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I EDITORIAL SECTION T HSALP~HSO L~J4Z ~ L ETUiI
MJS V4,MONTANA, SUNDAY YIkORNINU, JULTY -i4, imiuy .____..__.._..___._._... ALL BUT OUTLAWS OF GREAT BUFFALO HERD MOVED FROM FLATHEAD TO MAKE ROOM FOR THE SETTLER PATRIARCH OF HERD (CENTER) WHICH DIED. (By F. L. Baghy.) WITH the shipment Wednesday of nearly 200 buffalo from. Ravalla, Mont., to Canada, all but the outlaw remnant of the largest herd of wild bison in the United States were removed from their native heath to the limited con flnes of a foreign p1rk--to nmke: way for the advanclo march of progress and development. Trap~ed into mutn made corrals, 1'0.e1 and loaded into cages, bound down with crhains and wire, haled over long antl rough roads, then dragged by main force Into freight cars and shipped like so many common cattle over the rail roads, nearly 600 of these lords of the plains have been dragged from the free and untranmelled ranee of their nativity into a national playground, where they will he kept as nable specimens of a rapidly vanishing species of American big game. And this is all done to maim room for the white man-the than with the B low and the hoe, whose conquest of the soil has swept the red magi, the buf falo and other wild game before him like mist before the wind. The set tler, in the great battle of develop ment,' needed more lands to conquer. The Flathead reservation offered an enticing field for his activities. But there was not room for the red man's buffalo and the white man's cattle. perforce the bison had to make way for the munching cow, the tolling horse and the ravenous sheep and swine of him who was coming to transform the untamed wilds into an Arcadia of homes, farms ' and ranches. The grazing range of the buffalp was to become the feeding ground of domestic animals, so the bison were sold for a paltry sum and men were hired to capture and ship them into the country of the pur chaser-the Canadian government. And when the 150 head that remain upon, the reservation are rounded up and shipped this fall, there will be none of the noble animals left to dis pute the right of the White inan's stock to- every blade of grass on the range where once the buffalo was lord of all he surveyed. Countless Numbers. But a few years ago bison roamed the western plains in countless num hers. Herds so large that days were required fqr them to pass a given point frequently forced pioneer immi grants to encamp and wait patiently for them to pass before they could resume their journey over the new trail into the unknown wilderness of the vast west. In their migrations the beat of their hoofs resounded like the mighty rumble of thunder, and the dust from their heels clouded the sun itself. Running before a prairie fire or stampeded by a flash of light ning these great masses of shaggy, wild-eyed, snorting beasts made the very earth tremble beneath their ma 7 f 7ý+i;i7i ' r 'ý ' W ý.-s s} F ýýlqd it i y + ýrF ,li l +ýli Iýýt LT .n . ý . ý- 1 ilk S Sý"Ný..1D 7,. K ýý'ýV BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF RAVALLI. jectic forms. But these days have swiftly glided into the past, and with them are vanishing the buffalo like a mirage at the setting of the sun. The thunderous pound of their hoofs is heard no more, and the plains where they once were wont to graze in peace or rush in maddened fright before some impending 11n11ger, are crossed With fences, clotted with farm houses and producinlg farm roaducts to sus tali life and pour dollars into the pockets of their m(ininerers-the white Whitened Skulls. A few years ago whitened skulls' and scattered bones marked the great immigrant trails into the west, grew some monuments to mighty lerds that fell under the ruthless slaughter of countless hunters. Bat even these relics of pioneer days have disijite grated and have bi iorrie indlistinguish ably lmingled with lie loi s of1 tile earth. Man's ap1etite for fresh meat and the discovery that buffalo tongue was a delicacy to tickle the palate of an epicure first led to the' ruthless slaughter of the animals, the lives of countless thousands being sacrificed for the sake of their tongues. When the bison began to at scarce and wealth developed a. hobby for buffalo hides and heads, man's greed for gold furnished a motive for the slaughter of more and more until he suddenly awakened to the realization that the bison was almost extinct. A desire to save and protect these noble animals found birth in the hearts of a few men, and the surviving buffalo were gathered together in small herds by animal fanciers, zoological gardens and bison societies in various parts of j UNLOADING THE HAULING CRATES. the. country. The Canadian govern ment took an interest in the matter and established herds in some of its parks. The United States government has, at last, been interested and has established a bison range in Montana, but it failed to act in time to prevent the loss to this country of the largest herd withih its borders. The Allard Herd. Among the indiv idnales w1o took an Interest in preserving the buffalo was BUFFALO IN LOADING CORRALS. Charles Allhird, who secured a few. ani mals and started a herd on the Flat head reservation near ttonan in the early eighties. lie increased this herd by breeding and purchase to more than a hundred head in a few years. In 1893 he purchased the herd owned by "Buffalo Jones" of Kansas, and drove them across country to his herd on the Flathead. Accompanied by his family and riding in an old-fashioned barouche. he follower] the heal ea ross pluae and mountain until tht" mnembers f the hand were salily de livered on the resriationi In Montania. this herd consisted of full-blooded atilt haltf-breed itnimuls. The latter were products of riss-irieding with cattle, but they dhI not prole to te a d', irable animall, luavin; al1 the undie sirable and none or the good tualitite of either ancestor. Thu mongrels were separated from the blooded animiIs, and the latter were permitted to range in a wild state on the reservation. They thrived and the 1terd girt until it numbered alitist 800. When Allard died the herd trussed into the possession of xis 1 Part'er, Michel 'Publt, a half-treeet Indian nid an expert buffaio raiser. Piblo was itduced to dispose of a few of the aii otals to ioulogieut pIrks, but kept the larg@r portion of the herd inttet until he learned that the reservation was to tie thrown open tuo settlement ait that his tuffalo must make way for the settler and his QattIle. Then it was that Howard Eaton, exptrt hunter iii Wolf, Wyo., attempted to interest the United States government 1n thti pur chase of the hern. Falling in this he turned to the Apnrerican Bison asso elation, but again was unsucieceslful. Makesa an Offer. It was at this junctura that the Canadjan government sent Howard l Douglas, superintendent of the west ern Canada national parks, out to the Flathead to see the herd and mate uti offer for It. Mr. Dougles resmtmended the purchase of the animals and en offer of about $130,000 was made. This was accepted, Pablo agreeing to (ie liver the animals in Canada for that price. Then came the task of rounding up these animals, transporting them from their range to Ravalli, Mont., i;f miles away, loading them upon freight cars and shipping them to Canada, where they had to be unloaded and delivered in the parks. To say that such a task was Herculean is to express it mildly, but Michel Pablo was not daunted. He employed a force of expert riders, mounted them upon his own best horses and set forth to accomplish the task, riding at the head of his men on his own favorite mount. A corral into which the animals might be driven from the range was the first necessity. Taking advanrtage of a horseshoe bend in the Pend d'orielle river, the outside bank of which Is of clay and stands almost straight up and clown, he had a fence constructed across the neck of the horseshoe and wing fences built for a distance of a mile or more from the end of this fence and a cut in the bank of the river out into the range. Into this the buffalo were driven in three separate hands at different times. It required much hard and dangerous riding on the part of the buffalo punchers, and many of the animals escaped numerous times, but perserverance prevailed and two years ago 400 of the herd were successfully rounded up and then driven down the Mission valley into the corrals at Ra valli. From these corrals the animals were pulled and dragged by means of block and tackle into the railroad cars. Last year another round up was made, but just when the riders were about to drive the herd to Ravalli the band stampeded and made its es cape from the corral at Rntan. A New Plan. This spring it was decided to make no further attempt to drive the ani mals from Ronan to Ravaili. but to corral them, load them in crates mounted upon wheels and haul theni over the mountains to the loading corrals. For this purpose heavy crates, large enough to hold two buffalo each, were constructed of heavy tim ber fastened together with steel and wire. Through a loading chute the; animals were driven into these crates, securely roped in and hauled by means of six and eight-horse teams over the long and dusty journey to Ravalli. Here they Were turned out into a series of corrals from which they were driven, one at a time, into the loading chute. A noose around each buffalo's neck and the tugging of a score of men landed the animal in his car, where the struggling beast was held until a partition to separate him from his companions could be firmly put into place. The dangers attending the work of handling the buffalo were many and there were numerous narrow escapes from death and injury on the part of, riders and loaders, Fred Decker had FEEDING FROM THE HAY RACKS. his horse gored under him, and his brother. Johnnie Decker, twice had his mount gored and was slightly injured, his life being saved only by the prompt action of Pablo and his brother in firing pistol bullets into the neck of an Inf rinted beast that was trying to kill man and horse. In their n1iii00n0 strLtggls ogllust being dragged into ri Itivity 20 or the animals were killed, ,o1e iof them rushing blindly against the sides ofi the corrals with such fTrce as to break their necks. one, the patriarch of the herd, fought with a younger PULLING A BISON ABOARD A CAR. bull, then lay down in the lading chute and died. Pathetic Picture. It was a pathetic picture to one who stopped to think, as he gazed at the SHAGGY MONARCHS OF THE RANGE. lacerated, bleeding, ragged animals that stood in the corral at fIaallt, gazing longingly through the cracks of the high, strong fences out upon the hIlls, beyond which lay the wild free range from which they had been dragged in ignominious captivity to he loaded Into era imned stalls of rail riad rars, there to re left to vent lhrir l'ury in valn rricirs against the all"ls of their prisons until st'am and steel landed therm at their new lhire. Slowness in haulln"' the bison fr'mir the round-up corral necessitated srme of the animals standing in the tars for eight rrays before the last train started for Canada. At last all of the shipments save those that were killed and two that rserped were loaded, aboard and the long trip of 1,200 miles to the point ofa unloading was eorn rinered. Crrnad lre hseceured a bar gain irr buffalo and the United States lIr, lest rr asset r'hirh It may never be able to rerie'e. Much interest Is already being rman Ifrstedl in the rminrrg roirtl Lrt) of the rirainrig portion of the herd which is scheduled to commence about the elrst of SepterrrIeir. The riters who have been leading the strenuous life on the buffallo range for the past two liantihs will now turn their ittenitlion io, gatthpring together tire cattle that have been wintering on the reserva tion, inud this work twill continue un til haying time. When the season's crop Is gathered the sunburned riders wi ill again dun their' '"'shaps,"r h igih - hetled bouts uind spri's, mount their favorite steeds und ride forth to the buffalo range. Then the work of maneuvering the outlawi hnffalo from their stamping grounds into the cor raI at RIoniRir will he gotten under way. Siice the work of shipping tie rts tjit banid was begun the wilder lntew hers of the herd have strayed some 40 miles from their usual feeding grounds, and it was feared that they would migrate so far from their us o ual haunts that it would herome an 1, almost impassible task to drive them a back. But Indian riders report that n within the past two weeks the stray ling bands have turned their noses r back toward their accustomed range o and are gradually moving back in - that direction. It is hoped by the rid t ors and Pailh that by the first of 8'ptembher the animals will have for I gottirm the excitement that has been i lt Progress in the vicinity of Ronan A and be back in that district, for enough trouble is anticipated in l handling the beasts is it is without t having to search for roving bands of them over the entire reservation and 1 rounding them in a bunch of three 1 or four at Al time. The same methods and tactics used in handling the recent shipment will be employed in handling the outlaw herd, provided the herd does not up set All plans. Some changes are plannod in the corral at tonan, as I experience has taugmht the riders that the iufsalo Is i. wily animial and can not be trapped twice in "the same place or manner. A buffalo that has been driven into a trap once and sueee s in making hIs e'eane cannot be dfivenr into the trap in the same place again, and will always attempt to escape frurn the place that afforded him freedom be fore. The entrance to the corril will be changed to another location, the loading chute will be moved and the entire corral will he strengthened to withstand the onslaughts of the ob streoerous beasts. New crates of a little better con struction tian the ones used last time will be constructed for time hauling of the animals from Ronan to Ravaili to the loading pens. An effort will also be made in the fall to load and haul mnoire bison at it time from tlie round iu p mirral, so that those loaded into the cars at Rtavalli will not be forced to stand in their cramped stalls so long as many of tile recent shipment were forced to do. Though the riding on the recent roundup and the incidents attendant upon the work were mire thrilling atd sensational than any "wild west" performance ever dreamed of being, still greater exiterment is unticipated when the next round up is gotten un der way. 1ut notwithstanding the dangers they have passed through and the narrow escapes from death that some of them have had, the rid ers face the coming round un with eager impatience. Those bronzed men who sit the saddle with as tmuch coin fort as a millionaire rests in his tp holstered chair, and find more enjoy mont and actual life in doing so, would rather ride than be the presi dent of a railroad.. To them the ex citement, the dinger and the thrill at tendant unili a chase either before or after a rushing herd of bison, consti tute life.