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-lnt Id b 1/ __ 4p , / b 477/ its t -, , -. ' . VOL. 8 Ott WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS, MONTANA TERRITORY, JANUARY 4, 1881. %3No. 8. _ n ý. M -xicu anhontier and brought with hiim tWO I imcnul cnin-If Crnit P- no ...... . ,t I t rr." r,-- -,. '4t "' 't ... . PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY. T ERMS, - - - $4.00 Per Year. R. N. SUTHERLIN, - Editor W. H. SUTHERLIN, - - Associate Editor. The KooKY MOUNTAIN HosBANDMAN IS designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandmnan in every sense of the term, embracing in its solumas every iepartment of Agriculture, Stock-msiLsg, Horti ealtare, Social and Domeetic eoonomay. ADVPIrIrZIIG RAIB6S. Iweek $2$8 $5 $7 $91 $11 $20 $30 2 weeks 8 4 7 10 12 15 I 28 40 1month 5 8 12 15 19 21 40 60 8 months 10 16 24 30 86 42 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 5 65 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250 Transient advertisements pavaule in advance. Regular advertisements payable qMuaterly. Twenty-five per cent. added for special advertise ments. Remittances by registered letter, post-office order or draft at our risk; but not at our expense. Any one falling to receive his paper regularly should notify us promptly by postal card. A sbscriber desiring to change the post-office direction of his paper must communicate to us the name of the post-office to which it has previously been sent, otherwise we may be mnable to compl with his request. Jgri~unts a1. TURN over a new leaf. --- - _- -- -. ,.. SQUARE up accounts and commence the new year tree from debt. m " THE items of expense on the farm for im provement should be kept separate from the crop expense account. EVERY farmer should keep an account of his outlay and income during the year, in order that he may know what he has made. THE farmers are having an excellent win ter for improving their farms, and when spring comes should certainly have every thing in readiness to put in a crop. How many farmers are there in Montana wrho have kept their farm accounts in such shape as to be able to tell how much profit they have made on their labor during the last twelve months. SUCH farmers as neglected to sow a lot of early garde,. seed in November can do so now. Seed sown in the fall or winter will be ready to come forth in the spring as soon as the season will permit. IT is a mistake to allow the fences to tum ble down during the winter and stock to roam at will through the premises. The farmer should make it a rule to repair the 1 fence whenever broken, whether in winter i or summer. OWING to the light fall of snow the ground is very dry, and there is some danger of winter wheat killing oat. It, in addition to this absence of snow there was a good deal of wind, the danger would be much greater. Should the weather remain calm, however, all may be well. EXCEPT in southern districts, Russia is now ice-bound, and but little allowance need be made for her competition in grain mar kets until the close of the next spring, for no movement from there can be felt before April. The exports of wheat from St. Petersburg amounted to eight million bush els for the year. THE early home of the potato is not defi nitely known. Peru has been generally be lieved to be the place. As potatoes were taken from Virginia to England in 1586, however, there has been fair reason to sup pose that the potato is a native of North America. California has sometimes been claimed as the place of its nativity. Re cently, however, Professor J. G. Lemmon, of the California Academy of Sciences, re turned from a trip to Arizona, along the Mexicann frontier, and brought with him two varieties, it' not three. ot nat.ve potatoes which he found growing largely in Mountain Meadow. The potatoes are about as large as walnuts. He proposes to give them out to those who will agree to cultivate them for a sufficient number of years to fully de. velop them. The discovery would seem to point to the nativity of the potato. GRAIN is subject to loss in storage, but an Ingenious Frenchman has hit.upon a method which appears to be practical. cheap and ef fective. It is to store it in sheet-iron cylin ders of about 300 bushels capacity. so made that they can be hermetically sealed, and with an air-pump arrangement by which a Vacuum can be produced. Wheat, flour and bread thus stored for seven months were found to be in a superior state of preserva tion. The cylinders can be placed any where, and the cost is said to be less than that of ordinary storage in a granary. The contents are safe from fire and water, as also from insects or rats. The vacuum, it i: claimed, kills parasitic insects, prevents fer mentation and dries the grain. BARBED WIRE FENCES AGAIN. The trifling opposition that was at first offered to the barbed wire fence has almost entirely disappeared. In fact, there is no more danger from them than any other fence. The barbs are so short that at the worst they could do no more than a littlh scratching, and few horses or cattle are sc stupid as to injure themselves even this much. Recently a committee of the Ver. mont Legislature had the question under in. vestigation as to whether there should not be a law passed to regulate the building ol these fences, and making the owners respon sible for any damage resulting from them. Many farmers were examined from all por tions of the State, and the evidence was so overwhelming in their favor, on account of their efficiency in turning cattle, their cheap ness, and their freedom from danger when properly constructed, that it is doubtful if any law will be enacted in relation to them As there are generally laws regulating wooden fences, there is no reason why there should not be a law regulating wire fences. Any such law, after describing what would be a legal fence, should provide that any damage to cattle suffered by aul adjoining property-holder who had withheld his con sent to the construction of a barbed fence should be paid by the owner of such fence. In the States of Iowa and Wisconsin barb ed wire fences are restricted by law as to the manner of constructing them, all others being illegal. That of Wisconsin is proba bly the best. It provides that tie fence must consist of at least five barbed wires, with at least thirty-six barbs to each rod, firmly fastened to posts well-set, not more than ten feet apart, with one good stay between the posts, the tc;p wire to be not less than forty eight inches high where fastened, and the bottom wire not more than seven inches inches from the ground, the spaces between the strands as they rise being 7, 8, 12, and the top space not more than 16 inches. The increase of these fences is enormous, as may be judged from the fact that in 1876, at a single manufacturing establishment at Worcester, Mass., there were 2,840 miles of barbed wire made, which yearly increased up to the present year, when the quantity has already reached 160,000 miles, the in crease being 40,000 miles over last year's manufacture, and the firm is now turning out ninety miles of barbed wire daily, be sides there being in the United States about fifty other manufacturing establishments of this kind, with as many orders as they can fill.-Germanltown Telegraph. THE CRAB APPLE. Although our improved varieties of apples are far superior to that of the primitive crab apple in general qualities, yet that ancient specimen has its uses and purposes. They are specially fostered in some sections for cider-making, being superior to all othbr kinds in that respect, and the trees are hardy, free as a rule from insect attacks, ana pro fuse bearers. Crab apple trees seem to bear well under all circumstances, yielding heavy crops and sound fruit. For preservini they aac ex. ellent, a: they ~ies pecul it acid properties and flavors unknown in other ap ples, and when fully ripe are relished by some in. preterence to thelimproved varieties. As the crab apple is the source from which we derive most of our favorites, the attempt to piopagate the better varieties from seed leads to a reversion, and we find the crab apple growing from the seeds of even the most highly improved specimens. They are generally of spontaneous growth, coming up in forgotten locations and tolerated more as a profuse hearer thaq for use,,although they are worthy of a place in orchards as cider apples and preserving frit,--American Garden. FIGHT THE O1rTWORL. It is useless to attempt to get rid of this pest by trying the application of-salt or other remedies. The cuatorm likes cool weather and works early, but he is not ipr tial to cold, which soona, ends his career. Late in the fall the cutwOrm entrenchesait self just deep enough to feel safe from frost, but does not go below the reach of the plow. If, in the warm days of Winter, therefore, the ground is plowed Op, the "orm is brought to the surface, and being in a help less condition, falls a victim to the cold. which hispatches him at once. If, by acci dent, any of them should'emcape, a aseend plowing, or even the stirriig of the cultiva tor, will finish them. In oddeod lands that have been long in grass, the cutworm is a great obstacle to a succeeding crop of corn, being often more destructIb*+n the crow. If the ground is left undit Ast ~t. for planting corn. It will 1l4- :~td td rid the field of them, and con.equently advan tage should be taken of tlb frost, either by plowing once or twice now'or very early in the spring before the weather opens. Always allow the ground to freeze before a second plowing, as it is the frost that does the work. -Ex. GRAFTING. 1 have had thirty years experience In all the various modes of grafth~i and budding trees, says the Fruit Recorder. In preparing the limb, I first saw off the branch to be grafted; then with a sharp knife I pare the end of the stub that is to receive the graft, so that the cuticle betweed the wood and the bark can be distinctly seen; then with the knife I split the limb, using a small, turned wooden mallet. holiir, fast to the handle, and striking the pohit, 1 extricate it from the split. [ then drive in the wedge to accommodate the thickn ss of the grafts. After setting the inner pai.e of the bark or cuticle exactly together, ~lkno. - out the wedge, leaving it to pinch 4he grafts tight. In whittling a graft, I always make the in side edge a little the thinneit, so that it will pinch the hardest on the ouer edge, always leaving a bud ju-t at the rown. I then wax with grafting wax, it warming the wax, and greasing my hids with tallow to keep the wax from stick g. I make wax as follows: Four pounds rpsin, one pound of tallow, three-fourths of 4 pound of bees wax. Melt all together over a slow fire; have a tub ready with lukew.arm water. As soon as all is well melted, pour a small quantity at a time inte'o water ; then grease your hands with t4Ww and pull the wax till it is pliable, and ofta golden yellow color. Roll info balls andirow into warm water to cool. By following the above di rections 95 per cent. will grPw. The best time to cut plun f:r apple scions for grafting is by or betereti first of March, then bury the butt ends in ;the cellar, and graftas soon as possible in the spring. AMERICAN AGRICULTURA14 ,AS5OCIATION. The third annual conventin of the Amer lean Agricultural Associatioe closed last Fri day evening in Chicago, aft4r a session of four days. This convention was attended by representatives from twenty-three States, and by delegates from Germany, France, Russia and Great Britain. During the four days there were in attendance not less than five hundred individuals, and the interest evinced in the proceedings was that of thoughtful men who had come together from all parts of the country to learn what was new and worth knowing for the ad vancement of the general good of the whole country. The deliberations of the convention were marked by gravity and comprehensive con scientiousness. The subjects discussed re ferred directly to legislation for the advance ment of the agricultural interests of the country, and to improvements in the culti vation of the soil and more economical methodsof feedJng live stock. Very sensi bly no discussion was indulged in as to the best breeds of cattle, sheep, hogs or horses. Tree p1anting, fish culture, drainage, and 'where desirable homes for farmers were to be had was ably discussed. The sheep, hog and cattle industries Were fully considered. One feature of the dlsouseelo of the cattle food question was the consideration of the tood prepared or saved for them by means of the silo, called enkilage.. New ideas were obtained, and a great step in advance of our old notions of the amount of land necessary to keep a cow was gained by this particular discussion.-Colorado Farmer. , AXING POULTRY PROFITAL.E. Being practical men, farmers and others I who keep poultry on a limited scale, want to know whether it is profitable. To a large class of rural residents there is er~y little doubt that it does not pay to the extept that it might be made to do. To many the keep ing of,';pQuth q l ) P# l.att t ron 'venience, Instead of a source of.:revenue, and many times the convenience is an In convenience, for when eggs are wanted they seem to be scarce. In winter, especially, they are very scarce, as the rule. To obt ain eggs plentifully in winter we must obtain and prepare the stock, and bring them Into laying condition. Hens will not lay unless kept in good order any more than a cow will give milk without suitable food and care. They should not be toolfat, but ac tive; combs bright red, eyes sparkling; feathers close and glossy; in short, their whole appearance should be lively and healthy. These essentials are best found in young stock. I imagine that the matter of what particular breed we keep has less to do with the question than the fact of care, if they are hardy and healthy. As stated above, the secret of winterlaying lies in get ting hens up in good condition first, and then caring for them properly. The practi cal man can tell at a glance the exact condi tion of his stock, if he is fit for this busi ness. Fresh air is important. The house should be well ventilated at all times, and in warm days thrown open for a time to give all the air possible. The matter of ventilation is quite important, and the best mode is yet to be found. A good way is to have open ings at or near the top of the room, and to keep some of them op:n, moreor less, at all times. When the wind blows hard, causing a strong draft through the building, those openings to the windward side should be closed tight. Cleanliness is a most impor tant consideration In keeping many fowls. If the hens are confined to the house the droppings should be taken up every morn ing. A hoe, or scraper and shovel will be needed, and then a broom to sweep the floor. Keep a barrel near at hand in which to de posit the manure, which is best kept dry till used. After cleaning the floor scatter a very light coat of dry earth or loam over it. In the absence of this a little short cut hay or sweet litter answers. Very important es sentials are feeding and watering in such a manner that the food and water shall not get any filth in them. Have it so arranged that the hens cannot either step into or roost on or over them. Feed regularly and care fully.-Corr. Albany Oultivator. IN THE FARM YARDS. Scattered through the Northern States there may be found many fine specimens of the domestic fowl. Farmers have, al many instances, been liberal paItruolizers of the fanciers, so that in these yards may be found a good sprinkling of thoroughbreds. The "grand opening" of the new year's cam paigln will soonl be at hand, and if any de cided improvement is to be made in the fowl stock, attention should at one' be, givou t selecting the specimens that are to be used for breeders, In most cases it will not be necessary to go outside of the flrik npw on hand to obtain what is needed. It is a bad practice to breed, as many do lfotis a'pro miscuous flock. It is rpuch better, we think, to cull out the poor stock, ev9O if ifieucaes the flock one-half or even more. It market 'pultry is 'c.ledfy abý be gin by kllling flt all cocks and hels over twb years old:. Dicard, alto, `all Of: t.'l s hatched stoefr, as breeding from tibid~.tee to decrease the size of the fowls.- B8uftriht Specimem to live that is In any waydetbrii ed. Deformities are frequently transmitted, and it is espeolally; important that, the wale s be free from them. Tpo often thl only,thing a farnmer does toward selecting brepders is r to obtain two or three big roosters-size bd. r ing their only merit. But it is mare impor r tant that they should hav veiorouse .e*a-. tutio'is, symmetrical forms and the: right color of skin and plumage. If the fowls the farmer has on hand are of large size, and it is desired to improve their laying qualities, we would recommend tlih purchase of pure bred Leghorn cookerels to mate with his pullets. Or, if tha slze .eI. he increased, the introduction of .boebhht o l3ralkma blood will do the, work effec.t.lly Thus by a judicious seletilop Of female and the use of tboro ighb.i' ed malf' a 6 - t sion requires, the farmer'sflock ti proved year by 7eýjr7 ot4,P To Broil a Chicken or Fowl.-Either of these when merely split and broiled, is very dry and unsavory eating, but will be greatly improved if first boiled gently from five to ten minutes and left to become cold; then divided dipped into egg and well seasoned bread crambs, plentifully :sprinkled with, clarified butter, dipped again into the crumb& and broiled over a clear and gentle fire from half to three-quarters of an hour. It should be opened at the back, and evenly divided quite through ; the legs should be trussed like those of a boiled fowl; the breast .one or that ot the back may be removed at pleasure, and both sides of the bird sitbdild he made as flat as they can, that the fire may penetrate every part equally; the in side should be first laid towards it. The neck, feet and gizzard may be boiled down with a small quantity of onion and carrot previously browned in a morsel of butter, to make the gravy, and the liver, after hay ing been simmered with them for five or six minutes, may be used to thicken it after it is strained. A teaspoonful of lemon Juice, some cayenne and minced parsley should be added to it, and a little arrow root, or flour and butter. Half to three-quarters of an hour.-Anm. Poultry Yard. How to Use Perfumes.--There are few la dies who can resist the pleasure of using perfumes, and if they are not used in too great quantities they are not objectionable. It is a better plan to use only one kind of perfume, such as violet, heliotrope, rose geranium, etc. Instead of saturating the handkerchief use them in the form of sachet powders. Put them on cotton in small bags of muslin, silk or satin, and strew them in every part of the bureau and wardrobe, so that a delicate, fresh, almost nameless per fume pervades every article of dress, from the hat to the boots. Sachets filled with powdered orris root will give a sweet whole some odor that never becomes so strong as to be disagreeable. It is hardly neediul to say that the use of strong extracts of per tumery is not considered in good taste. Improving the Complexion.-In the rough spring winds the fairest complexion will be come roughened, and often freckled; but if a teaspoonful of powdered borax is mixed with the water in which the face and hands are washed every morning, and after the skin is well dried it is sponged over with a wash made of ten drope of tincture of gum benzoin in a wineglass of water, it can be kept smooth and fair. !T the days of an cient Rome the women made their conpe..; ions soft and beautiful with this preparstl of benzoin. It gives a milkya the water, and its oador is agreeable.