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ROCY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
Cl-i N-tN- l --lue's N ID 1A PER A NUM. * A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. 10 CtOPY. VOL. 4. DIAMOND CITY, MONTANA, SEPTEMBER 25, 1879. NO. 45. --m mmm Nmmmm mml -- pUI;LISIIED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR The ROCKY MOUNTAIN HLUSBANDMAN is designed to be, as the hame indicates, a husbhandmar. it every senseof the term, embracing in its columns every deplartment of Agriculture, Stock-raiciL.g, Horti culture, Social and Domestic Economy. ADVERTISING RATES. 1 week $ 2 $3 $ 5 $ 7 $ 9 $11 $ 20 $ 30 t weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28j 40 1 month .5 8 12 15 19 21, 40 60 3 months 10 16 24 30 ' 36 42 ' 80 120 6 months 18 25 3; 45 5-4 65 120 200 i year 30 40 60 75 1: 105l 1801 250 Tr ansient advertisements pava ,le in advance. ReKular advertisements payable q lr terly. Twentyr.lve per cent. added for spec.,1l advertise ments. A GRIICLTURIIAL Is sowing grain, whether it be wheat, oats or barley, sown broad-cast or drilled, it is very essential to haive the ground in good order. Fields should be cleaned of a:ll rubbish that will not turn under, and the plowing should be done carefully. It is not required to be deep-that depending on the nature of the soil-but it should be thorough. After the seed has been well put in the ground it should be rolled with a large heavy roller. This crushes the clods and makes the ground smooth so that it will irrigate well ; and last, but not least, re'iders the soil compact so that it will not dry out so soon. Vegetation is also claimed to start and grow better when the soil does not lay np too light. Besides when not rolled there are seeds left where th4 plant will be on lumps and rugged places expos ed to the sun, and the land is more liable to wash. Those who have not adopted the system of rolling should try it once and be come convinced of its advantages. SMUT IN GRAIN. Occasionally, and sometimes frequently, one may observe the heads of wheat, oats, barley, rye and the ears of corn filled with a black, powdery substance which is gener ally known as smut. When an ear of grain thus affected is examined, it will be seen that the substance of the grain is changed into this fine black powder, or that the grain is displaced by a puffy, swollen mass of the powder, the latter being more partic ularly to be seen in corn. This smut, when viewed under a microscope of high power, is seen to be composed of black, round balls which are so small that 1,000,000 of them would cover no more than one square inch of surface, and 4.000,000 of them are able to occupy the bulk of a single grain of wheat. These minute balls are the spores or seeds of a fungus, a plant which has several inter mediate stages of growth, and finally repro dnces a new set of spores. The minute seeds .are small enough t float in the atmosphere, to adhere without being noticed to the grains which are 'sown as seed, or to rest in the ground until they come in contact with the sprouting seed and infect the growing wheat. Immediately upon contact with a root of wheat the smut spore strikes a filament into the tissue of the plant and infects it as with a poison. The parasite penetrates throughout the tis sues of the plant, sometimes, as with corn, bursting out upon the stalk, but generally appearing in full devlopmnent in the ear or spike when the grain is forming. The cel - lular tissue of the grain or plant thus infect ed by the tungus is occupief by a vast num b,,r of four-sided cells or cavities, separated by walls, and which are filled. with a mass of very minute adherent granules, perfectly nound and at first green, but afterward of a pale reddish brown color; at length the cell-wals disappear, the granules separate and appear as the black-but really rusty tbrown-powder which we call the smut.. By proper treatuicut the smut-pores can be made to germinate and grow while under observation, when the process of growth is seen to be, as usual with all fungoid vegeta tion, a throwing out of white threads called "myceliumn," and the gradual formation Of the brown spores or seeds which we know as smut in the substance of this mycelium. When smut is abundant, crops are either totally ruined or so damaged as to be worth: very little. Further, this smut is proved to: be injurious to cattle which consume smut ty fodder, and it is reasonably believed that much disease originates from the feeding of straw or corn stalks infested with smut. Fortunately we have an effective remedy within our reach. It has been discovered that caustic alkalies destroy the substance of the smut; and, also. that the application` of sulphates of iron, copper and zinc have the same effect; ot these latter the sulphate of copper-the commonly known blue vit riol--is the most useful. The usual meth; od of applying these remedies is to steep the seed in a solution of the various sub stances. The solution may be made as fol lows and either the one or the other may be used as found convenient : One pound of common salt in one gallon of water; one pound of glauber salts in one gallon of water; four ounces of sulphate of copper in one gallon of water. Sufficient of the solution should be made to saturate the seed, or thoroughly moisten every grain. When the seed has steeped for two hours it is drained and spread upon a floor and sprinkled with dry lime in pow der; that which has been air-slacked, by exposure to the atmosphere in a covered shed, until It falls ,to a fine dust, is best fit ted for this use. The seed is then shoveled and stirred until each grain has been coated with the lime. In an hour or two it will be dry and may be sown. There are at least fifteen species of smut fungus known to bot anists. The genus is known as Uredo by some, and as Uetilago by others.. 'The spe cies which attacks wheat Is known as Ure do Segetnm, or the wheat smut ; that of corn. as Uredomaydis, the maize-smut. Other species infest oats, barley, rye, grasses, sedges, and reeds (or marsh grasses, so called), and other plants. One infests the wild onion, and the same'attacks the on ions grown in gardens. The grasses most infested are orchard grass (Dactylis glorne rata), and some varieties of Poa, more espe cially Poa aquatica and Poa .fluieans; but the cultivated species of this genus, or Kentucky blue grass. Poa pratensis, or Poa compressa, the June grass or spear grass of ,our fields, are not often attacked. There are other fungoid parasites which attack wheat. These are mildew, rust and bunt, thuast being a species of smut known by the name of foeiida, or stinking smut, or bunt, from its foul smell. The first and second are well known; the last is not so frequent, but is sometimes found in ripe grain, which, when ground in the inill or crushed in the fingers, appears as a mass of black dust of disagreeable scent. All these are subject to the same treatment as for the prevention of smut. Steeping is a sure remedy, and any farmer who neglects to avail himself of so simple a help should cer tainly refrain from complaint if lie finds himselfa sufferer. "Wisdom is a defense," and if we are wise we shall defend ourselves against this enemy, and use our influence to prevail upon neighbors to .lo thie same. This and other evil are spread by the neg lect of a few, or even of one, to use reme dies, and the failure of one will lead to the stocking of the land of a hundred others, who may then justly complain of the inju ry.--. Y. Times. THE statistical department of the English board of trade anounces that thile acreage under wheat is 10 per cent. lees than in 1878; under oats, 1 per cent. less; S per cent more acreage is under barley, and 6 per ichit. more under potatoes. NEW VARIETIES OF WHEAT. Why may not our agricultural societies take a hint from the course lihely decided upon by the Royal Society of England. This society has offered two prizes of £25 and £10 each, for distinctly new varieties of wheat which shall combine the largest yield of grain and straw per acre with approved form and size, smooth and thin skin, full and white kernel, and high specific gravity in the seed, and with bright, firm, and stiff straw. One sack must be delivered to the Society by each competitor, together with a sample bundle of straw, before the 1st of October next. A portion, of each sample will be kept for comparison, and the re rmainder divided into equal portions, will be cultivated next year in four localities ditfering in respect of soil and climate. The prizes will be awarded for the best varieties of the crop of 1880, thtts cultivated under theauspices of the boclety, in the opinion +f_ the judges they possess qualities which antitle them to distinction. The produce of the experimental crop of 1880 will be the property of the So , and will be offered fthst to the competitors who submitted the ased. As our State Boards of Agriculture perhaps, are not prepared to carry out the .Axlerimental part of an enterprise of this . ind, they may very properly turn the cul tivation over to the agricultural colleges. 4There is in this another argument in ravor of an attempt to unite the scattered agri ,cultural forces of the country for the ac xinplishment of practical results.-Parm 's8 Revietow. -PROPITABLE UpV OF WEBAT STRAW. A. few wh9at 'armere are tryng, the expe $mezi of soattering theirystraw over the tdand burning instead of allowing it to plIe, Itraid' in destroying: seeds of ppi 4t ti. lob wt1t se lost. +a isust bif t.` And It will pay ev wheat grower of Southern Illinois to do ,ise thingi. On the ricifhbottom lands i~.ri ssisaippi and other streams it may t:ube so8necessary, but on the higher roll 1g, and hilly lands where the, potash from '1e burned:timber has all washed away;'the .rtility of the soil needs to be restored or xre grain product will diminish till, it'ceases ~ pay for the labor expended. There is, perhaps, no easier way to restore this than the method adopted by Mr. Allan and de Scribed above. It is a much better plan than that of burning the straw in a pile and hfen distributing the ashes. In the North west and in California, where heading ma 4hines are used, the straw is left standing i:lt grew, and the soil is notl so rapidly .poverished as in Illinois. But here, and i all sections where it is impracticable to Aie a header, every possible means should . used to increase the natural capacity for rodnctlon. Wheat lands are like horses; s much easier to keep them fat than to tetore their fatness after it is once lost. r the straw is burned, the sowing of a rrel of salt broadcast upon every acre, Will return four fold Its cost in increased ruantity and good quality of the next grain pop, or wnatever crop may follow. It is ýn experiment easily tried, ahd worthy of trial.--Cor. Inter-Ocean. A BIGGER PLOW. Ip a recent issue of the St. Louis Miiler apepred an item In regard to a large plow, buuit for the Iron Mountain railway. This ias supposed to be the largest plow ever GitLt. Au exchange, however, disputes the tatement, and says: A. Hlrshlelmer & aI Crosse, Wisconsin, last fall made : wof the sanme kind which is considera ]y larger. Its weight and dimensions are, s oilows: Welght of share, landside ann d aces, 312 pounds; mold-board, 180 o-ounds; healc, 901) pounds; coultai- and pluasp, 180 pgutids; clevis, 60 pounds; stand id, 134 Ipounds; total weight of plow, )02 pounds. 'The sizes of the prinlcipal _rjartsare 8, 1.m,1 leet long, 17 inches wide, 10 inches thick ; landside, 9 teet long, 5 inches wide, 2 inches thick; standard, 40 inches long, 7, inches wide, 14 inches thick; mold-board, 8 feet long, 26 inches wide, ( of an inch thick; share, 54 feet long,12 inches wide, j inch thick. The plow will cut a furrow 39 inches wide, and was made for the Chicago, Milwaukee and. St. Paul railway company. A locomotive is the steed that draws it. This is probably' the first plow of the kind ever built. -. - DvRING August 1,638 carloads of grain were landed at South Vallejo, Cal. THE HOUSEHOLD. WAYS OF COOKING TOXATORB. Our favorite way of cooking tomatoes is to cook them slowly until the juice is evap orated sufficiently to form a thick puilp,. then season With pepper, salt, and a getier ous piece of butter. A very pleasantebange is wade by stewing only' until. Just done, seasoning as above, and thickening alight ly with very fine cracker crumbs, or a little flour mixed smooth In cold water. If tdma toes are to be served with roast ibeaf,, tea spoonful ofchopped onion and a. sprig of parsley cut fine may be added before stew ing. Baked tomatoes are often relished by many who will not eat them cooked in any other way. Select large, smooth, and hot over-ripe fruit, cut apiece from the bloesom end, and scoop out the pulp; mix, the latter with stale bread:and chopped onioii Which has been fried in butte# until yeslld, some minced salt pork alsohfiedipartley cutfihe' salt and pepper to taste?' NtTit d ig over a Afre ih a pafthaidsk' i tiw t Al, fi the cavities in the tomatoes with this b n'ix . ure, arrange them in' dish, plac a , ijp j Of buitter bonthh atit'mid rte:a quantitties depend greatly n tlitp the fruit. For abi tokn~toeis~ W4 fil of minced-pork,, two of onions and spoonful of piarsley will be found suffient. Use as much dry bread as the pulp' Will moisten. Tomatoes may be scalloped in a large dish or in small shells. Pieel and slice the fruit and alternate wits crumbs, putting salt, pepper and butter on each lay er. Finish with crumbs, and bake half an hour. Send to table in same dlsh.-.E. Pickled Onions.-Seleet small white on i kons, put therniover the fire in cold water, with a handful of salt; when the water be,. comes scalding hot, take them out iid peel off the skids ; !ay them in a' celth to dry, then put them in a jar; boil half an ouices of allspice and half an Ounce 'o'. dloves in a quart of vinegar; take out the 8 dit.:d pour the vinegar over the onions whiles t is hot; tie up the jar when the vlnegar is cold, and keep it in a dry place. Tomato Cateup.-One gallon 'rtomatoes. one pint of vinegar, two tablespoonfiaL of salt, two of black pepper, two of mustard, one of cloves, one dozen onions, sliced fine; boll all together till quite thick; strain through a colander; bottle and cork tight, and keep in a cool place. Oatmeal Gruel.-Boil half an hour as be fore. Add some sweet milk, sugar, salt, and the yolk of an egg and boil ten minutes more. A New Pi'eservative Compound.-It has been found that the double borate of potash and soda has antis.ptic prope.ties. The com pound is made by dissolving equal quantit ties of chloride of potassiumn, nitrate ot soda and boracic acid; filter the solution, evaporate to dryness, and keep in a tight bottle, as the salt becomes wet in the air. It is claimed that this salt has no effeft on the smell, taste or healthfulness af the sub stances to which it is added; It bas b~o tried for preserving ments, makinj, ansag , butter, and for tanning skins. Added to milk it will keep for a week ; also added to beer or wine it retards the deterioratfoli to which the inferior kinds of these drinks are subject.