the hoe. It
will soon pierce, this slight covering, which
both shelters and fertilizes it, and can then
be hilled, up as necessary. By following
this method; by preventing sprouting until
plantingtime, and then plunging it into a
linmewash to destfoy morbid principles: we
may prevent the development of the disease
and raise a crop similar, if not superior, to
those seen before the invasion of the rot,
say eight or nine tons per acre."
--r - --04
Every man, however limited his means,
should contrive to have and cultivate a gar
(len. There are three strong 'reasons for it:
'. Working in a garden is highly condu
cive to health. The exercise is gentle, it is
united with amusement, " and by it both the
body and the spirits are invigorated. There
is something-in the,'odor of the earth that
strengthens the whole system.
Let the sedentarylman take up the prun
ing knife and spetld, an hour of the dewy
morning amongst his vines, or the spade,
hoe o.,rake- and uprepare or:work over his
asparagus, lttuce or radish beds, and he will
thus give tone'tand vigor to his body and his
mind for the'se Vre studies of his desk. The
teacher will teach all the better, the minister
will preach all the better fir the min. exer
cise which the garden gives.
For this natural employment of thebones
and muscles of the system an hour or two's.
practice in the gyrinasium is but a nilser
able substitute, since the health-imparting
exhalations from the'groum'i, as well as the
interest ahd variety, are wanting.
2. The garden is a teacher. There Na
ture is ever at work, producing her 'most
beautiful 'foims and transformations. Noi
man can witness attentively the germination,
of the seed, the uprising of the blade, the
unfoldingxbf the flower, the maturing of the
truit, without at the same time becomniiig
wiser, nobler, better.
The vegetable and the mineral kingdom'
here n~cet and work together. To the curi
ous every step in this working offers some
thing fresh for meditation. Why, for in
stance,' does the plum ula 'ascentd'? Why
does it incline toward the sut ? " Whyvydes
itassurme this or that tint? Why does the
sap arise'in it? Why does this plahit take to
this kind of nutriment, and another to that?
Wihy is a thorn given to this vegetable, an
acrid juice to this, an'd honey to that? Why
does the dandelion shoot forth in the spring
and the aster in the autumn? Why is this
teaf obictilar, this heai*t-shaped, this finger
shaped, this needle-shaped ? Why=,is this
plant medicinal, this poisonous? Why is
this flower fragrant, this scentless? And a
tho.alsand other curious 'questions constantly
arise' to awaken thought and to turwit to
the afluence of the inventive power oflthe
Thef garden, .therefore, teaches, and, in
teaching, cleva:tes the mind. For this rea
son, it may be; the created first; nman and
-womifur were made in paradise; that is, in a
'3.-The garden is a source of piofit. I
have "kiown a man who realized as mudh
from what he sold from his garden of one
half acre as his hard-working brother did
fromn what he sold from his farm. of more
thnuione .hubnd:ed acres ..
It is said that a man consumes about sixr
een hundred pounds of food per annum.
[low much of this could and should come
from the garden ?
"'1 can buy my vegetables," says one
standing by, and who calls in the doctor
trequen tly, "cheaper than I can raise them."
Not so, indeed, I answer, if you take into
account the health and instruction imparted
by the garden.
Then it is's&. delightful to see your own
lettuce, radishes, tomatoes, melons, peas,
beans. and sweet corn growing. It is so
pleasant to go out and pick with your own
hands your o n currants, grapes, peaches
and pears. And what if you happen to raise'
a few such things to give away to your poor
neighbor ? Does it not all come in for profit
Cream Biscults.--To each qt art of flour
sift in one heaping teaspoonful of pure-cream
tartar (I buy'mine at thedlruggists, and then
it is allright. -as nearly all the cream tartar
elsewhere sold: for' cooking purposes is
worthless), and the' same amnount of good
soda (or salerafts will 6lo), dissolved.in a lit
tle hot wAter, a teaspoonful of salt, and mix
ed with equal quantities of thick sour cream
and good buttsermilk. Mix them as soft as
can be handled easily, roll out nearly an
inch thick, aiic cut out with a good sized tin'
biscuit cutter, as large as a tumbler. Do
not crowd thein too closely in the tins, and
they will be light and large. If the creami
and buttermilk are very sour, by giving'
good meture to the soda the biscuits will
be all thebettei'. I often use for biscuits
any creatn thilt accidentally gets-too sour to
chlurn,. Tihe above crust' makes very nice
potpies, and" if mixed nearly aitl with cream,
the best possible crust for chicken or -veal
pies. Rolled out.quite thin and baked, it
makes very nice strawberry shortcakes.
Split them open as soon as done; butter each
half; spread well with berries and sprinkle
plentifully with sugar. Put on the top crust
with the split side up, and serve in the same,
way ; eat with cream and sugar.
Potato Rolls.--Taie a piit-of miashed tp
tatoes, and while tlI.Sydte hot stir into them
a piece of butter the size of ah egg... Whetn
cool hdd.two pints of flour, enough milk to
makie.- soft dough, and about three table
spoonftfls of liquid yeast. Knead a few
minutes. When this lightens, make irtto
rolls and set them in, a warmn place til'rvery ,
light. Bake from twenty'to:thirty minutes.
You may use the -potatoe.s left froni dinner;
then the rolls will be'ready to mold at night,
cover themever cartfilly and set in not too
warm a place, and 'they will be just right
for the ovei in th' morning. The dough
utust be tnmtde v~ry3isoft to Insure success.
To Fry Fs.;'=--8.l.. thei` fiat down the'
back, season with peppier and salt, and cdt..;
it with flour, -then fry it in a little salt pork
drippings and butter, in a dripping pan or
a calke griddle ; or cut the fish into equares,
season well, and dip each one into egg. then
in fline cracker crumbs, and immerse the
picce. in boiling drippings;'whichl should be
very''hot to prevent :thl fish frot'taibsortling
Graham Blet'id.L-T.iune qilurt'of Grahanin
flour add a teaspoonfdl of salt;, a small lailf
cuptul of sugar, the same of yeast, and mix
with milk into a bhtter that will drop from
a spoon,. bhit not i"run. Let it rite over night
and in th& morning lbeat well together and
put it In a baking tin. A cake.tin, with tun-.
nt-l in the centre, is best. Puitt at once in.
to an oven rather 'hOtter tthan for whitd:
bread, and bake threequaltrters of an houi.
Baked in gem pans, it milkes* very nice hot
bl:ead for bireakfiht or teas. If' you do not :
wish the pure Grihim, -nmake in the same
way, using half flour ard hblf Graham tlour,
but in the morning add'd flou' enough to
knead slightly, and.let.it rise in.the pans bec,.
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