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C _Y IOUNTAIN UISBANDMAN
PER ANNU: . A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Rome Reading, and General News. 1 PE COPY. ---- _ -Si-D I A M O ND- I T PE NGLEO . -D. L DIAMOND CITY, MOT AN A, SEPTEMBER 4,1879. NO. 42. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m a. .,+ . _ , .. . . . . .. . 1-. N. S. T PLIN, EDITORI AND PIO(Ilif' ITOI, T!?' ROCKY MOrrxTAr" ursItU.ANIsrAN is idesine! to e, - ; t. ie nanrio irnlicats. , a huislb llrndirt .. every Sn ýI " lt' 1(h te)1, Cnllllla.(tih: inl iits C tlllins eve:+ - i'rp.oo': ent of . r"ricuture k-rit .i , i-o' - cilt, re. o*ial and l)oniet' . "oio''v . . -AI)VERTISING ATE..' 3,' .s 1 1Ti " 10 12 4 0 ]2 o 0miio th.9 l` .) -1) 4 " s 200 1 Y)",Is :I 4 00 75 0 i 0I , 10 250 '1',lr :entl ivetit. o e ts 0 li, tie i-tn t-n i e :iiitr ladvelrtisei ens l tv a alti 1 t'crl, • Twenty-live per cent. adlded for specc.:,l adveriseo Tinto'Ts. A RI IULT RAL. ITis now getting late for the sowfiln of winter wheat, but it is better late than ite\ver. TIjlurrE has not been a better season for , UhIly-making for ten years, a"] we trust our f tarmers have improved it well. '-TinE recentt rains will r!pen grain v'ery l rapidly. Those who lmhave larg'e C(ror(s should cut als soon as thle gr' 'i is ripe I 1eno<gh, else it will shatter before the work Call ie finished. b O()Tr warninI1 to hay-rna:lers to retop si liheir ricks and prepare for rahin was just in a tilnle. Those who iprofitil by it are noyi tw happy. P AN AGRICULTURAG, REVIVAL. T:'he following is part of an article, unndcr tbis title, contributed by Mr. Alexander iydice for the New York Weekly Times: Since 1873 the industries of the country., with scarcely an exception, have been de ipressed. Capital and labor have alike suf fered. A.ricuiture, lying at the foundation (. all idusltries, supplying the raw nmaeri al of manftacturers andl the food by which the life of both man and beast is sustained, is always the last to feel the shock of the blow by which business is prostrated, and the last to recover from its eflects. We hear farmers complaining this summer as never before. Butter and cheese, the lead ing dairy products, are lower than they have ever been in the memory of young dai rynmen. Milk is a drug in the market, grains or all kinds stand at low figures, pork does not pay for raising, eggs were never so cheap. We shall see light soon. We need more faith in our calling. The signs of the coming good time are unmistakable, and to stimulate farmers to renewed courage and enterprise, we will briefly call their, atten tion to some of the m. The foreign demand for our agricultural products has been for sdme years an encouraging gleam in our otherwise dark prospect. This demand has increased lately to such an extent in En glanJ as to cause a panic in that country. American farmers have bearded the EL glish lion in his den. Even in his boasted products of beef and mutton John Bul finds a competitor in hii cousin Jonathan. The t idea that England could be dependent upon America for fresh meat would have been scorned by English statesmen and farmers a score of years ago. They might ask us for cotton and corn, and possibly a little wheat, but for a roast of beef or a leg of mutton, never. Thanks to railroads, steam ships, and Yankee enterprise, Illinois beef is put down in the London markets of so high a qunhty and at so low a rate that En gliuh fitrmers ask in astonishment. ,-What shall we do?" A writer in one of the En- a ,.lishi reviews fr June complains that agri- '1 culture has not kept p'ae with other indus- n tries in that country, and endeavors to n arouse his countrymlen to an agricultural n reformli. He says : "The enormous in- tl retase in our importations of foreign food t< is sulicilent of itself to cause alarm. In 1iS8, with a population of 28,000,000. we import ed of this food to the value of125,000,000; i 18I(; , with a population of 30,000,000, the amoul, t was £55.000.000; and in 1878 it was £101,000,000. Foreign agricultural food which, in 1840. cost the nation a fraction less than Ss. Crd. per head, in ]878 cost !£3 per head." The importations of foreign tood into England, therefore as shown by their own statistics, have about doubled in each of the Iist decades, and as most of it came from America, our farmers may well take courage and' double their efforts. To feed our own increasing population, and at thmesame tile'supply this enormous foreigtl demand, calls for an increased faith in agri culture among American tarmers generally, 1 and young farmers particularly. I This demand prolises to come not only 1 from foreign countries, but with a revival t of manufactures and kindred industries in our own conntry we look for the great mar ket of farm products. That such a revival has commenced the most doubting Thomas s will acknowledge, and as all industries are intimately connected, agriculture will soon feel the eftlcts of the new life in other pur- . suits. Great as has been and still is the benefit to the American farmer from the foireign demand for his products, a good home market is a still greater blessing. The nearer the producer and consumer can be$ brought the better for both. There is a great saving in transportation andl commnis"4 sinus. It is a great thing that we can ship a I.urham steer from the prairies of Illinois to the wharves of Liverpool, but the trans-: portation, commissions, and more especial ly the tear and fret of tLe animal on the car and boat, make a big discount on the farm-n ers prlit's. We, therefore, look to the revi va\ of manufactures as the great stimulus to mechanical and agricultur.l industries*. h One industry cannot arise without putting 01 new life into others. They are all bound together like the members of one body, and at iake one complete whole. The jealousy sometimes Inanifesteau between them is as unnatural and detrimental as a fiamily quar rel. x:gai.m, the experience of the last decade has convinced farmners' sons, and not a few sons of manufacturers, mechanics, and pro fessional men, that there is no occupation that is so free from vicissitudes and promises so sure a living as agriculture. During the long continued depression in business from which we are just emerging the number of merchants and manufacturers that have failed is legion, but bankrupt tfarmers are few and far between, and the failures of these few can generally be traced to specu latiou in fancy stock, tobacco or some other outside operation. No instance of failure htis come under our personal observation where a farmer has steadily pursued his le gitimate calling. Many a boy, within the last 10 years, has left the farm and gone be hind the counter to measure laces and rib bons, hoping to make a living more easily and attain a higher social position, but when the price of dry goods fell 50 per cent. and his employer failed, he has been glad; to return to the old homestead, and will make all the better farmer from his short! experience as a merchant. Already -there' is a ,;cmand for firms by mechanics and merchants, and real estate is no longer such a drug in market as it has been. There is' a healthy reaction in favor of country life. and rural pursuits, and we advise no farmer. to make a sacrifice of his land, if by any possibility he can hold on to it. FERTILIZERS FOR HOUSE PLANTS When the plant is in a bad condition, it is a mistake to apply a stimulating fertilizer. The causes of ill health are many, but the most general one with those who have had no experience in the care of plants is over waterin, Plants, to live, must have water, therefore the more water the better, seems to be the reasoning, and the consequence is , starved, nearly leaflcss sticks in a pot of t- mud. In the majority of cases witholdingo the water is one of the things needed, and e with invalids a stimulating fertilizer is the s one thing of all others not needed. When d plants are in a flourishing condition and u making growth, then fertilizers may be use 3 ful, especially if the soil in the pots was I originally rather poor. Any of the fertiliz Y ers used in the garden would answer for 1 plants in the house, were it not necessary t to avoid unpleasant odors, and to consult 1 neatness and ease of application. For hard wooded, slow-growing plants, very fine bone-.flour of bone-sold by seedsmen for the purpose, is perhaps the best ; a few ta blespoonsful being forked into the soil of the pot. For soft-wooded, quick growers, a liquid fertilizer may be used. This may be guano, a tablespoonful to a gallon of wa ter ; soot two tablespoonfuls to a gallon, or the water of ammonia (liquid hartshorn) of the (]rtg stores, an ounce to the gallon. Water the plants with either of these, in stead of clear water, once or twice a week, as the conditon of the plant requires. No invariable rule can be given.--Americon Ag riculturist. THE POULTRY YARD. HOW TO TELL THAT EGGS ARE EGGS. A good egg will.sink in water. A boiled egg -,hich is done will dry quick ly on the shell when taken from the kettle. The boiled eggs which adhere to the shell are fresh laid. Atter an egg is laid a day or more, the helkll comes off easily when boiled. SA fresh egg has a lime-like surface to its shell. Stale eggs are glassy pnd smooth of shell. Eggs which have been packed in lime look stained and show the action of the lime on the surface. Eggs packed in bran for a long time smell i and taste musty. With the aid ot the hands or a piece of paper rolled in funnel-shape and held to ward the light, the human eye can look through an egg. shell and all. If the egg is clear and golden in appear ance when held to the light, it is good; if dark or spotted, it is bad. The badness of an egg can sometimes be told by shaking it near the holder's ear. 1 ---J.ý "ý 'JUfLL I.LJ LuVuers ear. WIVES, DAUGHTERS AND CHICKENS. The poultry yard is the department of the farm pets. The chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks and the multiplied forms of feathered f animals are all of the order of life that seems to require a difflerent course of man agement and care. They are all of a nature that seems to demand and expect closer at Stentioa than the other members of the great family of living creatures, and what is more fitting than that the gentlest of the human faimily should become their guardians ? There is no arduous work required in their care, after the houses and coops are pre pared. and the time rcquired will not be so great that the average woman on the farm °-uld not find intervals in her daily work hlen she would not only be able to give Se poultry yard a few milnutes, and in do ing so vary the monotony of her duties. The breeding and raising of poultry Yis- .a profitable Occupation. and on most fanms the wife, or wife and daughters, could pre pare each season a liberal quantity of their feathered friends for the market, and re ceive handsome returns for their care. It is healthful also, and would put color into many a lpale cheek, as well as money into the purses of the owners. Try it, mothers and sisters; select ia good breed, and let your poultry yards be a boast; make them a feature on the farm, and when your friends call, show them your poultry family and J what women can do.-Am. Farmer. I (IT PAYS to keep your fowls free from ver min and to give them the very best of care. SIIow many poultry-houses there are in which due provision is made for comfort during cold weather but none whatever for hot, but in which instead the air is close. al most stifling, during the heated season, and from which a fowl will instinctively take leave, if it has any resort to which it can go for roosting. THE HOUSEHOLD. PROVERBS IN COOKERY. Mliss Dodd's demonstrative lectures on cookery are being continued in Philadelphia. They are fnll of little bits of information that might properly be called culinary pro verbs. Here are a few of them: There is a greenness in onions and pota toes that renders them hard to digest. For health's sake, put them in warm water for an hour before cooking. Good flour is not tested by its color. White flour may not be the best. The test of good flour is by the amount of water it absorbs. In cooking a fowl, to ascertain when it is done, put a skewer into the breast, and if, the breast is tender the fowl is done. A few dried or preserved cherries, with stones out are the very best things possible to garnish sweet dishes. Single cream is cream that has stood on the milk 12 hours. It is best for tea and coffee. Double cream stands on its milk 24 hours, and cream for butter frequently stands 48 hours. Cream that is to be whip ped should not be butter-cream, lest, in whipping, it change to butter. To beat the whites of eggs quickly, put in a pinch of salt. The cooler the eggs the quicker they will froth. Salt cools and also freshens them. In boiling eggs hard, put them in boiling water. It will prevent the yolk froni color ing black. You must never attempt to boil the dress ing of a clear soup in the stock, for it will always discolor the soup. In making any sauce, put the butter and flour in together, and your sauce will never be lumpy. Whenever you see your sauce boil from the sides of the pan, you may know your flour or corn starch is done. Boiled fowl with sauce, over which grate the yolk ot eggs, is a magnificent dish for luncheon. Tepid water is produced by combinmng two.thirds cold and one-third boiling water. To make macaroni tender, put it in cold water and bring it to a boil. It will then be much more tender than if put into hot wa ter or stewed in milk. The yolk of eggs binds the crust much better than the whites. Apply it to the edges with a brush. Old potatobs may be freshened up by plunging them into cold water before cook inj_ them. Never put a pudding that is to be steamed into anything else than a dry mold. Never wash raisins that are to be used in sweet dishes. It will make the pudding heavy. To clean them, wipe in a dry towel. To brown sugar for sauce or for puddings, put the sugar in a perfectly dry saucepan. If the pan is the least bit wet, the sugar will burn and you will spoil your saucepan. Cutlets and steaks may be fried, as well as' broiled ; but they must be put, in hot butter or lard. The grease is hot enough when it throws off a bluish smoke. The water used in mixing bread must be tepid hot. If it is too hot, the loaf will be full of great holes. To boil potatoes successfully, when the skin breaks, pour off the water and let them finish cooking in their own steam. In making a crust of any kind, do not melt the lard in the flour. Melting will in jure the crust. In boiling dumplings of any kind, put them in the water one at a time. If they are put in together, they will mix with each other.