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S't --- -- - - - - - - ·- t s _ G ~ a a p ll - UI····-3·F---~rUI·· ~ · IIC s ~ ( rl-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -~?P I I · R I I I /III:X~~ A VOW X ITi SULPHIUR SPRItNGS3, MONTANA TER RITORY, DECEMBER 25, [bs4, No. 7 4tsbandil" '" R. N. SUTHERLIN, - Editor W. H. SUTHERLIN, - Associate Editor. TERMS, - - - $4.00 Per Year the ROCKY MOUNTAIN IIUSBANDMAN IS designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandman in every senseof the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raisih.g, lorti culture, Social and Domestic Economy. ADVERTISING RATES. 2 weeks 5 4 7 10 12 15 2 40 I month 5 12 19 21 40 60 Smonths 10 16 24 30 3, 4. 80 120 6 months Il 25 3.I 45 54 15. 120 20( 1 year 30 4 00 75 0 I o105 10 250 Transient advertiselnents pavaule in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-five per cent. added for spec.: I advertise wents. Remittances by registered letter, post-office order or draft at our risk; but not at our expense. Any one failing to receive his paper regularly should notify us promptly by postal card. A subscriber desiring to change the post-office direction of his paper must communicate to us the same of the post-oltice to which it has previously been sent, otherwise we may be unable to comply with his request. SHlRsE i Is i Reason of the yeaSr wihei tile farmner feels his independenice loore tlhan in winter. THEComIlaiint ill the spring abuut poor vegetables is oftener due to their being kept too warm than it is to their being kept too cold. A THERMOMETER tOr the root houite will only cost fifty cents and I(no ftrmer cal, prop erly temper the air for his vegetahles with out one. and drifting frlost anidl snow fill the air, yet the flaIoller whose stolre houlses are filled witlh I plncllty is contlltetl and nhappy. KitE,' your vegetables inl l dark place anild never allow tile tlempler:atlure to rii- abo veC forty degrees or sink below thirty-five de grres if you want to have thern iice and d crisp all the willter long. _ _o-41-111 - IF you don't believe there is happiness inl country life visit the hotme of sonie of Mon tana's pioneer Iarmers sliand partake of a ft Christmas dinner with them, and it you are c1 not convinced we will give it up. w 'lH. first wheat raised in the new world, si was sown by the Spaniards on the Island of a Isabella, in January, 1494, and on March g 30 the ears were gathered. The foundation rt of the wheat harvest of Mexico, is said to, t have heen three or four grains carefully cul- st tivated in 1530, and preserved by a slave of to Cortes. The first crop of Quito, was raised o by a Franciscan Iliotik. iln Iront of the con- g vent. Garcilazo de la Vega, affirms that in b Peru, up to 1658, wheaten bread had not er bee:, sold in Cusco. THE farmer is very apt to regard his bins of grain, root-house stores of vegetabtle, his nice porkers, and his fine fltck of chickens, i ducks, geese, and turkeys, his daily galher ing of eggs, his nice butter, milk, rich cream, and such other articles as lie produces, as the necessities of life. But one-hal of the n wvorhl, yes two-thirds or even all of it, not k elgaged in husbandry look upon Ithe tma jority of these thiugs as luxuries. The far- yS iler who grumbles at such a lot in lile cran- iI 'lot appreciate a go.od living. How imany thousand villagers are there all over the t ounutry who would gladly exchange withi in,? Farlmers, we admit, are oftenl short 1 imonley ; yet the majority of them have in Plenty that will bring money and all who t have half the energy and thrift necessary to make a living in a village or city, has a d home «ell supplied;with comforts and lives w 1n the fat of the land. --_______- us THE BEST FARM LOCATION. sh Slhat locationl is best for a farm in Mon- fa a-a? isa question which we believe has not teen fully determined. It seems natural :ith persons selecting locations on the enches to prefer to cultivate the land that lopes towards the south, but this desire is he robably as much from a preference for the pr unihine as to a preference from any other se uirse. Oiservationis show that as much (Ie p id.-ilipon the kiinl of solil as upon it loca tiol. Sandy laid whii 'ies where it his a lulli b.eft of the suni will not produce clrops withliout ipleinty of irriga:tin; but with 'frequet watir Il Iijs (cerea(ls rLand vegetaiblles will grow more rapid and mature earlier than elsewhere. Mot of our soil is of thlis iinaturel . 'tlhere ilre, hllwever, som11 (lisrll'ts where i h ere is considera.ible clay in tlil soil. It lilharl to pilow when wet.,holds lmoisturr. prodtllles ery good crop, ; hut itis slower, ndi thllerel.lre niot extra Itln for ainy crop except Ilieaildow. Where there is a scarciity 1o water for irigatllliOl, bench lanlid sloping tol tlie north and lnorlthwest is pret erable. Our native grasses grow thickest aiid to ail reater length in such locallities than upon the bliechles slo.ping to the south ward. 'Thlle high land whlett farms of Galla tinl couillty which slope toward the north inld Inorth .west prodlCee the best winter wheat that is grownii without irrigation. The graiin dos not ripen qulite as early as that gri.own on other lands, but is iheavieir and the yield per acre is larger. For gardening we prefelr landil sloping to ward thlle sun. provided thie locality is not sulject to early frosts. For truit-growinig west anid uortllhwest slopes are best. The hest prool of this Is that ourr w li fruit grow, oi theu north iand wit-t slopes. Orchalirrds plaltld oi southlitl slopes have wiriter-killedl worise than tl hose prol.tecteld from the fore inoon so by Im ntains ol r groves of timber. / HARD SCOTCH FIFE WHEAT. e The discriminari,on in the price by St. Sin Pul and Chiciago :and ore easitcrli markets it: favor o1 this article against all others, aid especially the flue large plump-grained soft ir wheat of Oregcn alllld W ashiillgton Territory, it one year ago and the almost total abandon o iuent of the une of the Montana article at the same time by even our own people, set our farmers to inquiring into the merits of the wheat froml which the flour was being made, that was driving their products fromnt out own markets. aind was creating such a preferenlce for itselft i the nmarkets of thle east. T'Ihe ex:iini llio i t of t hard whie slihowved it to be a very small iniiterior looking I tberry--iClnit ng to compare in betauty to the W\hite Toas and Hlt.,iait varieties in use; Ivet it wiis hard anid flintiy atild inutide splein dll, lur. A tuw car-load~l were accordirly ly shippedl anid sowni. aind now we hear it at Innounced by the loca+ papiers of ditfelrenit seetioins where it was grown that Seo'ch Fife wheat is. the wheat for Montana. But we are not entirely satisfied with the exper iment: Sown on tall-plowed land it came forth, grew, and ripened early, and some claimed it yielded more than other varieties, while others hold that it yielded much less t per acre, shattered badly in handling, be- t s~ides, that our system of irrigating would inll a few years make it a soft wheat, as the I grain grown here was more plump and round, possessed of a more watery substanee than the Dakota pr oduct. Which of these statements to believe we are not prepared t to say. As yet there has been no test made of the milling qualities of the hard wheat grownl in our Territory. Some crops have I been grould built they were mixed with oth er varieties anid consequelltly were no test. We are inclined to favor the Fife wheat-do not believe it will become soft by Montana f culture, and believe that its superiority ill quality will be a statnd off for any lack ii yield, and would ciunisel onr farmlers to con lhui in its lprodiuctioni. lBuit we are niot pre puired to say that it is the wheat for Monta na. WVe do not consider that enotughl is yet I klnown to decide so impolrtantt a question. t The so,t wheats grown in our Territory this it year ripened well, alnd our mil are;turning l out a splendid quality of flour, and it is re- I gaining its former popularity. Yet for all I this we recognise the tact that Scotch Fife t wheat will make a little the best flous of any t yet grown, and IS as Montana wants to be up t ill quality as well as quantity it is necessary tI to keep up the experiment. We feel con- ti Hident that a grain that will grow upon the g dry hills of Dakota will succeed equally as A well here. Possibly we may have to be g con;tent with a lighter yield than we are w used to from tihe varieties now in use. But oe should it prove to be a superior flouring y, wheat it will be the thing for the Montana e: farmer to grow. 01o --- st GROWING TOMATOES. z, Unless larmers have well regulated hot- ul houses for starting tomato plants, or can la procure well-advanced plants readily from ot sbme gardener who grows them in his green- la li lt.Is(, we believe the best policy is I gIlrow thel trin the seell. Mr. J. W. Tins ley. oneill i (l0ir list extelnsive and suceess il alrtlelers. grl.ows tomlllatoes rlln tlit seed altiogthler. lik made, oft lproceetlllle i to Iplallt tlhetll a ..lson as the grounlld thaw -lflicieitly to aniit ol it. He digs trenchee about tilteen inllihes deep and three lfei apart. Fills the tlellcites with hall-rotted Inatllnre to hle depth of about ten inches and covers with five or six inches ot rich, mel low loaml soil. IHe thien plants the seeds anid covers with straw so as to protect the earth Irom frosts and cold. The plants come forth and grow rapidly. By giving them sunItshine, and beinlg careful to cover in the evenings and stormy days, the plants will have all early start. The manure under neath therm serves to warm the soil and as sist the geruamination of the seeds and growth of the plants. The past season was quite unlavorable for tomlato-growing, and Mr. Tinsley, while malny others made a total failure, raised in this manner a large quan tity of this vegetable. This procedure gave them such at. early start that they were rip ening three weeks before the tomatoes grown ill lily other manner. Mr. Tinsley thinks that his plan is mtuch better than to start plants in a hot-bed and trans-plant thlIem. He plants seeds from plants of his ownl r:isillng, and is very careful to select Irlln the best and ripest vegetable he can Hind. lie is another of those farmers who contend that better results can be had by growinlg vegetables frcm seeds grown in Montana than froml those tfurnished from any other climate. The same manner of planting is adopted by him ill growing squash and melons, ill wich pursuit lie he has had admlirably good success. - < - - s- -- - HOW LONG WILL OUR SOIL LAST I t This is a question that suggested itself to t is nineteen years ago when we first com f mnenced to study the possliilities of Montana as an agricultural country. IIn those primi tive days of husbandry in our Territory. I frmlllingt° was looked upon and hi tact was, a iat ter of seconldalry ilimportalnce, aid but few thought Iotherwise thain that. it waoult Ibe .,hourt-lived. The wrir r remembellrs once ini those days writing a chronicle of ten year." helece, in wh'ich it was represelitied - that the bench lai tarms, throlugh tclitinu - o- irrig:I ion, had tIut eu down to illthe low Svaleyv lains. and their owners had gone idol io possess theiw ; adll hentlte, trotuble I had arisen iln regard to their ownership. SFilt.en years ago, in cotnyet'ationl with a friend in the east in regard to the future of out Territory we were forced to contfess, that though our native soil was unsurpassed for richness, save possibly by that of thie valley of the Nile, tfat continuous cropping would exhaust it and that wecotald see no econom ical means of fertilizing it when once ex ihausted,or of keeping up its original fertility; for, unlike the States, the growth of clover or of crops of weeds to plow under aud en rich, it did not seem practical, and unlike the Nile. the valleys did not overflow and thu= become enriched by Inature. Agricul lure was in its inlancy then and we knew little of the possioilities of the soil we were cultivating, But the lapse of fifteen yearsl enables us to speak wore Intelligently of the I subject. We fitnl the field today yielding from thirty to forty bushels of grain that did not yield over that amuount eighteen years ago, slid there has been no comlnlercial tefr tilizer used. 'lThe only meanis used to prevetnt their detoriorating hts been the resting of them occasionally. And we a ie now contilent that tile fertility of our soil may be perpctuated indeintltely, it only our t tartmers will adotpt the plin of cropl)ing their r fields alternate years. In many itnstances land may be improved Ly this treatmient. In connection with this it is well to irrigate thloroughly. Winteror fall irrigation seems e to be the most valuable. It appears that tlough our lands are not flooded by over- h flows as in the region of the Nile. the irriga tion necessary to produce a crop goes a t great witys towards keeping up the fertility. it Anti by summer fallowing and winter irri- o gation the work is tmade complete. And a we can assure our readers that if this mode of huzsbandry prevails, it will be many long h years before our valleys become poor and exhausted like the hills of New England or other portions of the old-settled States. In stead of being without any means of fertili zation as we supposed fifteen years ago, we ti h.ve a method which, for cheapness and b utility, excel anything employed in the At- II lantic States. All that is necessary Is for ct our farmers to own double the amount of ri land they wish to cultivate and cultivate it fi u alternate years. and twenty years 1h.11i we will find the fields which were broken eigh teenl years ago, just as tertile as tlow, lind r we can see no reason why they should ever s wear out. And as to their washing away, s our fears were groundless. The flooding of s the land carries off some soil, but it brings t on some also, so the loss is not so great; I and it is safe to say that by judicious farm t the majority our lands will last a thousand - years. Some will not regard the matter and I will crop their land for all it is worth. These, of course, will exhaust it sooner or e later; but the intelligent, reading farmer, will leave to his children as rich a heritage in soil as he found in these mountain wilds I when he turned the pioneer furrow. fRe golry taqd. NLEVER keep more than fifty chickens in one rooml. ALWAYs separate the diseased fowls from the remainder of the flock. A WEEKas' good care of fowls will begin to show in the increase of eggs. HIUNftnDS of farmers praise the Hus BANDMAN for its poultry department. IF you will lollow the precepts of this de partment you cannot tfail in the poultry business. IT does not require much time to attend to poultry, but the work requires to be done with great regularity. THE old saying, " What Is worth doing. is worth doing well," is as true in poultry growing as in anything else. IF your neighbor Is not making a success with his fowls show him the HUSJBANDMAN, and induce him to subscribe for it. IF the fowls refuse to wallow in the ash box heap the ashes up ill a nice cone shape and they will take pleasure iln tearing it (down. FoRCED Iediling, such as hot soft teed andll peppes, makes henls old at fours years ; but they should be lattedl for the market before they arriv at this age. CARE OF POULTRY. Farnners who keep towis are too ape to regard the luninerable articles they see on this subject as entirely theoretical and with out practical utility. Blt they are wrong. The success in this industry depends entire ly upon the management anrd care exercised. The all important question just now is how t make the hens lay in cold weather. This is easy enough. In the flr.t place you must have a good poultry house. It should have two apartmenlts: one very light that the sun may shine in, and thie other dark and warm enough that water will not freeze in the coldest weather. This may be had by mak ing it about one half ini the ground. This done see that you have none but young hens except the few hfithtul old biddies you wish to keep through for sitters. Be sure all are tree from vermin and scaly legs, then teed and water regularly and properly, and eggs will be the result. Wheat should be the staple. u: v.getahle,, sitt leed--choppedl, hay, and in fact every v triety of food ob. tainable, should be emp~loyed. It is also necessary to supply plenty of clea r water a dust bath, bone, ash or lime gravel. The soft teed should be given once a (lay and should be warm, and about one teaspooniul of cayenne pepper every two or three days to the dozen fowls shor. l be mixed in. You may also teed chopped hay soaked in warmn water; outside caobage leaves or cabbage.; turnips; rutabagas-thrown in whole or chopped line-raw meat and the endless variety of articles, help. This is no theory. We know a flock of fowls within less than a Sabbath day's journey of While Sulphlur Springs that have been laying since this treatment began-soon after the moult ing season was over. The recent cold snap of 400 below zero had no effect upon them, and we have yet to learn of a single case where this care has been exercised, that proved a failure. POULTRY FOR THE SMALL PARMER. Of all the auxillery branches of farming t there is none that will pay the small farmer I better than growing poultry. It is far less s laborious than the production of pork or the a carrying of grain to market, and equally as t remunerative. It is better to sell eggs at I fifteen cents a dozen and chickens at twenty t c, ut- eauth.tha: i to sell grain at 50 or 60 cents or 75 cents per hundred. The business would he rather too small for a farmer with a thousand acres of grain land to depend upon exclusively, yet carried along with growing swine, feeding cattle, growing horses, etc., it will pay well and the farmer who cultivates less than 100, can find nott ing to which he can devote himself that will prove more profitable. It need not be the sole occupation, yet it may be made the leading one. Like dairying, it is very con fining, though the work is not so hard. It is profitable in connection with butter-mak ing, as the curd from the sour milk makes an excellent food for fowls. A glance over the field will convince any one that things hiave not equalized themselves. When we remarked five years ago that butter at 50, 60. and 75 cents per pound, was out of pro portion, since cows are worth $35 per head, the people saw it at once, and it occurs to us now that things are equally as much out of proportion now, that grain is so low, while poultry and eggs, despite the compe tition of the States, remain at the old figures. These prices though are not out of propor tion when compared with the retail cost of beef or other articles of living; but it is the grain that is too low. If the surplus grain was ted to poultry that commodity would bear a better price and our people would eat more birds and eggs and less beef. This would not injure the country, as the surplus beet would fild a market in Chicago. Why not try this scheme? L !t our farmers with one accord give more attention to their poultry yard. It will give them some re lief, and should poultry, iin the course of years fall below a profitable figure, some thing else may then suggest itself. But for immediate relief give attention to the poul try yard. he goja ekold, No MONTANA farmer with a well stored larder can complain of a poor table it the Household department of the HUsBANDMAN is within reach of his wife. Clara's Cookies.-A cupful each of thick cream and sugar, one beaten egg, scant tea spoonful of soda, a halfteaspoonlul each of salt and cinnamon, flour to mix just so as to roll out. Bake quickly. Ham Cake.-A capital way of disposing of the remains of a ham and making an excel lent dish for breakfast is: Take one pound and a half of ham, fat and lean together; round it or pass it through a sausage ma chine; boil a large Allce of bread in half a pint of milk, and beat it and the ham well together, and add an egg beaten up. Put the whole into a mould, and bake a rich brown. Ca-rot Soup.-Cut up some carrots very fine, put into a pot with either a small piece of raw beef or the bone remaining from a roast leg of mutton, two or three onions, one turnip, pepper and salt. Boil for three hours, and then put through a colander or ,leve. Make this the day before It is want ed, and rewarm. Potato soup is excellent made in the same way, only substituting po tatoes for the carrots and adding one carrot. Pudding Sauce.-A delicious sauce for Illain rice pudding is wade by stewing some apples and grapes until perfectly soft, then rub thenm through a sieve, sweeten, put a lump of butter in, and if too thin stir in a little (corn starch. Cream Pie.-A cream pie rlade after this rule ik an improvemunt upon the old-time so-called ple : Mlake a rich custard; it pos sible, u.e cream, if not, use rich milk and some cream with it; bake this in a pufl paste; while it is baking whip a coffee-cup lull of thick, sweet cream till it is as light as it can be, and when the pie Is taken from the oven put the whippetl cream on top. Currant Cake.-A Small cake, to be eaten fresh for tea, is made of a half cup of butter, one cup of sugar beaten together, two eggs, half a cup of sweet milk, one and one-hall cups of flCur, one teaspoonful and a half of baking powder; stir in one cup of well washed, drained and dried English cur:ants; it they are not quite dry, sprinkle a little flour over them. Beef Fritters.-Beef fritters are nice for breakfast; chop pieces of steak or cold roast beef very fine. Make a batter of milk,flour, and an egg and mix the meatwith:it. Put a lump of butter Into a sauce pan, let it melt then drop the batter into it from a large spoon. Fry until brown; season with butter and salt and a little parsley.