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ROCKY MOUNTAIN HISBANIDMAN
4 -4 4o 10 cts. PER ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agrlclture, Live-stock, Home Beading, and General News. PER SINGLE COPY. VOL. 4., DIAMOND CITY, MONTANA, MARCH 6,1879. NO. 16. |' Ii -Iii ' - iii iml- 1 1 | pUBLISILED WEEI:KLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, E DITOR. AND. PROPRIETOR The ROCKY MiOUNTAIN hILUANDMAN IS designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandmran ai. every seuseof the term, embracing ill its colulnlns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raieiLg, Ilorti culture. Social and Domestic Economy. AIDVEITI'ISING RATES. WeeK $2 $3 $5 I $7 $ $11 $20 $ 30 2 weecks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 1 month 5 8 12 15 10 21 4. 60 3 months 10 16 241 30 3' 4" 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 M 1 120 200 1 year 30 40 6o 751 90! 1051 180 2,50 Transient advcrtisemnts pavnlale in advance. Regular advertisetments payable quarterly. Twenty-live per cent. added for spec.,l alvertise ments. AGRICULTURAL. Wni HAVE for some time been impressed with the necessity of writing a chapter on the culture of potatoes, and as spring is ap proaching. a more opportune moment can not be chosen. Montana, every farmer well knows, has gained a world-wide reputation for the quality of her tubers. Go where you will over the states, wherever you find a man who has visited our territory, yon hear him compliment the potato which graces the Montana table. Within the last two or three years, however, we are sorry to say, there has been a material decline in the qtuality of the potatoes in general use at hotels, restaurants and boarding-houses. Instead of being white and solid, and break ing up dry and mealy, they are either hard and bluish, or hollow, and many are soft and watery, in fact, anything but palatable. This cannot be attributed to any fault of the country, as we find the tables ot those who are careful in their purchases supplied with potatoes even superior to those pro duced ten years ago. The fault lies with our farmers. Since the fall in prices there seems to be no effort to produce a first-class quality, but the reverse should be the case, for as the price declines every effort should be made by the producer to preserve and improve the quality in or. der to stimulate demand. Just where the principal fault lies we are unable to say. In feet, there seem to be a number of causes. Many of our farmers have been using the same seed without any change or attempt to improve; besides, they have been plant ing the same ground without change for the past ten years. In addition to this, ;hey have become careless about planting, allow ing other matters to crowd and put it off until late in the spring. This,. with their reckless system of cultivation and watering late. has proved very disastrous. In suggesting a remedy, it Is necessary to commence at the beginning. It is first nec essary to procure a new variety of seed sonme of the Improved varieties of course. They should be planted in good season and on good soil, and cultivated properly. 1l'he watering after the season is well advanced is most important, and a proper knowledge can only be attained by experience, as dif ferent soils require a different degree of moisture. Dry, sandy soil should be chosen when it can be had, and it is not best to wa te, after the potato has attained size enough for use. We are satisfied, however, that the large quantity of Inferior potatoes in our markets is due to the inferiority of the seed. T'hose who take pride in potato culture have fine varieties. Their potatoes are always of good size, and never watery or poorly ma tured. A word to the wise is sufficient. Let our farmers but pause and see where their care lessness and inattention is drifting them. A little thought, a little study and ordinary skill will be found highly profitable, and will place the potato of general use again on its proper standing. A WORD TO FARE LABOREgS. It is important to impress upon young Smen Who are seeking employment the truth that it pays to form good habits. The idea too often prevails among this class that it makes but little difference upon a man's hbuiness prospects how he spends his mi nority. No matter what habits he form., or what excesses he indulges in if only be is a good workman he expects to succeed in getting employment and good wages. #i, employers even of farm hands, have more regard to the character and morals of dhose they hire than the latter often suspect. Not long since one of our subscribers, a prormi nent farmer in the eastern part of the state, was telling us of his method with hands who wished to hire to him. He questioned them closely about their habits, as to term per:nce and good morals. Profanity, dis-. regard of the Sabbath and the use of liquor or tobacco were sufficient to rule out any one applying to hire. If the rebord of the applicant is clear on these poin;ts our friend gives him a trial, and if he finds him } com petent workman, intelligent ini his duties, industrious and faithful, he makes in ad vance upon his wages. He regularly pays his men two dollars a month above the av erage rate paid to other farm hands in his neighborhood, because he values good mor als as well as good labor, and is willing to pay a bonus for respectability and good character. lIis present hired man isa fair musician and helps to instruct and ena4rtain the family by his accomplishments. While he is a faithful laborer in the fields,.and trusty with the stock, his worthy char.eter is of greater value to the children ot the family. llis example is one to be imnmitat ed by them, and not, as is too often the one to be held up as a warning. Mutia young man who knows himselt to be 41)om* petent workman fails to secure employment because his habits are such as to unfit him to be the companion of chlldren. Profani ty, obscenity, a disregard for God's day, as well as intemperance and uncleanly habits, have kept many a young man from secur ing good places, good pay and advancement. It pays to be moral.-Indiana Farmer. - - - ... . . --4b. -- - 81PERIG WHBAT. The nature of the wheat plant Is to make roots and tiller in cool weather before send ing utp seed stemr ; for this reason it becoatls essential that the seed be got into the grpund at the very earliest opportunity that. t can be suitably prepared to receive it. 4Js r the reason of less tillering that It regulits more seed per acre for spring than tall o, ing. When sown quite early, less seed is required than if sown later, for the sagte reason. Wheat has the faculty of adapting Itself to a variety of soils, and will produce fairly, providing the soil contains sufficient suitable plant food, and is thoronghly4draln ed, naturally or artificially. Forsome soils, heavy, well-tilled clays for example, spring wheat is better adapted than winter, f~t the reason that such soils often in freezing and thawing throw the wheat roots out,`br by other reason "winter kill" the grain. For spring sowing, better results are had from plowing the ground in fall, and in spring spreading broadcast a dressing of fine ma nure or other fertilizer, and harrowing in as soon as it can be well done after the frost is out of the ground. Where plowing is nee essary in spring, give a dressing of coarse manure and plow down quite shallow un less the soil is in high tilth, when a littl. fertilizer spread with the seed is suffiielt. The quantity of seed to the acre will A pend upon tilth, season and minor circti stances--from one and three-fourths to two and one-half bushels-but be sure that the seed is of the best and clean. Prepare the seed by peuring it into a strong brine, In which an ounce or two of powdered blue vitriol to the bushel of grain is dissolved, skimming oft all light seed; drain and'dry, off with dry slaked lime.- W. H. White, in Country Gentleman. RUSSIA'S WHEAT PROBLEMS. Our competitor, Russia, has, it seems, problems to solve in wheat growing not un like our own. The following points are gained from perusal of a foreign article on the subject: In the south, and in what par excellence may be called the granary of Rus sia, some corn speculators occasionally farm as many as 5,000 and 10,000 acres, renting thenm at two-pence per acre. This grain is 4atirely grown for export purposes. For the last few years the Russian wheat has not been in such demand as formerly, on account of its lessened size. Nor is this difficult to account for. The land is not mnAaredd; and, because of this, it gradually becomes so exhati dtd that in many parts it must lie fallow fifteen years before it will ,yield 46i9thep: crop. At present this pro duces no great practical inconvenience, if we except the diminished export trade, seeing that when his allotment is exhausted the peasant just removes his plow and farming gear to a patch of virgin soil; but when the population of Russia has grown, as it must do, some sort of system, which the peasant would now consider high-class farming, must be introduced. The very manuring of the soil, owing to the climate, would be no small difficulty, and those who know the country best are of opinion that it could be 'best done by parking sheep, but for no longer time in any one year than twenty four hours. To do this for any longer would make the land too hot; in drouthy seasons the grain would be burned up, and in wet seasons it would run all to straw. These statements are almost incredible, butt if they be accurate, Indicate that Russia has more difficult problems than ours. A fit teen-year fallow on the one hand and a tienty-. knrrour run of sheep on thse e are indedd striking extremes. The sheep prescription is certainly the most hommop athic dose of manuring we ever heard of. Rural Press. BADLY LIGRHTD STABLEI. The horse, although it looks straight for ward much more than most animals, yet does not do so nearly as much as man, and therefore rcquires, in its habitation, an ar rangement of light quite different from that in its owner's dwelling. Give the horse the light from only one side, and It will direct only one of its eyes toward it, but the other eye will be in the shade; this luequality weakens both eyes. Put it in such a posi tion that it looks into the dart, which is certainly Unnatural, and when taken out q. the stable theabrupt change tfrom O se to light will harm it. To plsae it Werig agalust the light, gives the lattlf.MalLag effect which is also injurious to the pe The stable should therefore receive its light from above, either through skylights or through windows placed near the ceiling in the wall to which the animal's lwad Is turn ed as he stands in the stall. Moreover, the stable should be always bright, as bright in deed as daylight; for the horse is not a night or twilight animal, and is in no need of artificial darkness, like tattening stocK. Rural New Yorker. A contemporary says: "There is no rea son why farming may not be made to pay much oftener than it does. Very few have learned to regard it as a business. It is a sort of chance work all round. Mo.t men look on it as a sort of real estate transactiofi. They hope one day to sell out at a big fig ure, hence are afraid to improve theli farms with a view to agricultt.rad operations, for featr that whoever buys the land will not, eare for tbae little things. TWe have often heard some improving armer ridictuled for his expenditures by some knowing ones, who were very sure so-and-so would get no more for his place than it he had thrown the money in the dirt. Ur to Feb. 15th, California had had only' three Inches of rainfall, and crops were very Iack*-ard. THE HOUSEHOLD. Wooden Bowls.-In buymg a new wooden bowl, it is well to remember that if you grease it well on the inside, and stand it near the fire. where it will soak in, it will save it from cracking. To Clean Black Lace.-Squeeze softly and often in skimmed milk, when it seems clean put it in clean skimmed milk, squeeze again, lay it on sheets of stiff paper, draw out scol lops and edges with fingers, cover with stiff paper and a heavy weight till dry. Scotca Shortbread.-Rub together into a stiff, short paste two pounds of flour, one pound of butter and six ounces loaf sugar; make it into square cakes, about half inch thick; pinch them all along the edge at the top; over the whole surface of the cakes sprinkle some white comfits, put the cakes on tins so as to touch each other on their edges, and bake in a slow oven. A Good White Sauce for Fil,.-Boil for a quarter of an hour in a quarter of a pint of water, three anchovies, a blade of mace, six white peppercorns and a clove, then strain the liquor into a clean saucepan, add one ounce of butter rolled in flour, and a tea spoonful of lemon-juice, and when these are well blended, stir in by degrees half a pmt of cream, and let all simmer a few minutes, then serve in a tureen. Cranberry Sauce.-Pour hot water on the berries and let them stand until cold; then to one quart of them add a pint of sugar, and one pint of water; after adding water let boil twenty minutes, then add sugar and boil fifteen minutes more; stir the berries often and mash evenly. When done the sauce may be strained in a bowl. When aold serve in slices. Sour M Cheese.-After the milk has be come sour, stir into it boiling water suffi cient to separate the cheese from the whey ; then have ready a bag of coarse cotton cloth, through which strain the mass. Af ter pressing out all the whey, the cheese will be found in little fine-grained lumps, which are easily reduced to the finest par ticles. Rub in a little bdtter and salt, and make into balls. If too much boiling water is used, the masa will be stringy, and the cheese leQt!lery. Recipe for Ycast.-Boll, say on Monday, two otuces of the best hops in tour quarts of water for halt an hour; strain it and let the liquid cool down to the warmth of new ailk; tln put in a handful of salt and half a pound of sugar; beat up one pound of the best flour with some of the liquid, and then tatt. well together. Wednesday add tree fpads of potatoes boiled and mashed; let thie Wand until Thursday; then strain put it into bottles and it is ready for use. It must be stirred frequently while it is making, and kept near the fire. Before using shake the bottle well. It will keep ini a cool place two months, and is better the latter part of the time. It ferments spon taneously, not requiring the aid of other yeast, and if care be taken to let it ferment well in the earthen bowl in which it is made, you may cork it up tight when bottled. Cheap and Good Vinegar,--To eight gal lons of clear rainwater add three quarts of molasses. Turn the mixture into a clean, tight cask, shake it well two or three times Qnd ad., three spoonfuls of good yeast, or two yeast cakes. 'laee the cask in a warnt place. and in ten or twelve days add a sheet of common brown wrapping paper, smear ed wit"' molasses and torn into narrow strips, and you will soon have good vinegar. The paiier Is necessary to form the "moth er," or life of the vinegar. To make Your Teeth as White as Snow.- Take one part of the chloride of lime and fifteen parts of prepared chalk, adding half an ounce of Peruvian bark and a few drops of atter of roses. Use thoroughly morning and evening.