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PAST^PKCSMT tm » 5§: «•vTi**? SRS» was* i : ;^. X,;- Swiss ÜS S*. * ■ ** TnGûsiMé eon ratv cmmzr-' »£? FIXAT UOmtrQ TmÿoïYmvnfismà air Corê cod L LJ+àl up HANKSGIVING DAY has a long and curious history and did not originate entirely with the Pil grims at Plymouth, for Thanksgiv ing days are mentioned in the Bi ble—days set apart for giving thanks to God for some special mercy. These days of fast and prayer were customary in England before the Reformation, and later the Protestants appointed certain days of praise and thanks for various blessings. The discov ery of the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 in London brought the common sentiment of Thanksgiving. A scheme had been formed to blow up parlia ment house on the 6th of November, the first day of the session. Great quantities of gunpow der and inflammable material were found con cealed in the vaults «nderneath the building. The plot was discovered and the traitors were exe cuted. In consequence of this deliverance the day was ordered to be kept as "a public thanks giving to Almighty God" every year that "un feigned thankfulness may never be forgotten, and that all ages to come may yield praises to God's divine majesty for the same." All ministers were ordered to say prepers thereon, for which special forms were provided. This annual thanksgiving, together with one established later on May 29, was abolished in 1833 in England, for both had fallen into disuse. For several years afterwards, however, these days were recognized in New England by the Episcopal church on account of its place in their church calendars. England continued to have special days appointed for giv ing thanks, and as recently as 1872 there was a day selected for the public to offer prayers of thanksgiving for the recovery of the late King Edward, then prince of Wales, from typhoid fever. The first thanksgiving on the American conti nent was held by an English minister named Wolfall, and was celebrated off the coast of New foundland. This pious man accompanied the Frobisher expedition which brought the first Eng lish colony to North America. The log of the Bhip gives the record of the day's observances and tells how on Monday, May 28, 1578, aboard the Ayde, the men received communion, and how Minister Wolfall in a sermon gave humble and hearty thanks to God for his miraculous deliver ance in these dangerous places. This was the first Christian sermon preached in North Ameri can waters. Again in 1607 there was a similar service held at Sagadahoc—a little village on the coast of Maine. There is little record of this thanksgiving except that it consumed only a few hours of the day, after which the people returned to their labors. The great American Thanksgiving day had its origin in the Massachusetts colony in 1621, and Gov. William Bradford, the first governor of that little band of sturdy pilgrims, sent out the first Thanksgiving proclamation, setting apart a day for prayer and rejoicing over the plenteous har vest of that year. The Englishmen recalled their Guy Fawkes thanksgiving, and the Dutch remem bered hearing their ancestors speak of the great day of praise and prayer' held at Leyden, Hol land, in 1578, when that city was delivered from a siege. So, the entire colony began their pious preparation for what proved to be the gayest Thanksgiving the colony ever knew, for after the first one, which lasted several days, the Puritan Thanksgiving meant long sermons, long prayers and long faces. Governor Bradford de termined that the initial Thanksgiving should be celebrated with no little ceremony and that feasting should play a part in the occasion. His tory tells us that be sent out four men, who were to search for game for the feast. Many fowls were shot—in fact, enough to meet the wants of the colony for a week. Wild turkeys predominated, so it seems that the turkey made its appearance early in the history of Thanks giving. The day selected was December 13 (old ütyle). At the dawn of that day a small cannon was fired from the hill and a procession was formed near the beach, close to where the Plymouth Rock now rests. Elder Brewster, wear ing his ministerial garb and carrying the Bible, led the procession as it moved solemnly along the street. The men walked three abreast, with Governor Bradford in the rear. There was a long service in the meeting house, and after It was over there was a dinner—and such a din ner had never been known in the colony, for, apart from the savory turkey and other wild fowl, the women had done their share in pro viding good things from the limited supply at their command. The most dramatic incident oc curred when the dinner was in progress, for as if by magic 90 friendly red men, under King Massasolt, appeared, carrying haunches of veni son as an addition to the feast Thanksgiving day soon lengthened into days, for the psalm singing and feasting, intersperse« with war dances, were continued several days. After that Thanksgiving days took on a differ ent aspect, and occurred at any season; some twice a year, or sometimes a year or two were skipped, just as it pleased the governor of the colony, until 1664, when the day became a formal one in Massachu setts. Other colonies fol lowed the example, and pretty soon all New Eng land joined in giving thanks on the same day. During the Revolution ary war Thanksgiving days became a fashion, and the continental con gress set apart at least eight days during one year for that purpose. On December 18, 1777, General Washington is sued a proclamation for a general Thanksgiving to be celebrated by the sol diers of the Continental army. In 1789 congress decided to ask the president to issue a proclama tion asking the people to suspend work and give thanks on a certain day of the year. There had been considerable opposition to the passage of the bill, some of the reasons given being more humorous than serious. President Washington acquiesced in the wishes of congress and issued a proclamation appointing November 26 of that year as the day for the American people to join in thanksgiving to God for the care and pro tection he had given them in their plentiful harvest and freedom from epidemics. From time to time our presidents Issued proclamations, but it was generally left to the governors of the states to determine on what day it should occur. Under the administration of John Adams two national fast days were ob served, but no real Thanksgiving. It was not until 1815, after three national fasts on account of the war, that another national Thanksgiving was appointed by the president, James Madison. This was due to peace with Great Britain. After this there was anotfier lull in proclamations as far as presidents were concerned until 1849, when President Taylor set a day of fast on August the third on account of the cholera. Meanwhile the national Thanksgiving day seemed to be dying out, except in the New England states. Then came the Civil war, and the nation was again summoned to fasting, and two such days were kept in 1861—January 4 and September 26—but it was not until 1863 that the horizon had so brightened as to warrant the appointment of a national Thanksgiving. Immediately after the Battle of Gettysburg Mrs. Sarah J. Hale, a Boston woman, wrote to President Lincoln suggesting a national thanksgiving, and following her advice, the president set apart Thursday, August 6, as a day of "praise and prayer." On November 26 of the same year another Thanksgiving was kept, and this was really a great festival and observed in every northern state. In 1864 the 24th of November was kept. After this, with one ex ception, our great national day of thanks has been celebrated on the last Thursday in No vember. The presidential proclamations contain very little that is new or original and usually take the form of an essay. In 1898, after the Spanlsh Amerlcan war. President McKinley had a chance to vary the conventional form by "giving special thanks for the restoration of peace." This was Just 100 years after Washington's proclamation. President Roosevelt, who always did original things, declared "that a Thanksgiving proclama tion could not be made a brilliant epigrammati cal paper." The proclamation of the president stamps the feast with a sort of official character —something possessed by no other holiday. This proclamation does not make it a legal holiday— it merely recommends that the people suspend business for the day. A special statute in each state Is required to make the day a legal holi day, and this has not been enacted in every state. The day was originally set apart for thanksgiv ing, fasting, prayer and religious devotions, but the modern Thanksgiving has become a day of feasting and Jollity, and Is made the occasion of all sorts of sports and festivities. The craze for outdoor life keeps many from the churches, although the places of worship continue to be filled with "a goodly company," who gather to give thanks to him "from whom cometh every good and every perfect gift." The turkey Is still king of the Thanksgiving feast and as an addition the good things of the field and vineyard have been added. The famous pigeon pie, which was a popular Thanksgiving dish la the early part of the nineteenth century. Is rarely seen In these days. The wild pigeons, which alighted in great numbers on the buck wheat fields, were enticed by a decoy duck with in a spring net and caught by the hundred. They were kept alive and fattened on grain until the day before Thanksgiving, when they were killed and made into a pie for the Thanksgiving table Moat of the old customs of the day have TU?, HBJ&, J=z, yrrvzrTTs—' XEÆé, mZGRZPT passed out of existence. The turkey raffle with dice is still a custom In some parts of the coun try. Usually the turkey is a tough bird, which was purchased cheap by the proprietor of the saloon (for the raffle usually takes place there). The raffle, of course, draws a crowd of men, who incidentally patronize the bar during the pro ceedings. Another sportive feature of Thanks giving no longer In vogue was the shooting match, where live turkeys tied to sticks were used. This cruel practice was abandoned be cause the New England clergy objected, not on account of Its cruelty, but because It kept the men away from the church service. This reason seems to fit In with the Idea of the men back in the seventeenth century who, while they were eating a Thanksgiving dinner of venison, discov ered that the deer had been killed on Sunday. They at once sent for the Indian and had him publicly whipped, and alBO compelled him to return the money which he had been paid for the deer. This being done, they at once re sumed their dinner and finished up the venison. New York city is responsible for the strangest of all Thanksgiving customs, and one which has only recently died out. Young men and boys used to dress themselves In fantastic garb and parade the streets—hundreds of the boys wear ing their sisters' old clotheB, their faces smeared with paint and their heads covered with wigs. As late as 1885 they held parades and made the street hideous with their thumping drums and blaring trumpets. In 1870 this queer perform ance took on the dignity of a political parade and prizes were distributed to the companies wearing the most unique clothing. Senator William M. Tweed, the famous political boss of that period, I was the donor of a prize of $600 In gold. This custom was undoubtedly a survival of Guy Fawkes days, carried out on a later day In the year; for some unknown reason It was practiced only In New York city. Thanksgiving has always been a day of char ity, and In the old days It was considered bad luck to turn even a tramp from the door, and today our friendly Inns, almshouses and charit able Institutions have their turkey dinners, usual ly gifts from charitable people. Our prisons, too, serve their Inmates with a hearty meal and have some sort of service of praise. The customs of the great national holiday may have changed somewhat, yet the spirit of the first Thanksgiv ing, which was held at Plymouth. In 1621, still hovers about the national day of prayer and praise of the twentieth century—a spirit of thankfulness to God for his mercy and ktndneai to the people of our great American republic. FOR ARRIVING COOKS. "How will I find the house?" asked the cook, who had booked for Lonelyvllle. "Can't go wrong," said her employer.' "Oui suburb maintains a reception committee at th* depot" put will kin in to as of Is SAVE THE BEST SEEDS Utmost Care Is Needed for Suc cessful Results. I of of Amateur Will Do Well Not to Raise Several Varieties of Any Vegetable ae The) Are 8ure to Mix and Deteriorate. (By R. G. WEATHERSTONE.) "No occupation," says Burbank, "re quires more accuracy, foresight and skill than does scientific plant or animal breeding." This specialist has found out that it requires more than one generation of plant life to estab lish a cross that is permanent; that the union of two distinct types may prove a cross that Is valuable or the reverse. In our own seed saving the utmost care is necessary to bring the result up to the standard. We have all seen two pieces of grain sown side by side, with seemingly similar conditions. The one was treated with extra seed, thoroughly cleaned to remove all weeds. The other had only fair seed, sown as it was gathered from the field. Perhaps it had been tested and proof given that it would "grow." And this was deemed sufficient. But the har vest was on the side of the good seed. If you have an extra good crop of corn, the best ears, carefully selected, both as to the number of ears on a stalk and the size and shape of each ear, will bring much more next spring when sold by the bushel. They must be carefully dried. If put in the bln with the bulk of the corn they may "grow," but the vitality will be impaired, and they will not bring the price that can be com manded if properly cared for. It 1 b the last end that is often the losing one. After a thing is raised It pays to care for it in the best possible manner and get the greatest profit. Some think that pumpkin seed are pumpkin seed, no matter what pump kin they came from. It is a safe rule that like begets like. If you want to perpetuate your stock and have something that is really worth saving always select the best and the earliest for saving seed. Select the smoothest tomatoes and scrape the seed into a can of cold water. Put it in some out-of-the-way place and let remain several days or until the seeds have sunk to the bot tom of the dish. Pour off the water and dry the seeds. They will be found covered with a dark fuzz and when dry may be kept in paper packets, as supplied by the seedsman. This is much preferable to the old fashion of keeping them on a cloth. Cabbage, beets, parsnips and other biennials are beet purchased direct from the seedsman. If your time is worth anything it is more profitable to buy than to raise thpse. If you have any left-overs in the seed box, be sure to date each packet as saved, then there will be no chance of wondering which is best. If among several tested varieties one Is decidedly the best, save seeds from this only. The amateur will do well not to try to raise several varieties of any vegetable as they are sure to mix and deteriorate in quality. If your seed is not up to the standard do not save it but buy next season of some realiable dealer. It is money ahead In the end. No for the of but A the his ed low out ter, in gin UDDER FOR PICKING FRUIT Much Inconvenience Avoided by At taching Support for Baeket—Both Hands Free to Work. In picking fruit from a tree one la often, inconvenienced by having to hold a basket with one hand and having only one hand for picking, the illustration shows how a basket support can be attached to the right hand board of the step ladder. This support la constructed of rod Iron, Z (ml -fU ~l| • yj 8upport for Basket. about a half inch in diameter and bent wihle red-hot into shape, as shown at "A." This is Inserted In the two holes shown in the ladder, so that the two ends pass closely below the step, which holds them firmly. On this the basket is set, and both hands are free to work. Smaller rods may be used if pieces are welded across one or both places shown by the dot ted lines. Pigs on Rapa Pigs will live and grow on rape with out a supplement of grain, but a small addition of the latter is profitable. Dry sows will, however, do well on rape alone. Beat Insect Destroyer. The guinea fowl is the best Insect destroyed among fowls, as It «ata many Inennts that other fowls will not touch. PLEASURE IN KEEPING BEES No Moro Interesting or Profitable Business Connected With Farm Beat Keepers Are Women. (By C. M. BENTLEY.) As a side line, considering the ex pense of installation, there is no more interesting and profitable business than beekeeping. Not only is this true for the fruitgrower and farmer, but to the residents of cities, those In mer cantile and professional lines. Some of the best beekeepers are womem True It is that time and attention and preliminary knowledge are necessary; but experience will be gained rapidly when the living bees are studied in connection with printed instructions. A visit to an apiary conducted by a practical beekeeper will furnish valu able suggestions and Interest in the work. No one who wishes to derive the greatest pleasure and profit from his bees should expect the little fel lows to do good work uneless provid ed with suitable hives. Do not for a moment attempt to keep bees in hol low logs or plank boxes; instead have modern hives which can be opened from time to time so that the true condition of your bees may be studied. Surplus honey may be taken off with out destroying your bees, or even dis turbing them. Should your bees be come diseased it will be an easy mat ter, with a separable hive, to inspect them and determine the cause. Like all other industries when first undertaken, beekeepers should begin in a simple way. If you are not acquainted with bees it is best to be gin with one colony and one or two Simple, good books on beekeeping, and sub scribe for one of the best bee jour nals. Study the living bees and your publications together. It will take only a comparatively short time— about one season—to Increase your colonies and prepare for making honey. 2» But Modern Necessary. Equipment SOME LESSONS IN PLOWING Furrows Should Be Kept Straight as Possible, Avoiding Triangles or Bellows-Shaped Pieces. (By J. G. STEIN.) There are different ways to plow. One way is straight, and the other must be crooked, of course. By the straight way is meant keep ing the furrows straight as possible, and square each piece so there will not be any triangles or bellows-shaped pieces. Have the field true on all sides; that Is, It may be longer one way than the other, but each side should be straight, so if you plow straight when you start you will have the dead furrows even and no wedges at the end. There will also be no odd shaped pieces in the center to make a lot of extra turning. The crooked way Is used by many, who start a furrow any old place oa one end of the field and drive to the other end, without a mark to go by. A little crook with people of this kind does not seem to be of much import ance, but crooked furrows take extra time and are a nuisance In general. Another thing which saves much time, particularly In harvest, Is a space which should be left between the fence and the field unplowed. This should be about 16 feet wide, and should be sown to grass. This strip will save going through the grain with a binder, and back, and it also saves the hired man a lot of extra work in shocking, as he can start as soon as the reaper does and will not have to wait until a swath Is cut in which to place the shock. INJURY DONE BY HEAD LOUSE Insects Are Very Destructive to Lit tie Chicks and Must Be Controlled or Exterminated. (By A. C. SMITH. Professor of Poultry Husbandry, Minnesota Experiment Station.) The head louse attacks young chicks generally before they are feath ered out, and Is first found on the head with Its claws or feeders sunk Into the skin of the head. As they become more numerous, they attack the throat and neck as well. The rem edy is simple, but it takes a little time. Each chick must have its head greased with lard, cottonseed oil or olive oil. You will have to look close ly to see these Insects. They are very destructive to chickens, and must be controlled or exterminated if the chick is to be healthy. Mule Unappreciated. Often we do not appreciate the vlr tues of the modest, unassuming mule. He costs no more than a horse colt to foal and raise and Is lpss trouble and expense to put in the harness. He Is not as susceptible to disease as the horse, and he Is not so easily made stiff or lame. He requires less feed than a horse of the aame size, yet will do as much or more work with -less 1 fatigue. He will do you 20 years' 1 faithful service.