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ROCKY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
04.OO Et PELt ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Rome Seadlng, and General News. 1 0 OLp VOL. 4. DIAMOND CITY, MONTANA, SEPTEMBER 11, 1879. NO. 48. ~~ II_ PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR The ROCKY MOUNTAIN IHUSBANDMAN is designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandman iL every eonse of the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raieiLg, Horti oa.ture. Social and Domestic Economy. ADVERTISING RATES. 1week $2 $3 $5 $7 $ If $11 $20 $ 30 tweeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 1 month 5 8 12 15 19 21' 40 60 3 mouths 10 10 24 30 36 42 i80 120 S months 1845 54 65 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250 Transient advertisements pavauzie in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-live per cent. added for special advertise ments. AGRICULTURAL. GREAT care should be taken by farmers not to allow the markets to be so crowded as to run pricks below a living standard. The labors of the husbandmen have been blessed with an immense harvest, it is true, but this is no reason why the product should be sold for less than its actual value, which must be put down at what it cost to grow it. In 1873 crops were large and pro duce sold very low, but then there were scarcely 15,000 people in the territory; now there are nearly double that, while the acre age of grain has not increased more than half, which is a sufficient guarantee that there will be consumption for the major portion of the crop before next harvest. The impression being general that the crops have been extraordinary it will require but a small rush on the market to force every thing down, and once down, it will be hard to raise. We would not advise farmers to hold for a raise, but would suggest that they market with care, and when a fair profit cannot be had, to hold. The consumption will increase daily until next harvest, and there is good reason to believe that there will be but a small pescentage of grain left in the bins by threshing season next year. SWEATING WHEAT. The folio wing is from the St. Paul Press, and may be good theory : We notice by our exchanges that many of the farmers about the state are again thresh ing from the shock and hauling their grain direct to market. Ordinarily this plan has some advantages to recommend it, but this, year, when the wheat has been bleached out by not suns and repeated rains, it is not advisable. It should by all means go into the stack and undergo the "sweat" before being threshed and sold. This will in most cases raise the grade and save the owner from five to ten cents on the bushel. The sweating process is not one generally understood. Taking either wheat or oats, or even hay, and stacking or'mowing them, in a short time they will be found to be un dergoing what is commonly known as the 'tsweat." On opening the stack' the straw will be found damp as well as the grain, accompanied by considerable heat, which lasts for a number of days. At such times it is difficult to separate the berry from the head, and it is seldom threshed by any good tarmer till this period is past. The result of this sweat is, that the dead oolor of the berry is restored while the ker nel litselfisfllled out and is considerably plumper than when it went into the stack. But this is not all. During this period there has been a constant absorption by the ber ry of the nutritive elements in the stalk, rendered active by fermentation, and this developes and ripens the kernel. bome question whether there is any more gluten added, but it is our opinion that there is, and that it is richer in albuminolds, and will make consequenty a higher quality of flour than if not stacked at all. But the suggestion we desired to tIrge was the stack ing would brighten the grain, which is this year mostly of a dead color, and add a few dollars more to the revenue of the farm, which all will frankly acknowledge is al ways small enough. p-- -~ CULTIVATION OF THE STRAWBE=RY. The finest way to grow the strawberry, all things considered, is in hills The best time to set the plants is early in the spring as soon as the ground is dry enough. They should be planted in rows three teet apart and one foot apart in the row. It is very important that this should be, done early, for if growth commences and youtig roots are sent out before the plants are taken -up, they receive a check that must be more or less iij urious. The best soil for the strawberry is a rich, sandy loam, it succeeds better on loam than on light sand or stiff clay. The gr~and should be well prepared, as for any other crop, but no poor subsoil should be turned up, as it is very necessary to have the str face rich. When the plants are taken up, all dead leaves and runners should be removed, and the stems shortened to the roots, shortenied to three or four inches. They should thbh be put in a pail, with water enough to cov er the roots. By this method the plants will be prevented from wilting, and even it the soil is not very moist it will adhere to wet roots, and growth will soon commence. After planting, all blososms and runners should be cut off as fast as they appear, amiil the ground should be kept well stirred.t: This stirring should be kept up till abo. the first of September, after which the sotf~ should not be disturbed to any depth. ;If weeds appear they should be removedb hand, or carefully shaved off with the hqi If the soil needs enriching, apply bonedii' and wood ashes, alone, before the last culi: vating. ELarly in the winter the entire surface should be covered with straw, to the depth of an inch or two, and as soon as growth commences in the spring it should be re moved from directly over the crowns, and left between the plants to serve as a mulch to keep the ground moist and the fruit clean. The great want of the strawberry is water, and any means that can be employed to keep the soil moist, will greatly increase the crop. Mulching is generally the best and cheapest way to gain this object. It is sometimes recommended to remove the mulch in the spring and cultivate betweeh the rows, and then put it back, but I believe that this is always injurious. In the fall, a new lot of roots is sent out, which occupy the entire surface for some distance from the plants, and those enould not be dis turbed till after the crop is gathered. When grown in hills it is- customary to take three or four crops from the same plants. As soon as they are done bearing each season the mulch should be removed, as well as all runners and'rusty leaves,' and the space between the rows very thorouglh ly stirred with the cultivator. When the strawberry is to be grown iti matted rows, the rows should be four fet apart, and the plants set from one to four feet apart in the row, according to the vi - or of the variety. All blossoms and runners should be cut off till July, by which time the plants wi.l be able to send out several good strong run ners at a time. Which may then be allowed to grow. Nothing is gained by allowing them to run before they get abundantly able. They should be cultivated frequently du.. ing the summer, but the same care should. be exercised not to disturb the roots in the fall and spring, as when grown in hill They should be lightly covered during th winter.--Matthet, Crawford. M.mNSOTA ships 75,000 barrels of flou every week. The average cost of freight to the seaboard is 60 cents. THE POULTRY YARD. PRODUCTION AND KEEPING OF EGGS. Oftelitimes it is a matter of importance to keep eggs for a time. When prices rule low, they may be preserved in comparative freshness for several weeks, even in July and August, if care be taken to place them on end as soon as brought in from the nest. One not accustomed to the handling and care of eggs can form no idea of the short ness of time required for the yelk of an egg to settle on one side, where it adheres to the shell and quickly spoils in warm weath er. Always place the egg on the big end. I have tried both ends, and have decided in favor of the fgrmer position. Eggs should be gathered tfom the nest every day, and where, there are many hens kept, twice in a day. It matters not tor what purpose we desire eggs, the hens that produce theni should always be yocng and healthy. Eggs that are to be kept tbr any length of time should always be those from young hens, or if two years old, only from those in per feet health. If this rule is closely observed by breeders who export eggs for hatching, from one locality to another, there will be better satisfaction given. It is of much im portance that the eggs have perfect shells, and a hen not in perfect health may drop her eggs regularly, yet the shells may pos sess imperfections that render them unfit either for keeping or hatching. A hen in perfect health will not drop an egg dally for more than three days In sue c:maon. .Fowls that are confined In narrow ~nclosures~tor any :legth of time cannot be its perfect helth They are forced -out of F#or immediatena , $uheir g ,r as good as any. With inoreasb· age th egg-shells grow thinner, and aoae drop them with no shells at all. Strength and sta.mina of the system, supported by good wholesome food, produce the shell. It is a calcareoUs substance that forms around the egg after it is perfecfed in the oviduct. The completed egg consists off seversl compo nent parts, each one of whifdfdraws on the vital energy and stamina of thb bird, whihe is so formed thetits body performs its natu ral tfu~ tion in regular order when in health. We huist Consider that they are forced' ount of their natural order when we feed them up for great egg production. Did any, 'one ever hearof a wild bird that dropped a'soft egg, or ever see a shelless egg that wa.. dropped by a wila bird? We have pro duced poultry that do not sit. Nature In. tended the hen to sit on her eggs for three' weeks, and afterwards to nurse and run with her chicks for four or five weeks. long er. In this interval the system gains tone and strength. It is an entire change.; a di vision of labor, and the fowl gathers strength and tone for futureegg-production. The regular sitters seldom drop more than sixteen eggs in a clutch, and then comes broodiness. OwG non-sitters are the result of success ful breeding from fowls which had mani fested little desire to sit. It was a great ,achievement. They are a manufactured race, and mustbe cared for dfiPerently fromt the old common breeds much given to sit ting and little laying. Many years back perpetual layers were unknown, as well as the production of eggs in winter. Among the birds of the air there is one species known as "cow blackbird," that never sits, but perpetuates its kind by dropping its eggs into the nests of other birds, by which the young are brought up. Generally the nest of a small bird is chosen, and in rea , Ing the saaltr birds are frequently robbed of their le'l ian& perish, the overgrown bird'Ab eat g t e larger share of food., Tie owab qtr ot be any greatla # herei 4a dwciaedi by the othet birds thus i on for the species Is .no'-t veryplea ··-· V Eggs dropped in May and June keep much better than those dropped later in the season. The reason is that the fowls are in better condition. After the middle of July, the close summer heats and sultty nights come on, and the birds are more or less ex hausted. The moulting seaso9 is close at hand, and the whole system Is preparing for a change, the recovery from which 18 a question of time and care. By thsl time, it left unheeded, their roosting ..aces have become foul and infested with vermin. From this time out, stimulants and mild tonics should'be given to the perpetual lay ers as required. To be thoroughly profits. ble, these fowls should not be kept over the second winter, unless it be in exceptional cases. There is no breed of fowls that as cepts management as readily as the Arab mas. They yield to confleenuent, in time, place and food, without repining,` yet they are tender, and require more care and .'fore thought in feeding than any of the other races of sitters. Perfect eggs, after nce ob tarIed, should be set' up b~i end in good, sweet, lIean dats, and kept.it a cool place, and there will be fotbud little `imi$ y sI saving them to obtain afair p.4 t t fail .h, markets. They must posees pod, thi.ck perfect shells, or they will not kep;.-(. in C&oulWy Gtleman. 1 THiE HOUSEHOLD. Mutton ie Wis T 4. o bohttu of a ba.4h t onst or ...ed ,n. ,jtp s w ith thin toesi, r e two onionios tw tabW e o! g4 vineaer. D eT to nten , as~ tlop all e, ad boll a . oIeo .tndil, t w hl kip - eupt of time. One quarteot eand 4 t aye ued ists eai ost, th o f ,esh ps oo e 2a er s.aq cEe of the pi1n yel. lwiae e,9S o eve. . ,evel roands situp 4o ºt seeps to.to . goi te keep fropn !posling, s t tho e tpatoms, ;awne4j the pp tUth ha . p tte nle or thicker. Ptt In Mars andet them. it the toeatoes are boiled, to uch they will hardeh . 'ake them'n out in alMte .thy wlb utly ; t. clear r a i. is not.neessary topii~ thea Int I Jars, sithlc stone jai r i.d. .t :..y . or lard, one cupfta 01 wbi 'l one pint of moildses, three -'eggs, ` . f . ot water with two teaspoo a o! ,4a4) solved in it, one tablsf ginod' , and flour enough to sake a toig by eabE batter. Drop with a spoon into a lonfg pan. Dyspqptio B.r1d.-dnAe ad a half. cup of sweet ,milk, two-thirds of a eup of sweet cream, salt, and three cups of Graham four. Bakie in a very hot oveni, Ogeo heons whimb have been 'i es aind aed first on the lower 9gte adA then oi the aupper, until ot a rich birown. Takie out on a plate *r4 partly al Weore eating. If yosu do dot asucceed ti e firtihe, follow directions tor thickneiss ofGrihaim tibread. Sowu Mik (ake4-One cup of llok cup sugar,. ou-half op butter, five cups% Oar, one eBgg one teaspoonfhl eso a, half cup choopped ralas 8 .st 9AgtliA floraist way that .i.is soft soap will destroy;thp4 ot roses; used by atetepig* qussiachips halfa A hpp1 ion santen Strain, at ' ig two more of water . _; ot soap; with this syIap i.