Newspaper Page Text
OCKY OUNTAIN UHISBANIMAN A Jonrnal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stockl ime Reading, and General Neiw. PE1 S TGE OPY. LO 3" DIAMOND CITY, M. T., AUGUST 29, '78. NO. 41. iE01 ; o1AND PRIOPRIETOu! SAIlt \T,+' III wcAA is de i:ln"d Ro sict i ndL;1' it;.Lt( , .E 0 n b n-Mniar Ia_ c1 ery rter , l!::1 'L it. lco :nns every ;urtof Agn ulr , i l+ni t >~ck-rsi i :.g , H-orti ilV n t $, 7 i $9 $ 11 [ 0b20 8 t 10 12 15 28 4) rc i ( 5 1 . 1 01 12 :,1 I 05 120 200 4p 4) T.1 I o i T10_ is0 76 0 ni ivl e[Nicjtt parX:.:. in advance. 1 *.ivnt1ii. 1 uC'( iIayahildo e asiiterly. aty4-tie per cII . odded for spee.i.1 advertise A I1 I 11 T II PA '01 V tmkiing has been in progress for the Son~h, ,ud will continue for several to coni. The season has been one o finest we ever saw, and has been well ved, a good quantity of first-class hay ng been pitt 1il. The remainder of the vet standing, is less liable to be good. as a rule, should be cut' early, and ip without being wet or too much ex Ito the sun. IIt is not too late now to good hay, but more care thu--t he ex 'd as the time approaches for the fall to begin. On low lands the grass is trowing, and in giool order for cutting. 11s necessary loe the tardy farmer to lip, as frost comtes early in such local and grass is more or less injured even e slghtc4t frosts. Another important er to hay makers is that the frequent is which have prevailed, 'have tossed stacks aindm ricks, and blown oil their or the stacks may have settled out of e and the tops so turned to one side the water will be led to the middle. he stacks should therefore be visited i, and topped out in good shape. It is lost to ptlt up hay in a Careless man1 We will probably have no use for it, pt to feed work stock, but it will keep, perly put up, for several years, and 1e I good insurance against the long ed-for and dreaded hard winter, and be a heavy loss should such a winter r coi0ie. U season has arrived for the sowing of theat. Tit exact date to sow to have best cannot be arrived at, as the sea 'tre so very different. We believe that SPowing is best. The plant will get a hold in the soil, and will have sufficient o cover the ground and protect the it will also be less liable to blow bare ow should the Winter prove bleak and ly. The hessian fly often injures early aig in the States, but as yet this pest is Own in Montana. The only thing to I against is sowing so early that the t will cotunentce to joint the present Fall wheat is becoming more and e popular with our farmers every year. erience has proved aevaluable auxiliary to production of this wheat, and we be the time is not far distant when the of the Antoitana wheat crop will be of "arietv. It has already been demon t d that it stands the ravages of grass Pers best, aid they;' we can contidently rt. are the only thing which prevents a crop every year, aand the crop which ds this pest with the least loss wihl. in enl, Le adopted. There is yet mnuch rfvementit to he irade in the productioh i w"lttt. No attention has yet been 1 t'> the intritoduetion of early varieties, c1} i quite ituporttant to soifle valleys. re ire vtarieties which we think may be oted, which will come to harvest at t hro wet1s earlier than that which is hpj1 tOl. When our farmers get 'a t 'it'm work properiy, we are conil t th"t tIhere will be many large wheat 4 norhighlanºd parkis,; qt thesvery i'oot of the iowunitazins, and within a mile of 1 Shights of eternal snow. These alti ude I are less liable to thle raids of grasshoppers, and will need little or no irri-ation. HO2ACE GiEELEY'S BA lid. H Ioree Greeley was not only a successful editor. Nut a fair uarmer. A few rears he tore his death he wrote a description of his barn, wihich will be read with interest, no doubt, and, perhaps, with profit, at this time: My barn is a fair success. I placed it on the shelf of my hill. nearest to the upper (iast) side of my place, because a barn yard is a manufactory of fertilizers from mater i:k of lesser weight ; and it is easier to draw these down hill than up. I built its walls wholly of stones gathered or blasted from the adjacent slope, to the extent of four or five thousand tons, and laid in a box with mortar of (little) lime and (much) sand, fill ing ,allihe interstice3 and binding the whole in a solid mass, till the walls are nearly one solid rock, while the roof is of Vermont slate. I drive into three stories-a basement for manures, a stable for animals, and the story above this for hay,- while the grain is pitched into the loft or seaffold above, from whose floor the roof rises steep to the height. of sixteen or eighteen feet.' There 'should have l.een more windows for light and air but my harn is convenient, impervious to frost, and I am confident that cattle are win terel at ii fourth less cost than when they shiver in board shanties, with cracks be tween the boards that will 'dmnit your hand. No part of Our rural economy is more waste ful than the habitual exposure of ourtani muals to pelting, chilling storms, and to in tense cold. Building with eolicrete is still a novelty. and Was far more so ten years ago, when I built my barn. I could hot build better and cheaper, but I am glad that I need not. I calculate that this barfi will be abidinuly useful long after I shall have been forgotten ; and that, had I chosen to have my namflettered on its front, it would have remained' there to honor mfg as a building long after it had cesmed to have any other signidfiction. WINTER OATS. t A correspondent of the Indiana Farmer, writing from the mnountaii±s of Tennessee, says of winter oats: This crop is beginning to attract more at tention since it has been successfully grown in the west and more northern States. 1 When sown early, 'which is as soon as Sep tember or October, there is no difliculty in I its Standing the winter in your State, where the locality is at ill favorable. Never have the farmers in the mountain regious of east, Tennessee had so good crops. The Hender= sofa winter oats has been grown for more than two generations by the family of that name; hence its name. I have two or three varieties of winter oats, but none for general cultivation equal to the Henderson variety. It grows tall on poor land, and yields more than double the crop sowni in the spring from the same seed. It has a thin husk and a very heavy grain within, and from its'hav ing so long a time to grow and perfect itself the grain makes the best of oatmeal, now so largely imported from Europe. It makes good late fall pasture, and in the south can he pastured all winter withtiut injury. l is tree from rust or must, and the length of time it has to grow gives it a strong stalk to I bear up its heavy laden head without lodg ing or falling down. WIND POWER ON A FAE1. For a number of years I have studied what kind ot power to get to do far;m work, such as cutting chop feed, grindlillg corn, t sawing wood, putmping water, and at last I decided to get a No. 6, 16 feet geared wind t mill, of lIalladay's make, and now, after - over a year's trial, must say that I more t than like it. Excepting for a slight mistake r the;.mnachirnist,.iuade:axi han riug' the' wire rope through which the power is conducted 1ro01 the derrick to the bha n, a distance of' G5 feet, the pump works well, and saves us a great deal of work, as a slight wind will operate it. We also use the derrick for a milk house now, and all the water pumped gees through the milk trough. The wood saw, which runls direct from thl derrick, works well, and I know it often gives us it four-horse power in place of two, which it is rated. In the barn I have a No. 3 San ford straw cutter, and a small iron mill to grinin corn, both of which we often run at the same time, and thren do not use all the wind if it is strong. I also intend to attach our corn-sheller and grindstone to it.' All the above work is tiresome it followed some time, especially for boys, but now my boys do it for fun, and of course a great deal (quic'er than before. It does not run all the time; it takes wind to run it, but of that we generally have plenty when we need most feed and wood. I think it by far the cheap est power for work that can be done ahead, such as sawing wood and cutting Ieed. Cor. Indiana Farmer. THE P ILTRY YARD. POULTRY ON A LARGE SCALE. Like everything else, poultry requires to have conunon sense used in'its management. There is common sense in a few hens beihg1 kept by any man living in a city and having a small yard at the back of his house, where perhaps he has a stable with a pair of horses ; tut there would'be folly in his hav ing great numbers. There is good common sense in having a fine lot of towls running around eveiy farm homestead, but none in keeping so many as to bring od disease. There would be common sense in placing 1,000' hens in' tamilies of 50 over 200 acres, givingthcm Rll liberty to range where they pleased, and having their roosts so con structed that a yoke of oxen or a pair of horses could be hitched to thena xand.haul them to a new site when crops groiving neir required the absence of the poultry, or when a coop had been a good while in one place, and the surroundings were becoming too much saturated with the manure. On a large farm with springs and running streams of 'water, 10.000 might be kept by perseverfing attention in mioving when nec essary, and by plowing, some ground all the while near the fouls, and also by planting patches d6 rye in September to give thenr green food through the winter, which would be availa:le Whenever the snow is not lying th~redn. Bmrt it would be folly for 10,000 or only 1,000 to be kept confined upon a few acres, and expect anything but disaster. With ample range, fowls will be healthy in small families, and require little 'besides what they will find by foraging, at the same time they will lay eggs enough to niake $2 per hen; but confine them on a few acres, and they will eat double of purchased food, and hay not more than 75 cents' worth of eggs per head in proportion to the close coutinemoel t.-Ex: TABLE MERITS. There is far more diflferenee in thc merits and qualities of the dif Brent breeds of fowls at dillerei.t ages than one would suppose. While farmers who raisefehicks for market care little about this point. as 19ug as they have a chick now and then, yet buyers are apt to think ditlfeietly. 'There are many city purchasers who are adepts at pickiug out good, sweet and juicy birds, wchile oth ers, not being judges, generally have the opposite kind as their share. The larger breeds of lJowls, such as the Bralimas and Cochiis, make very line eat ing when nearly full grown, and then are hard to beat, if they have been led properly. If half-grown, immature birds are desired for the table, then the breeds above-named will not furnish them nearly as well as will ,sc.3x1. 1retls-.a~s th e Ise gherns,- G.arneits; mid. others oia like ilk. The reason for this is obvious. The Brahmas are much longer In maturing, while the Gaines and all the small or Inedium-sized breeds are sooner develop ed. They feather up quickly and acquire the much-desired roundness and plumptens sooner and easier than do any of the larger breeds. This is especially so with the ptn lets, though the same' rule applies to codh erels, which latter we all know elequire ma turity (not necessarily age) to snake them really tine eatihg.-Poultry World. FARM POULT'RY. Connected With every farm establishment there should be a poultry yard. Without it the farm wouldhe incomplete. We see no reason why poultry should not be consider ed as a specie' of agricultural stock, and turned' to as good account as cattle or hogs. Infact, every householder, whether farmer, mechanic or professional man, would find it to his advahtage to keep a few hens, at least enough to supply the table with an abund ance of e~ggs. A dozen hens, with careftl managemient, would supply an ordinary family with all the eggs they wanted, and a fowl now and then for the table. The cost of food for this small numier of liens would amount to little the tare andl attention given to thent would be amply 'repaid by the pleasure aflorded in studying their hab- - its and watching their cunning ways ; and the profits realized from the food obtained would amount in a yeaf to 'ii very handsome sum. iDurinig this period a dozen hea would lay ait least a hunmdre dozen of eggs. and. raise chickens enough: to supply the flimily with a weekly dinner. From these data calculations can easily be made of the protits gained by keepingi'poultry.-Ex. THE HOUSEHOLD. RECIPES: Wedding Cake.-Tlhree-f1iifths jioind but ter, one pound brown sugair, eight eggs, one poun(I flonif, twvo p~ohtinl currants, three pounds raising, one'pourid citron, one tea spoonful eachi of ground cinnamon, cloves and niutmteg, half teacupful molasses, halt teacuplul brandy, one tablespoonful thick sour milk,' one 'tablespoon even full of soda dissolved in the milk. ' Sof ten the butter and stir to a creamc ; add the sugzir. and beat till light; thin the eggs, witAbott beating; 1Yel.i the mola es. brandy and spices; then the fruit, which must tfirst be rubbed with 1liur, 'to prevent settling; a tnacupftdl o flour ex tra, or more, will be needed for the purpose. Work ii the pound of floiir, and, last, the soda and tiiilk. Mix well, but quickly, after the soda is added, and plade imtnediately in the oven. Bake in a tin "iilk-pan, holding six or eight quarts. The sides of the pas should be buttered, and the bottomm of it covered withjhick White paper, well buttem ed. It is best to puts tin cake-tube In the center of the pan. Any tinidr can inike one; it is only a scrdil of tin, reamed at the sides with solder, about six or scven inches long, two inchies in diameter at one end and one inch at the other. By'naking an ob lique cutting at the small end, the tube will ainswer to core apples with. If a t'be can not 1;e obtained, it will be best to bake the caike in two basins, holding three or tour quarts each. Have very little fire when the cake is put in the oven. It will require an hour for it to melt and rise. It theu begins to bake, which will take about two hours nmork. The heat may be increased after the firstihour. but anust not be quick, at any time. "It the cake becotues brown before it is done, cover with paper, or put a dripping pan on tipper grate, directly over the came. It is we4l for the houseleeper to niake ill oecessairy preparations for fruit cake the day helore it is to be made. as it saves timni and fatigue at the time of baking. Even a week before wanted, the raisins ca ii be seeded, the citron finely shred. and the cnt rants washed and cried. In that case, turn the brandy-one-half cup-over the fruft, amndcover closely. .