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ROCKY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
PER ANNU1. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. 1 P et80 COPt . VOL. 4. DIAMOND CITY, MONTANA, SEPTEMBER 18, 1879. NO. 44. II - PUBIASHED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PI1OPRIETOR The ROCKY AMOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN 18 designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbtulndm.t i1. every senseof the term, embracing in it3 columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raic.il.g, lHorti culture. Social and.Domestic Economy. ADVEITISING RATES. lweek $2 $3 $5 $7 $9 $11 $20 $30 2e fcw s 3 4 7 10 12 15 128 40 1 month 1 12 151 11 21 40 60 3 months 10 I16 24 30 36 4C 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 541 65 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 75 90 105 1 180 250 Transient advertisements pav,.tite in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-live per cent. added for speca.l advertise nients. AGRICULTURAL. Turs season has pretty well satisfied our people that Montana, after all, is a good fruit country. The orchards of thgBitter Root are not only loaded down with lus cious fruits, but throughout the territory where there are any trees we hear of them bearing nicely. This fact should inspire pur farmers with confidence and induce them to plant out orchards. Not a single one of our old settlers but is abundantly able to put out at least 100 trees. Do not neglect it. It will always be cheaper to raise our fruits at home than ship them from abroad, even though we do have a railroad into our midst. Once supplied with good fruit, Montana will possess the most desirable and happiest homes on earth. THE scene on the farm is one of life and bustle. Reapers, harvesters, self-binders, etc., throughout the entire list of harvesting machines are at work. A few farmers are through cutting and have commenced to thresh, and in a couple more weeks the buzz and whiz of threshing machines will be heard from one end of our agricultural valleys to the other. The general tendency this year is to thresh from the field and not stack. Men and teams are everywhere at work and this state of things will probably continue until the middle of October, and farmers will not be throughi with their sea son's work before November. Then they may take things a little more moderately, have more time to read agricultural news papers and plan another season's opera tions. THE LONGEVITY OF SEEDS. There is a question of the highest inter est for practical horticulture. but still envel oped in obscurity, and that is thle duration of vitality in seeds. Our gardeners all know that the seeds of cultivated sorts lose their germinating power in:a short time, when collected and preserved in our accustomed way. The story of the beans taken from the Herbarium of M. Tournefort. and which it i.sai(L germinated after being a hundred years in the Herbarium, leads to further views of native growth. Observations all over the globe have proved that after the destruction of forests, we behold another of a different tree take its place. How comes this? Evidently from the ground, where the seeds of this new forest were buried, and where they have lain lethargic for want of air, warmth, and other conditions neces sary for their germination. But then, when we reflect that some of these forests have been there for centuries, and even for some thousands of years without chbage, and the improbability that the seeds of other trees, some of which are quite large, would be ei ther brought by winds from great distances where these trees grew, or that they were buried in the ground before the forest be ga'n. But vegetables appear on earth dug from depths more or less deep. which were never known there before. This has been often observed in England. We are forced to believe that those seeds have been buried there from time immemorial, and kept sound out of the reach of all atmospheric influences. About 16 years ago, a dentist of Dorches ter, by the name of McLean, desiring to give an account of the alterations produced in human teeth, by a long space of time, dug up near Maiden Castle, in presence of many lovers of Archemology, one of the an cient Celtic tumuli, which are found in con siderable numbers in the south-west of En gland. At about thirty feet deep from the surface of the ground, they found a coffin, in which were the remains of a skeleton and several articles of ornament. Upon a min ute search or the contents of this cofflin, there were also discovered among the bones at the point corresponding with the stom ach some matter, dry and blacksmith, very similar to old soil. This was collected by McLean. On examination in the light, it was discovered to contain a great number of ovoid (egg-shaped) bodies, which were readily known to be raspberry seeds, their outside Integuments were greatiy altered. The discovery excited deep interest. Some of them were presented to the duke of Sus sex, president of the Horticultural society. Some of the seeds were broken, and found to have vitality. It was therefore resolved to plant them. Six Reeds were given to the duke, who told his youngGerman gardener, Mr. Hartweg, to plant them in the hot house, not telling him what they were or whence they camne, but that it was an expe riment merely. The spot of each seed was very carefully marked. At the end of a few weeks, four of the seeds came up, after wards one of these perished, the other three attained full growth. and are now growing in the garden of the Horticultural society of Londron. Lindley. places the date of the burial of these seeds in the time of the ancient Bri tons; and at least as far back as the inva sion of the Romans, into Great Britain about 1,700 years ago. And he supposes the chief or warrior, whom they had buried, must have been killed a few moments after hav ing eaten them, as the digestive power of his stomach had not had time to effect them. Besides, it is well known that raspberry seeds are endued with great vitality. The following fact is still more extraordi nary. It is an observation made by Mr. William Kemp. the geologisc and botanist. oie says: 'At a quarter of a mile from Melrose, on the banks of the Tweed, there is a quarry of sand belonging to Mr. John Bell. of Meirose, which has been worked a long time. This quarry Is dug on the side of a hill entirely teormed of sedimentary de posits, fifty or sixty feet above the present level of the river. At 25 feet depth a work man dug up a quantity of remains of plants, some of which had their seeds on, Messrs. Lindley and Kemp planted these seeds and raised about one-tenth of them. They proved to' be of four kinds, viz: polygon convolvulus. Some of these are dyes, some istringent, partaking of the nature of rhu barb, etc.; rumec acetosella, of the same race papilionaceae; the atriplex patulo, one of the chenopods, a race including, beets, mangold wurzel, etc., etc.; and the atriplex •ngustifolia. It is believed beyond a doubt that, formerly, there was a lake at this place whose waters were as high as the stratified bed where these seeds are found, but no history tells us of the time when that lake !xisted, or of any considerable sinking of the waters of the Tweed. When the Ro rans arrived in Great Britain, it is certain that part of Scotland was very nearly ) the same configuration as it now is. these reflections naturally lead us to the ,onclusion, that the seeds in question be onged to prodigious antiquity, perhaps to he paleotherlan epoch, that they were -rowing, therefore, before the creation of :nan. The longevity of seeds of vegetables is, as vet. hut merely sketched out. Diseoveries n this line will bhe great for practical use tud for science.--Agr icultural World. PUTTING AWAY POTATOES. Every method has been tried by farmers to store and preserve their potatoes through thi winter and we may say until potatoes come again. It is the most valuable of all vegetables, though here and there we find a person and a writer who undertakes to tell us of its unwholesomeness. It is universal ly consumed in all civilized countries, as where it cannot be grown it is imported, which can be done long distances without injury when ventilation is attended to. In storing potatoes several methods are adopted, yet they are all practically *the same, the object being to protect them against freezing, whether buried in pits or stored in cellars. The first consideration is to keep them in perfect darkness ; the next is the bins should not be too deep-not over three feet-to produce warmth and cause them to sprout. When stored in the field, straight trenches are dug, say twenty feet in length and four or five wide, which are filled to the depth of three feet with pota toes, then well covered with straw, on top, of which put eighteen or twenty inches of earth. In a pit twenty feet long there should be about three gas escapes or ventil ating openings, which should be plugged with straw and covered with a board set at an angle to turn the rain. It in cellars, barn or otherwise, the bins should be covered with rugs, old carpeting or straw. Those intended to be kept for late spring` sales should be frequently examined and all irouts removed ; for as soon as a potato ,ins to sprout it loses its solidity, dryness ,iud quality.-Gernantown Telegraph. FRUIT IN TEE WEST, Observations made on our late excursion show a general failure in the fruit crop in all the regions west of the Mississipol river. Grapes are an exception to this rule, at least as far west as Kansas City. Peaches are re ported as winter-killed even as far south as Fort Scott, in Kansas. We saw fine apple orchards in Missouri, but scarcely any fruit on them. As far as our observation extend ed there i a neglect of orchards and gar dens throughout Kansas which must be corrected if Kansas is to be the land of hap py homes. We were surprised to see so little attention paid to fruit culture and gar dlening in Colorado. With proper irriga tion, most of our garden roots and vegeta bles and many of our fruits could be raised in perfection on the valleys among the foot hills on the mountains. But the fine fruit which we saw at Denver, and even the po tatoes and onions on our hotel table canme from the same place. The qool air and bright sunshine admirably adapt this cli mate to the production of apples and pears, where sufficient water can be supplied to compensate for the diminished rainfall.-In diana Farmer. DIILECTIONS FOR PLANTING TREE SEED8. Al! nut and hard shell seeds should be soaked in warm water; milk and' water Is better, and hot too, if convenient, soaked until the rind is softened, then placed in the earth as follows: Take of good rich loam (virgin soil) one-third, one-third sand, one third very old decomposed manure, mix them thoroughly; then prepare boxes with holes in the bottom for drainage, fill these boxes two-thirds full of this compost, anti plant the seeds, each in separate boxes, and in thickness according to( the size o' the seed, then sift over them good sand and loam only, about one and one-half to two inches, and over this cover about an inch of sawdust, then sprinkle with a fine syrin'xe or water pot. The sawdust keeps the sur face from baking. Keep the boxes in a light and cool place, free from the sun (which drys the surface) till the seeds are up and show two or three leaves, then b ing gradu ally in the sun and air.-California Farmer. THE HOUSEHOLD. STARCHING 8HIRTS. If there is any one piece of household work that we dislike to do more than an other, it is to "do up" shirts. With twenty years of experience we are not perfect yet, but we will give a few hints that may help some others out of difficulties. For half a dozen shirts take two heaping tablespoonfuls of best starch, add Just enough cold water to dissolve it ; add a pint of boiling water, stirring it at the same time; boil slowly for half an hour, stirring it oc casionally to keep it from scerching. Stir a moment with a spermaceti candle; it this is not available use a piece of mutton tallow the size of a chestnut; strain the starch through a strainer or a piece of thin muslin. Have the shirts turned wrong side out and dip the bosoms carefully in the starch and squeeze out, repeating the operation until the bosoms are thoroughly and evenly satu rated, then proceed to dry. Two hours be fore ironing dip the bosoms in a weak solu tion of cola starch andW roll up tightly. First, iron the back by folding the shirt lengthwise through the ~enter; next the wristbands and both sides of the sleeves, then the collar band; now place the bosom board under the bosom, and with a damp ened napkin rub the bosom from the top downward, smoothiug and arranging each plait neatly. With a smooth and moderate ly hot iron, begin at the top of the bossom and iron downward, continuing the opera. tion until the bosom is perfectly dry gand glossy. Remove the board and iron the front of the shirt. If the ,irons become rough.or smoky, lay a little salt onra lat them from pv Making Potato Bread..-Boil v19eI U'J large potatoes, mash them smooth, while hot, add a piece of butter the size of an egg, a tablespoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, and a pint of warm water. Beat three teacups of flour with another pint of warp water, till free from lumps, and then Umix with the potatoes. Dissolve a sake of yeast and a teaspoonful of soda, each in a teasup of warm water, and beat all well together. It makes a thin batter and should be seter a warm place over night. In the Imorning sift three quarts of flour into the bread pan,. with a little salt. Pour the sponge, which will be full of 'bubbles if the yeast was good, into a cavity in the middle and kneed for five or ten minutes. Cover with a cloth and set in a warm place for an hour or longer, or until it has risen to double its usual size. Then divide into four loaves and kneed thoroughly and put into tins; when light again, bake in a moderate oven, half or three-quarters of an hour. Baking Powder .Buiscuits.L ift two quarts of flour, three even tablespoonfuls of bak ing powder and a little salt together. Mix in one tablespoon of butter or lard, or, bet ter, half of each, and stir in nearly a quart of sweet milk, carefully, so as to get JuMt enough. Kneed as little as possible, roll out, cut into biscuits, antd bake in a quick oven. Little kneeding abd quick baking are essential. Yeast.-Take a pint bowl of hops and two quarts of water, boil down to one quart; put seven or eight spoonsfull of flour in a pan and strain the hop-water boiling upon it; when mixed it should be a thick batter; when It becomes milk-warnm stir in a break fast cup of good yeast, then pour it into bot tles two-thirds full, stoppilg them with pi per. Set tlem in a milk pan by the fire, and as soon as the contents rise to the top of the bottles put them on the (ellar f8 or till the yeast falls; then cork and keep on the cellar floor, in an ice-house, or refriger ator. In very warm weather the corks ought to be removed every day to let the a'r out, and put in directly again, other wise they are apt to burst.