Newspaper Page Text
PLANTING OF SEEDS AND TREES BY THE FORESTETI
LENDS NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE TO OUR ARBOR DA COVERING SEED BY SIFTING SAND i : Ma PREPARING SEED BEDS FOR O8WING. UNCLE SAM'S ARBOR DAY Throughltnt the United Rtaoes this year there will be in added slgnl ficance in colnme lion with Arbur Day and its g.eneral observance In every state of te of the Union. This year Uncle Rlmn. lthrolllgh his fI'orest service, en ters into the spirit of Arbor Day in at way that .tiIll attruct the atten tion of the whole world. The plans of the for.est service for the refores tation of the nation's denude.l timber districts, plans which were care fully laid some years ago and have been slowly worked out through the establishment of nurseries and the gathering of seed and the preparation of the ground, hive progressid to such an extent that this Arbor Day will find a small army of mi'n In the field in all sections of the United Stat's engaged in setting out forest seedlings and planting seeds. Thous ands of acres of yoing trees tnd millions of seeds 111i find a resting place int the warnm, moist bosom of mother earth to be nourished by nature into beautifull forests. The scale Upon which this work is being undertaken is astounding in its magnlited. In the history of all dnations, spme of whom have been engaged in forestry work for a century, has tree plant Ing and scd sod wing been attempted in such a big way. In this, as In many other vital matters, it has re mained for Uncle sant- to take the lead. and his Arbor Day program this year, excelling all previous efforts In its extentt, is but the first #f, whit is to be annual observances, growing larger with each succeedingfea!ton.' The work in this re hrd which the forest service is doing throughout each of its six field dlqtricts, is per hap. no ,better illustrated thtn by the activities in field district No. 1, the headquarters of which sl in Missoula. There are four nurseries in the district where seedlings ire raised. The largest are the Boulder nursery, on the HIelena Nuti9nal forest, and the Bavenac nursery on the Lolo forest. The St. Regis nursery on the Lolo forest and the Trapper ('reek nursery on the fitter Root forest are smaller In 'extent. From these nurseries a totaPof 4,4°.,705 seedlings are in the beds and a large portion ready for distribution and planting this arbor season. The story of the preparation of this stbock, and the seed which will also be socn, the itualner of planting and ýhe ter-ritory to be covered this year, is therefore of timely Interest. The data collected for the followlfg brief account comes from the of fclals of the local forestry office. Planting olerations on the niitlonal forests in district No,. I will b con ducted this summer on a larger scale than at any previous time In thle his tory of the service. One of th( most important lines of work which Will be carried on this field season 1ill be the affi'restatit n of saome of the acres intlde the national forests not con tatlling stands of timber, and he re forestation of the areas denu led by last sullnmnler's fires in various pur tions of the district. The work will be carried nm on twenty forests and will "require the services of a large number if men for tile next two months. It Will be followed up closely by menmtqers of the district office in an attempt to systematr.e this compltrativey new Commission Government (Continwfl d FIron Page Four.) ground that thler. was no cnstliitu tional warrant for the governot' to ap point a part of the governing body of the city, The case was carried into the supreme court, where hil conten tIon was upheld. While this lJtigation was going on, the friends ofthe conm mtniaon p.llu rushed through another bill providing for an elective .ommls sion, and clearing such defect In the origftLal A)ill as time hid demo strated to exsat. iBefore the draymnah's casr wv ai..jolded the now charter was passea and =Qalveston wae reaiy to go fwivard ln.lhe solution of its prob eeji-r Thatt these problems were many Tfroublesome may be infer :d from the l.uat that . sea-wall had to be b.alt containing as much mltl:erlai as flr pyrIIfdes -.? the dlmenlion, of Cijops. - The grIade of the entir e ity hi l "-.G :irselid tQ lt.iglcF level, varS'tl from one to ellht feat, peo ple had to ive AIn hosaiss fJacked up on u'tltI white seas of mud .were be intg. rme!14t.1t, them, and i.fill.o had to lif iLInt by lnd Iilduae in re pairing the damatge done by the storm. Yet the people of the city wire so illed With public spirit that when the bonds were issued for the r habillta tlonl of the comnmmity, in spi t of the greylous tosses personally sustained. they bouglht. more than a mil lion dol aib of the' oty's honds. T many eases even laboring men and washer line of work. This work is conducted under the direction of the assistant district foresters in charge of the of fice of silviculture, who will devote a large proportion of their time during Sthis field season to these projects. Assistant Ilstrict Forester Butler left Missoula April 1, spent a large part of April and will spend most of May in lining up the work of direct seeding and planting of nursery sT'ctk on for ests In the eastern portion of the die- I trict. PILnting Assistant Farquhar will visit the vlrlous nurseries In the dis trict the middle of the month and spend the rest of the field season on a number of forests in the southern part of the district. There are at present two large nur series in district No. I. The largest I is the Boulder nursery on the Helena national forest, with a capacity of nearly 3.500,000. Next in capacity, to womten invested their mites in bonds of small denomination, buying them of the commnission at par when they might have bought them at 85 in the open nharket. With such public spirit as this there is little wonder that every obstacle was laid low and ,very difficulty pushed out of the way by the courageous peollo of the city. When the comminssion bhegan its labory there was it total debt of three million dollars, $200,000 of a floating debt. Within two years the latter was' wiped out. Since the flood $2,775,000 of bonds were issued, and $1,073,000 was spent in permanent Im provements out of current revenues, with $400,000 additlonal for other ex penses growing directly out of the flood. Today the outitandhlW tlonds of Galveston amount to $4,40 i0. It fol fows, that Galvestan has, ,len able to pay out a total of nearly hiree million dollars in nine years, over and above the ordinary current expenses. Add to the public improve-ment5s the ex penditures of the individual citizens, with the amounts contributed by the county of Galveston, and the total is approxlmately $1,000 per capita. With all its splendid showing Galveston has been able to make it on a tax rate of $1690 on the $100 of valuation, The aliveston system has none of the innovations that have been added i by, cities which have more recently adopted the commission plan.' It has -neither the initiative, the referendunm, *-4 GENERAL VIEW OF SAVENAC NURSERY BEFORE FOREST FIRES OF 1910, WHICH DESTROYED THE BUILDINGS. NEAR VIEW OF SAVENAC FOREST NURSERY SHOWING SCREENS FOR PROTECTION OF BEDS FROM BIRDS AND RODENTS. be increased this year, Is the lavenac nursery on the Lolo forest, near Huau gan, Mont., with a capacity of overl 1,000,000 seedlings. There is also a small nursery, the Trapper creek, on the .Bitter lt-oot nationli forest, Irith a capacity of over 50,000. The fores ter has recently approved the instal lation of a nulrstery of 24)1,000 capacity for raising western yellow pine on the Dakota forest in southieestern North Dakota, and Mr. Butler will Initiate work at this nursery this sprlig. Collecting Seed. Approximately 4,000 pountds of seed of various species wa re collected by the service in this district last .fall. Some of this seed was collected by. the rangers on the forets and ai large quanlltity was eollect-d by private in dividuals tet froml 40 tot 70 cent's per 4tusihel for cones. AIpproxlimately the same amount will be collected this comning fall, and the service will, in the late sunllner, make arrangements to secure by collection and purcthase western white pine, western yellow pine, lodgepole pine and Engelnant spruce, if the season is favorable for the retall, the clvii service, nor the noi-partisan election plan. It Sit ply witnes out the old ward lines, makest lthe city tile unit of reprt.stIntattion, and lptts its aifflrs in the Ithands of five comnissloners, who are elected by the people at large. tine of these is chairman of the hoard, with the title of mayor-president. T'le other foulr are lIfaced at the heIlds of tile flur rentnininlg departltnts, thl. mayor-presldent heading thit fifth. It is generally undtlerstolod beforehllnd which delpartnment each etlllninrlissloier will head. The board ipossesses aill the authority t'of the usual city collltlcil. ailv.ttln, unlike Iltiuny 'olthtl (in mIltioleain-governed clities, dies not re qcuire its conltissitnetrs to give their whole time to the worlk of the city. They are required to have fixed hoturs at the city hall. but ottherwise are free to engage In lrilvate business.i This, say the people of Glalveston, InlIbis them to commanlld for their city governmetnt the atillits of thei beet and itosat suelll'esflll business rlIen. Their commllissloner of finance and revenue, for instancte, is president of Y'our large Ilbusintess ctoncerlns, In eluding one of thie leliaing banks of the city. It would take thousands of dollars to comman d , the exclusive services of such it man, yet Galveston gets them for 51,200. The city has shown a remarkable fid.lit' toward tile tIn who have labored so successfully in its rehabill tation, Most of the comnmissloners have been re-elected with eclth recur ring election. It is true that, Mayor Landes was defeated iat the ltst ele tion, and It is. claimed that his op ponent had all tile wide-open element behind him. 1But tite new ltati'or was their collection, and will pay a rea sonable figure per bushel for sound cones of these "sli~ltes. .Persons de siring to colltet cones should apply to the nearest Iocal supervisor. There were als-, over 18.000 pounds of seed purcllhased lust fall, giving a total of over II tons of seed secured during the, fall if 1910. A small quan tity of this seed will he held for use unext full, alid about 17,000 pounds will be used this spring. Besides this amount of sued, there will be planted over 400,000 young trees supplied from the nurseries. In all, planting opera tlolts tills spring will cover over 6,000 acres, a1 agaltist 215 acres sown and planted last fall and 1,020 sown and pilunted hi thei spring of 1910. Territory Covered. The work this spring' Awill be ,dn fined principally to the Ahsarika, 131t ter fIoot, abllhllet, ('olur d'Alene, tus ter, Dukota, DI'r Lodge, Helena, Jet ferson, Lolo, SMadlison, Mlichigan, .Mis sulba rntl iliox national forests. Va rious methods of direct seeding will he trlhd--irnadtastIng by hand, and with seed sow\\rs and Thomas drills on unrepared ground, and on groundl a judge on lhe lbench, one of the most widely known secretl't order Imen inll country and ia mixer of the tmot (II gaging type. blut that (Galve'stonll is still enjoying the Hsume wise anld oene filehnt Inknh'Ipal rule that has chura' terized the pasit decade is attested by' everyone vlwho knllow condlltions there It wits only It y',ar or twio alfter (all vtston began its comnlssilon eXlperl nlent that the whole world was con sidering the phenllomenal sHlleess that had ehalrai'elriz-.d the efforts to re hahllitutn Its finllanets, rebuldll its hde stroi'tld dilultrit, ndlll restore coni'fidelince Iu Its fl tore. This led i"otheir lprogrexs I\e eit1es tio stldy the (alCeston Hil tliltion, antd today the millions of ur liban re'slhntts wlu hnave been Intro ducedil t, good -city government'by rea rson of the exlpnslofl of the Galveston Idea feel that the storm was perhaps a blessing it1 dilsguisce. Gall'estton utt rlblttee Imlst of its splendid rise from, Threatened olltera tion to the wisdoiti of the mnan who have constlltutled its governing body. fl3it otutsiders assert that somn of It, at least, Is to be atltribu'ted to the pub lie spirit that was enLendered by the flood. The city is well content with its prevelnt siltuation, and cares nothing for the new features that other cities have engrafted onto the commisslon plan. ,U nder its simple system the city has recovered Itself thoroughly, and stands today with 'its fatce to the future, with the prospects of a growth that 'will, itn the future, maku it onet of the nmost :nportant commercial centers of the south. Tolnoirow --c 'lllllsson t5ovnertntllent. \'ll--iolt.to, prepared by plowing in whole and In furrows, dlsingig, harrowing, dragging brush, etc. The corn planter has proved one of the most successful' methods 'of direct seedling, and this nlethod will helit extensively used. Owing t, the excessive drought of lust summerit little 5uc'ess Wits tsecured in the planting work, but with more fa vorablo weather conditions this season mtuch niore satisfactory results may be expected. Savenso Nursery. The Slavenue nursery is located on the St. Regis river one-fourth of a mile from Itaugan. It was first es tia lishd In thie fall of 1909, ahlirs about eight acres were cleared of the timber and stumps and the ground broken ulp. In the spring of 1910, 150 seed beids. 4 by 12 feet eacth, were sown. As the result of this sowing the servicel has on hand approxilmately 183,000 red fir setidlings, 332,000 spruce. 13,000 lurch, 15,000 western white pine. 6.000 eastern white pine, 300 sugar pine artnd 517,000 yellow pine. A crew of 10 tmun is now a:t work In t111e' urse'ry preparing and sowing new seed beds. HAMILTON OF TODAY AND OF TOMORROW (1(' ntined IroneI Page One.) fruilgrowers, dairyloen, gardeners and poultry raisers. It wants monire devel lllpnent of Its resotllree. It wallts imore railroad fuclllties, better roads, Inoru vacaliistsli. It Wants t sugar factory, canitnlg factoris iand other industries. And in return. Hamilton, knowing that civic Iroperity is coincidental with (conllllititty growth, will do Its share as a city. It will, as it thas, fos ter ugriculturt, in all Its brallnlches. It will assist i iisintrlies, It will enter tuln vacatlionits. It ill worik for inre !.'aitioni.~Is. It Wants a tsugar w.Iints to grow, to Illvlance. It wants its eiltit.en to llro.l r Ltll to multi lily. nImilton II th , capital of the "Laindi of i Thlousiand (Clancis'" aind it wants to give more Ioten a chanc to Imake good. It has r inll for thoulsianlld of niewrt'On i's, and thlle art' a great tallally opportl tiluntI still opln for the| man whoi works. Here, in the altmos pherei of thote who are ul ccussfill, is a stlniuluis ftor endivior. IN CLUBLAND. Iludson: IHow dil you" vote? Mi's. tlidtutli: W\ll, I wantedh to viot, both \,.ty., i 1 paired with my t, + , NEW STATION BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE. SETTING OUT WHITE PINE TRANSPLANTS. Ail|lxiillateily the Hilllie aioun t willI be' sow ln this spring. The grealest cure in ivcmesary in prelparingthe need beds. The groiund is first plowed aund thoroughly hat rowedl, thlen rltaked by hantd cand laid 'off nl hieds 4 by 12 feett. In order to prottect ithe seed from birds and chip munksl . it is neccessalry to cover each bhad wile a wtVe netting fraen,. Fri ,,r n i to three lpounds of seed, eatrdlinog to specles, i solwnl in each t.d au . the seed Is then carefully covered with anld. In about three or! four weeks tile seed begins to germi lttle. A full stand of yellow pine, I ree-elinigs , ill give shoul t 10,00l to the bwed. Sprce, and red fir. being small er. will rlcn as hiigh as 23.000 to the bed, making t solid green carpet. The grealtes,.t c-are in neceessary to plrotcet the ltlener rseeilings. If tlet I.s l4 vrit drvy iitul Iby stprinkling Ite, di tping-ofi f fungllulS alttaks the seed IIt:gs, ftrqirtently wiping out whiol Ieids in at very few days. This attack moe y be fotught either by sprinkling the bethte with lry slantd and stopping wa tilt ing fur u few days or by sprink Ip' with dilute sullph'lice acid, whichll kis the fllungun without harming the se ,'lltngs. If the beds lare Illowed to! b Iei mm too dry, they are uttacke. by b Ahlt, which 1en cIlmost as destructive a.u dtmpiig-off. .At the age of one year the seedlings aitl either transplanted into nursery reiws e r they are allowed to remain ft04 t. eecn'lilti yeari iLl lthe see'd b)ed.s and thlken either transplanted or put direct ly into the field. The Cost. 'I'lhec rost of rlisning seedlings in the Niavenc nursery \varilus from Ill cents peri- thousaned for spritee tle $1.14 for yeUeiw pinellt. Transphlanting costs :abolit $1.30 eI ir thiusird. The transe Lplantls are seet in rows six Inches apart Sanid theu planit one and one-half Inchen iuplrt in rows. To transllplant 1.00,04001 seeetlins lla a conslderable Iudertak ing and thle ccmoncth of lMay is always Ia Iesy sceeesoi In the inurs4ety, withl the. treuisplalntllng to blee edolne usid the new sie.t beds to be ,put in. 'lte' water cipplyl for the niursery Is furnished by dithlcte froll Savenac creek. The transpilllllt rows are lrri ELECTRIC 4.5 IRONS '4.25 To Users of Our Current, $1.25 down and $1.00 per month. Missoula Light & Water ý.:"i ADVE RrISE 1N T.E DAILY MI glnt4(d direct from the ditch. The seed beds are sprinkled, a small tank and pilr In, I'urnishnlg t1. necesary Damage by Fire. In the frest fiir's of 1910 the nursery suffereid Us lost, of lll its buildinge, but fortunately the seed beds were noi t injured. ince the fire a neat i.x roolll cottale and a bunk house have Ibeen consrtructed. The Ialpiity of the nursery will probaillly be Inreased in the future. 'h'eri. is rlafilent ground available to maintain an annual output of .S,000000 transplants. In felid planting the trees are spaced six iund one-half feet apart, makling 1,1000 to the aclre. The cost of field pillalting varies front eulght to ten Sold larm per aure. Thul ltavenac nursery is well locate4 for field planting, as there are thous ndlll of iresl 1of old burns adjacent to it, as well as the Immense area de stroyld by last summer's fires. T'rh Biolder nursery in the Helena national forest is situated on Boulder trt.iek, about ien Inflect front the town of tilhe same nne0. The withdrawal of land for tile slt eunolprises 160 acres, but up to tile pr'esent time only eight a.res have beon actually planted. Ran L''r Hanson Is directly in charge of * thle world, under the general supervis Ihn of iSolrvls.sor 8i'ley of the Helena forest. This nursery was established Ill 1907 n11dl lil now well equlpped for tilhe work und will be greatly enlarged tils season. The method of operation Is generally the same as that ae plyed at the Savenac nursery, Ia eluding all species, there Is at preseat on hand In the Boulder nursery 8,151,. 305 seedlings of various ages. Thi* yealr there will be sowed, in this Uuro sery 300 pounds of western yellow plne, 436 pounds of I)ouglas fir, tI pounds of ~lntelmnann spruce, 16 pounds of hlodgilpole pine., 1 poullnds of limber pine, I pounds of Scotch plae, 10 lpounds of Austrian pine, 1 pound of eastern white piniO, 2 pounds' of Norm way spruce and some silver mapl% cottonwood and blgtree seed. Artificial eyes were invented by * Pa'ri surgennt in 1560.