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ROCKY M0 mUN TAIN HUSBANPDMAN
"4.00 1o CtM. PE. ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. PER SINGLE COPY. VOL. 4. 4 t fDIAMOND CITY, M. T., JANUARY 2, 1879. NO. 7. _in m ninn m i n g0 61i K A aa mmn n Iýmun• I I a n•n e mn mm m m n n m mnmaiu mmn J) U1LISLIED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND 4PROPIRIETOR The ROCKY MOUNTAIN IIUSBANDMAN s8 designed to be, as the naIme inhicatOes, a husbandnman iL every sense of the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raici:.g, Horti culture. Social and Domestic, Economy. A__ I)VERTISING RATES. 1wee0k $2 $3 $5 $7 9 $11 $20 $30 2 weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 1 month 5 8 12 15 .9 21 40 60 3 months 10 16 24 30' 5b 42" 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 54 65 120 200 1 y ear 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250 T'rausient advertisements pavale in advance. It~gular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-live per cent. added for special advertise moents. AGRICULTURAL. IN entering upon the new year, with new resolutions to perform better the various duties of life, let the tarmer also resolve to be a better farmer; to use every possible opportunity for improvement; take good agricultural papers and read them; practice the best modes of farming, and experiment and learn new ones. There is not one out of all our list of readers but may make some valuable addition to his store of knowledge this year if he will institute proper research, and who cannot improve vastly upon his former methods of cultivation. ? Farms may be managed like manufacto ries or the mercantile business, and as intel ligent a conclusion arrived at as to the re suits. Only let our farmers, in starting with the new year, keep an account of their transpctions. Let them keep a plain, sim ple account it nothing more. Set down their expenditures for teams, feed, seed, help, taxes, and interest in 0 column, and in another the amount received from the sale of products, that at the close of the year they may be able to tell whether or tlot they have made anything. It would be betf&er to keep an account with each field or variety of product. In this case, they would be able to tell which paid best, and would know how to be governed in the future. Unless farmers adopt some such system they cannot tell whether the prices received are remunerative or not. The sooner a farmer, adopts a gbod sys tem of tarming, keeping farm accounts, etc., the sooner he will be able to surmount the many difficulties known to the calling, and push on to success. The experience of farmers in all countries proves this, and we trust our readers may heedlour timely coun sel, and commence with 1879 to be thorough going, intelligent, systemdtie farmers. HOURS OF FARM LABOR. A subscriber asks how many constitute a day's work in fsarting, and, also, that if a hired man agree to do extra work for extra pay, is it right for him to do the extra work during regular working hours, demanding therefor the extra pay in addition to his reg ular warges. In reply, we would say that there is no law in this country, either state or national, regulating the hours of labor, except in ease of laborers in the direct em ploymen, of the government. In all other cases the matter is left entirely to the con tracting parties. In many instances, as in large ma ifatories and the like, custom frrmerly in nearly all instances, limited the laboring hboirs of operatives to ten. In la teo years, agitation by labor and trades' un ions has resulted in liigag the hours to eight in a large number of eases. On farms it hias always. been difieult to, establish any hing like uuiteorntty in thtb mntter, a.d it does not seem ilkely that any 'rigid custom wikever obtain. .Mtany fargsr exact alto getJ~er too mrch trouts their hired men.. From sunrise to .Iark in the field, and then. the. care of teams, milKing, ea, until the. poor men tunible into bed, as onetaight al-. uant say,, st~lrpk the otpe uoieag eta aak unfrequent exaction on many farms. There are times in the rush of haying and har vesting when this is perhaps necessary, but such a necessity does not often exist. We have known cases when ten hours are all that was expected of actual field labor. On the other hand, it sometimes occurs often when farm labor is scarce and wages high-men will take advantage of the ne cessities of the employer, and begin work or drop it pretty much as they please. "Fair pay for a fair day's work" is a mot to that should please both parties. The re lations of employer and employee should always be founded on the higher laws of justice and right. The hired man is not a slave to be driven. Neither should he be a thief to steal houris-which are money to the employer-the moment the employer's back is turned. In hiring men to work on the farm, the only proper *7ay is to have a full understanding at the outset regarding all the little points that are likely to arise between the contracting parties, and then let each party regulate his labor and his conduct in strict accordance therewith. The farmer who stoops to abuse his help in ex acting too hard and too continuous labor, in the end gains no time, and loses the good will of his help. The hired man who shirks his duty to the man who pays and feeds him for honest work, is the man who in the end loses all employment and graduates as a first-class tramp, to exist solely on the la bor of others. When dissatisfaction or dis putes arise that can not be amicably and aittisfactorily settled by a free and frank talk over the matter, it is best to settle and throw up the contract. In further reply, we may say that the hired man has no right to take time out of the usual regular hours in which to do ex tra work for which he claims extra pay, un less his employer fails to provide labor for him to do, or gives his consent to the sub stitution ot the extra for the regular labor. -Farmer's Reviemw. THE PUTURE FARMER. The demand tor agricultural information is constantly increasing. The farmer of to day is far ahead of the last generation in ev rrything that insures success and promotes happiness, yet only the first lesson has been learned-the initial step taken-and the fu. ture is before us with all its undiscovered wealth of information and its resulting pros perity. We have only to toil and study, read and experiment, reflect and invent to wring from the bosom of the earth new treasurers and greater abundance of the old. Thesewill add to the wealth, prosperity and happiness of the whole world and place us in our proper position in the social scale. The time is not far distant-it is even now close at hand, when an ignorant farmer will be a rara avis. ie will be so far be hind the times that he will lose caste among his fellows-he will be a black sheep in the flock and will gradually degenerate to a condition of virtual serfdom. The agriculturist is now rapidly reoming to the front and taking lank with the intel ligent anti educated of other professions. He will soo,. be-yes, even now, he is a power in the land. He holds the balance of political power and the republic will rejoice when his rights are asserted. Theclodhop per of the past has become the honored and reslpected ctizPn of to-day. The future, if rightly improved, will bring nothing but continued prosperity and happiness. The farmer's dutitis are well defined--he has. en ly to preserve in the attainment of that es p~cic4 knowledge which his profession re qlmires mand hik moral, social, political and pecuniary prosperity is assured.- J'llamettf Farmer. THEru t1.z3 nation in Europe so advano ed in its methrods of teaching agriculture as Italy, an:d in qp nation is so much nthusl asin mranifeste4and so mnch practhal 'good ent time two high schools of agriculture- one at Milan, and another at Portici; three special schools-a school of forestry at Val lambaosa, a school of horticulture at Na ples, and a school of vineculture at Coneg liatio ; two veterinary schools, at Milan and Naples; and 21 seeondar~ schools, varying in importance and organization, but which may be compared broadly to the French ag ricultural colleges of Grigon and Montpelier. These establishments are largely subsidtzed either by the state or by the province where they are situated.-Jour-nav of ClOmistry, The Maine State Press says: "There is not quite so much enthasiasm in Aroostook over the beet sugar business as would be justifled by the prospect. Nobody expects that jhe manufacture of beet sugar will transform our farmers into millionaires. No body:econtends that at the price offeredfor the beest every farmercan raise them with profit. What is elaimed however is that if theb-eet sugar manufacture proves successful it will afford to some of the farming sections of the state.s market that can be supplie with fair proflt." THE POULTRY YARD: S t:.OW TO E~BE FOR \EGGS. The question isa askea me often, how I feed my poultry to get so.many eggs through the cold weather, They say they feed their fowls all the ~oen they will eat, but they do not get any eggs. My fowls are always healthy, never have any Ihiid of disease, and I always get plenty of e' when they bring the highest price. In tth.Ar+st place, I keep pure breed pooltry, not ~grele; next,. py fowls a$wa.:wey. all ti 1sd plaster, lime, dyete~r..' ~i lhiells 'broken fine, burnt bones, charcoal and gravel they require, a good dust box to wallow in, plenty of good water, not snow and ice; bone meal and meat scraps twice or three times a week, and sour milk when I have it. Now, for the first meal, potatoes and meat scraps boiled, mashed, a little salt, thicken with corn meal and wheat shorts; second meal, buckwheat; third meal, corn. Second day, potatoes and turnips boiled, mashed, seasoned, thickened with corn and oats ground; 2d, meal, wheat screenings; 3d, meal, buckwheat. Third day, potatoes and onions boiled, season, mash, thicken With ground feed and a few handsful of bone meal; 2d feeding, oats; 3d meal, corn. Fourth day, potatoes and meat scraps, mashed, seasoned .well with cayenne pep per, thicken with meal and shorts; 2d meal, buckwheat; 3d1 meal. wheat screenings. Fifth day, potatoes and sweet apples boiled, season, mash and thicken with wheat shorts; 2d meal, corn; 3d meal, oats. Sixth day, potatoes and onions boiled and mashed, thicken with corn and oat meal; 2d meal, wheat; 3d meal, corn; an extra feeding of sunflower seeds once in a while I find is very good. Seventh day, potatoes and turnips boiled and mashed, season with cay enne pepper, thicken with wheat shorts and bone meal; 2d meal, oats; 3d meal,. buck wheat. This is the way my fowls are fed through cold weather. A good many say to me it is too much trouble and too much work to take care of then it this way.. It takes a littlelonger to prepare the morning meal the way I do than lt would to throw them a little corn in the snow, or on the manure pile, as a great many do, and tltn complain that they get no eggs. The rest ot the meals through tlhe day take but a short time if you have your grain handy. When the gronu is coveredtvith snow, so the fowls can get no grasseor green stuff;, i hang a cabbage, once or twice a week, up by the stump. They wlil work at it until there is nothing but the stump, amd they relish it too, I think. Follow these simple rules and you will succeed equally as well THE HOUSEHOLD. Ulcerated '.eeth.-Toast a piece of bread, then soak it in laudanum, camphor and cay enne pepper, and bind it on the face. It gives immediate relief. Injury by Fresming.--To cure frosted flesh, rub on the part balsam copaiba. This I have used for years, and italways cures. Its, effect is wonderful. A tencent box is suff clent to conyinee of its virtue.-Exa. Ginger' Cookies--One cup of molasses, one cup of sugar, one cup of butter or lard, three eggs, two teaspoonfuls of salaratus, dissolves in a little hot water, five cups of lotur, one teaspoonful of ginger, mixed with the molasses. Browan Bread.--Two cups of Graham flour, three cups of Indian meal, one-half oup-of molasses, three cups of roiqk, one teaspoon ful of soda anps one of salt, Steam three hours. White Cak.,-Wbltes of tkree eggs beaten to a troth, one-half cup of butter, one cup of sugar, two-thirds eup of milk, two cups of flour, two teaspoonfulas baking powder. Oarrots for Dinner.--Wash, scrape, let It* in cold water for an hour- or more.; then boil until tender; drain, mash, season with good-sized piece of butter, pepper gild salt and serve very hot.. Wafers.-Melt a piarter of a pound of butter and mix it with hall a pint of milk, a teaspoopful of salt, a wine-glass of wine, three beaten eggs and safl.ilent sifted flour to enable you to roll thent out easily. They should be roiled 'ery.thin, crb into small circular cakes, and baledin an even of r od-. erate heat. Frost the whtole and sprinkle froste, , Csotsma Drops.-Take equal weights of cocoanut grated and white sugar, care must be taken not to grate any of the brown part of the nut. Beat the whites of eggs to a stiff froth-there should be Jsst enough to moisten the sugar and cocoanut, so that they will be quite stiff. Drop the mixture on to buttered plates. Make the drops the size of a cent, and several inches apart, and bake them in a moderate oven. F.ummery.-Lay sponge cake in a deep dish, pour on white wine to moisten it; chop some raisins fine and sprinkle over the. cake; then spread over it a layer of jlly and turn over it a custard made with the yolks of eggs. Beat the reserved' Whites to a froth and spread oven the top. Put a dash ot redsugar sand: here and the:e over it oif tiny drops of jely. Slifees of oranges,.ett. every thin, make a good.garnish fl-ft.. Stewued Turkeys-An olid turkey is. moreo tender stewed than when cooked In any other way. Put i. a large pot half a poundi of bacon cut in sMlies, a qimrter of a pound of knuckle of veal, three sprigs of parsely, two of thyme, six small onions, one carrot out in small pieces, three cloves,'salt and pepper. and then the turkey; add a pint each of broth and white wine, cover as, closely as possible, and:simmer gently about two hours and a half;. then turn the turkey' over and put it back on the ftre for another' two hours and a half ; dish the twurkey ; str.in the sauce; put it back on the fire,. andtaftcr reducing iti to. a glaze spread it: over the turkey and .erve,. o~me prefea' stewed turkey when cold.l, ? Crnan Pi.s.-One ard, one-halt cups of' ilk;: two-tlhirds of a cup of sugar, one tblespoontul of flour,.two eggs. Boll the m k; beat the eggs, sugar, and flour to geher, stir it in when the milk bolls; flavor. it Iith lemon. This makes two lies., Puddings--One oup each of .loppeds su stoned aidlslns,molasses, and milk, and one egg, three cups sifted Aflour, a little salth and a pinch of soda;. ball three hours , ser.a, udthkauuaklsace..