Newspaper Page Text
. EORY OF LINE BREEDING. It is evident that extravagant claims may ,be made for in-breeding just as ,they are made for crossing, and if we consi(der only the absurdities of those who advocate a practice, it is not ditlicult to place any sys tern of breeding in an unfavorable light; but when we remember that, in the forrn: tion of nearly all our best breeds of animals, .ong and close in-and-iLj breeding was prac ticed, there certainly appears ground for loookinii at the mnatterJror a lreasonable and unbiased standpoint. The great ,law that *"like produces like,", that is, that every thring inherited by the oatpring must have previously existed ~i the ancestors, covers the whole sulject of breeding, and how it can be suppoved that an animal can trans unit that which it does not possess, whether b~by in-and-in breeding or crossing, is incom p.rehensible. ,1t those who favor line breed lng are willing to admit this, is it asking too iriuch it we expect our opponents to do the same? What we ~laiul for in-and-hi breeding is that it increases the parental ,power of reproducing thiemscles .in their offspring, and in od'er to successfully dis pute this, it is pecessary to over.hr.v the whole tieory that like produces like.--that parents trapsnsit that which they possess. If e pair at thoroughbred with a Perche ron, .What can we expect? The ,pffspring cannot be like both parents, because they are unlike; but long experience hasdemon strated that it may closely rescnpfle either parent; that it !pay vary all the way be tween the pltrezte l ,extremes ; or, finally, that it may revqrt, toa greater or less extent, I to the form of sotpe remote anujestor. That i Is to sary, such a union does not adspiit of any E certainty as to the form and character of the r offspring. It, now, we pair two thorough-. breds, or two Short-forns, the produce will Inevitably be a thoroughbred or a Short- c Horn. Why ? Becauise thle parents are alike a in the characters which are peculiar tp these ii ,breeds. ',ptpgo stp Efisrthner; tile *uperp- n hers of one strain of SShqrtlorns lire gppd -ullkers, those of another are not. Jiow shliltl 1 we breed to perpetuate the mnilikprolucing d aptitude? Evidently by breeding within thie tmilking strait ; for if we go beyotnd, we S hlave the sate catuses for variation-the same tL ,uncertt;!ity of results-as in crossing thie s thoroutghbr~1 and Percheron. lThis tnucwi ,h we think prl.;,st be adrlitteul, and, if so, it ur shows that. ,a family may have the same -" distinctive chaIraterrs that are usually at tributed to ai breed or race ;" and hence ari ses a necessity cf r line or family breediig. Again, thi simnple.fact that two alhnials :have certain cliaracteristics app trently ill Cooninion, is no s.,rtlty that.if pairied theY will tranisuit thetm t9 t!i.eir offspriig ; there are .ertnin internal or plysiologictil teulldenaies, of which we liave little cognizance, except )from their effects. "j.lich maly be antagot!is tic and cause reversioin. Thiis two nioi-sit ,tini varieties of fuiqv:ls, though alike in this respect, when bred tol.e lieroften revert to the anctcral: l chl:,rueter of lbroodilng; and so the eilionl ot (liil'eireut siraliis of the sameii bireeol oflien calls.es paltial reversion, espec :tlly Il color, as many ofl1. our breeders of ishow birds have totiid .1tp their cot. But whenl bred withiil itslf, a variety of ever lastlin hiayers wiil not produce broody oft iupriig, uior will in stablislied strai~i of any variety produce reversion of color. That til t.i Ia i the unil (io aanninmals that are uin Ilke, either aualromically or plihyiologi!elly, whetlher they belong Ilj9 liflerent lz:teds, to dith*rent varictiies of the samte breed, or even to 'iitirent strains of tl.e saime variety. pro duclis v'ariable oltffpring, anid that which i. peculiarly subject to re\'ersion. Buit how are we to kniow that aniimaIls aire _sike in characters or t4(encles tlh Int re be y.,lid o(ll." penietrati j! ? It two aliiillls are ..eculdcld from thie sam.e parl.ets, the in0llu niee o tlie remote ancieestrs inirt be i]denti ml with each ; and the inlniodlate pai,ental ilthlience canl only differ to the degree that iliy lm il:al can cliange in phlysiologi.al coln itiion fromi one year to another; which, if !ieiy remain healthy, is a slighlt dif'erence lompared with that existing between differ inat individuals. 'That this is true is shown y the class of facts already mentioned ; in .e formation of the Manchamp breed of eep two silky-wooled parents never failed produce this characteristic In the offspring -because all were related aºd alike. On the other hand, two thoroughbred horses, not related, though carefully selected, very often produce the most variable progeny. It would seem, therefore, that the writer in question draws it rather strong when he says : " We insist that this claim is founded upon mere assumption-an assumption that is not only erroneous, but seriously preju dicial in practice. '1'The claim rests upon the false asst~mption that the family has the dis tinctive characteristics uspually attributed to a breerl or race-that is, that all the mnenm bers of the family are alike, and if inter-bred .will produce this uniformity." What ,we contentl, and what no amount qt this kind of argument can overthrow, is that the members of a family, for the rcasons given above, are much nearer alike and more apt to re-produce themselves ,in their offspring than are ,the different and unrelated mern bers of.the sanpe breed; and that this resenm Plance and hereditary power will increase with the length of time they are itt-bred. ,It is, thuerefore, a settled conclusion among the npore inteligent theorists and practical breeders, thatlike parents produce similar offsprlfg, and that unlike patcnts produce variable offspring; also that we never be certain tlhat parents are like, unless they are related. ,Of course, where the characteris ties which we desire have become the com nmon attribute of a whole breed, ap!I are regularly ,transmitted by it, it is folly to practice close in brgeding, because i we will perpetuate individual defects witlfout a' chance of increasing the good qualities. Nothipg of this sprt has ever been tttempt ed in brgeding thoroughbred horses, says the writer; "there is up record of Eclipse be ing to his own daughter or sister, or of any effort to ,stablish a type by ,.reeding the mnatehlessLexington to his daurthters and' granddaughlters." But it is trot true that " in the egrly pages of the stu l-look wefitd constant hlstances of very close in-breedi,'g. oftet cearritr;d to stich an extent. asto beconle inceestioui 2" It is not trUe that Ecli)pse haid nine di.tinct lines of White D' Arty Turk ip his veins? It is not.true,that some of the most cele.raterl of those horses, from that day to this, have been the resiult of close in breeding? So notorious ire snch facts, that Stoileherlge .conridered the caurse of a ' hit" to be the ;reunionr of lines .that had been separated for a few generationis. and believ orl hat utjrder other eirctnistanceps it wonul rarely occur. Agaiin. ,tonil!enge says: ·' Let him ask what horses hjbve been the most retmar:kable of late years ;ts stallions. and, with very :few exceptions, !le will flid they were considerably in-bred." Amid the same is true of some .0o pur best trotte.s; " yet when all is ,told," .says Itlrk Corm stock, " its (i. e., the Ilambletoiiian famiily's) greatest results are seen where it.has doub led uponr its own parent strain frym Abdal lah. and lhe more this is tried(, tle better it secms to work." Now, all this shows just w, hat the advo cates of line breeding contend, viz.: tliat the memblers of a fihmily are mor;e alike tiian Ithe members of diterent families of the.same breed. and. that they will more surely tranis init their ,excellentqualities whlen bred to gether thlan when paired with fattllies to 'which they are not related. In regard to the liaritro.s egtects of ir bret dig, .we can only say in this ,place tli .t they have rot followed in the hands of the best breeders. Predisposition to dlisea~e, or disease itself, is as readily tr ansmitted by lii!e breeding as good qualities, .nid if breed ers allow their stock to beerme unhealthy, and ,ltill breed from it, accordinug to this sys teni, there is ito cause for ,won.der if it is de stroyed. A'id so, while it truet tIhat incestu ous breeding with swine has proved disas tirous where thiey were confined without ex ercise, and heavily led-where thle predom inanie of thlie fat-produtcing function dimin iied the power of locomotion and circula tory a.pparatus, and of the nervous system, calming all instiucts and desires except that for food--it is equally true that line breed ing has been followed with these animals in ,'rane(, from time immemorial, without ~ producing suche results. But what surprised us above all else in the article we are considering (National Live Stock Sournal, July, p. 308), is the example given to show that "sometimes the experi s ent (i. s., line breeding) proves a success." rhe refereuce is to the bull Favorite, bred n by Mr. Co)ling, and there is a very evident attempt to show that he was not the result of very close in-breeding. But why stop just as the interesting point is reached ? We may admit that the breeding of Favorite was not an extreme case,, though his parents were more closely related than half-brother and sister ; but it we tell. the rest of the sto ry-how "'avorife was coupled with his own dam, and produced the cow Young Phenix, and how lie was then coupled with his own daughter, this same Young Plhenix, and produced the world-fa med Comet-we must admit that there was ,not onilyglose in-breeding, but wonderful success. We do not wish to be understood as. rec-. pmmending the practice of lime breeding to all farrpers, or even to all professional breed ers; bpt there are certain cases where it is indicated and where it will produce them.nop t importanlt results. Instead of crying down a practice that has been of such assistance in tlihefortpation of our best breeds, it sholzld be the aim of a great journal to point out its, uses, and to show 4vhy it has so often proved disastrous. In-and-in-breeding has wpn its present positipn,. as a valuable aid to the breeder, against one of the most deep seated prejudtces thatlias ever filled the hu !van mind. We now lunderstand why, and how, itll:as produced itsegffect, and, although it may not be possible for it to enable us to achieve as great progress.in the ftlrure as in the past, the intelligent breeder will contin ue to look at it as indispensable in certain contingencies.-D. E. Salmon, D. V. M., in County Gentleman. All meat-producing animals should be killed when they are in the coolest state, or when I;espirationi is the least active. Their flesh will then keep muchllonger fresh, and he mqre beautiful, sweet ,and heillthful. When killed inma heated condition, or,imme diately alter a hard drive, the flesh will take longer to cool through, spoil sooner, awhile the flesh and fat will have .a dark, feverish look, caused by being full of blood, and hence will not be so inviting in appe:rIance or so healthy as food. t Sugar cured hams are a luxury tb;ht few tafirers apprqciate, as they follow the old Spractice ot si,ltitig to excess and smuoking' ,with burning cobs, pitch pine and birch b rk. BREEDERS' DIRECTORY. C.& 11. ED WARIDS, Importers.and BreeQers of IMPROVED AAMERICAN MERINOS. A aEW CHOICn RAMsA FOR SALE. Elk Grove Ranch, 7 miles west of Bozeman. 1P. O. Addrea, ,Bozeman, M T. 34-Om C W. COOK & BRO., IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF Thoroughbred Cotswold Sleep, Offer for sale a few choice thoroughbred rams ani have also some line grades-onej-half and three-bfourths blo'ds. P'ostotlice address: Camp Baker, Mlont na . sep-43-3n ENNETT1L & GOODALE, Importers and breeders of pure-blooded COTSWOLD SHEIEP, Are now p epared to supply the wool-growers of the Torrittiry with pure-bloods of either sex. Rams,1 y ear old, $50. Early Lambs, $40. Inspection invited. 'e. '. address: Lamlp Baker, Montana. se-4 - BERKSHIRE HOGS. 1 claim to have this celebrated b;eed in all its purity. Pigs well lected in pairs or trios, not aikin, at low figures. T. WILCOX. Cold Spring Ranch, three miles east of Helena. JAMES MAULDIN, BRIE3DERI O Percheron--Norman Horses. YOIUNG ETO FOR SALE. Correpond.nce asolicited. Address, Watson Bleaverhead Cr('o ntv, ,Montana. 4-rm. HERDSMEN'S DIRECTORY. SAMES MAYTYE. Range Missouri Val ley, vicinityof Calnyon Ferry; also, on Smith river valley. P. Q.-Canyon Perry Also 900 brad ed on the right shoulder and under the tell. SJ. G. SAITER. Range--Smith river valley, from White Tail to Newlan creek. P. O. Address-Camp Baker. SIMON MARKS. Range-Smith River valley, from Camp Baker to Rim Rock. Address, John T. Moore, Camp Baker. A. BRUCKERT, Jr. Range-Smith Riv- 6 er,vicinity of Thomp son gulch. P.O.-Camp Baker, M. T. P. J. MIOORE & BRO. Range--Smith river and 3 uscleekell Val leys. Post Office-Martins dale, M. T. MARK.--IIalf crop in left ear, and Vattl7e each jaw. THOII AS COONEY. Range---Missouri Valley, from Confed erate to Cave gulch. IPost Office--Canyon Ferry, M. T. JOHN T. MOORE. Range-Smith river Valley, from Camp Baker to the canyon. Post Office---Camp Baker, M. T. MARK.-Swallowtork in left ear, and wattleoa right jaw .THOS. F. KEENE. Range-On Missouri valley, viciniity luck creek. P. O.-Canton. Brand same both sides. KROFT & FLEMINL Range-Smith rive valley, from Camp lIs ker to Rim Rock mou tains. P. O.--Diamond City. NELSON BUIIP. Range-On Mlissou> valley, tfr'm mouth af W\\'ite's gulch to Dua creek. Post Office-Diamond. Horse Brand: the same on the left shoulder. GADDIS & BERYL Range--South Fork of Smith River. P. O.-Camp Bakes, M. T. A. BRUCKEET, 8?. Range-Smith Rive, vicinity of Thompeso gulch. P. O.-Camp Bake, M. T. JOHN G. LEWIS. Range--Smith river 6d Musclesheli valleys. Post Office---Central Park, M. T. GILUERT ECKLIB. Range---Smith river Vallej Post Office-DiamoUl City, M. T. .JONAS IIn GINS. Rang 'e.-- 3Musclesbhd Valley. Adldress--F. Gangler, Martinsdale, 11. T. 0. L. LEWIS. Range---Smith rlEr Valley, from Camp B ker to the canyon. Post Ofice---CamP Baker, hM. T. MA .-I)ulap. Crop off o right ear and a~b ku left.