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(in Advanee) Soeo month 0. h ane moueths .. .- 3.5 4.00 . one ...................... 8.00 t.at for foreign countries. E LTWI1PWH4ON I NUMUER. 0at the following ne nd out-..... MISSOUILA OPPGIC Hailtoen Offlee 3|1 warn Street,0 amtlton Mont. Wieof Montana: SChij.a-Chicago Newspaper Age ow N. corner Clark and Madison Mimeapolls--World News Co., 219 North Pourth street. hait Lake City-MaoGills & Lud San Pranelsco-United News Agents Portland-Coneglidated News Co.. beventh and Wadhlngton. e Sttle-Rokarts' News Algency Airut avenue and Washington; W. O. Whibtney. Spokanoe-Jamleson News Co. Tacoma-Trego News Co., Ninth and Pacific. $USSCRIUERS' PAPERI. The Msluoullan Is anxious to give the best carrier service; therefore, sub scribers are requested to report faulty at once. In ordering paper d to new address, please give Sadrs als&o. I Money orders and m itke should he made payable to The Missoullan Publishipg Company. SUNDAY, OCTOBER 15. 1911. PASSING EVENTS. Pre-eminent in the list of happen Inag in Mlssoula last week should be plaed .the teachers' institute, which .as held under the joint direction of the superintendents of the four west ern counties of the state. It was a saoteworthy meeting in many respects. In the first place, the number of teach irs assembled was large and the Insti tute itarted offt with the enthusiasm Which onlu numbers can afford. In the second pldce, the list of instructors included some of the ablest men and women of the country's educational force. In the third place, Missoula's schools received etch an Indorsement as will give them place among the most efficient systems of the west. There was great benefit to Missoula in this stitute session; there can be no other reputation which will do this city tAe amount of good which will come from being known as having high-grade commron schools. We have always con tended that the responsibility of be ing the seat of the state university made it Incumbent upon the city of Missoula to have the best-the very best--school system In the state. Such a system is an essential supplement to the university; it must be here if the higher institution Is to attract to Mis soula the families that it should. Not ai ,of the children of a family are usu ellh of university age. There are fre uj, itly children whose place Is in the t I, -.ntary schools and when parents t,,nrlder the question of locating in Ml.'.ll a that they may take advan t; .,r f the opportunities afforded by '. i,,,hivlrlty. they are bound to con t.ý.' th,. so-lbllities which are or ', - ' to th,'lr younger children. And ,n this account we maintain that, from a selfish standpoint, the necessity for good common schools Is Imperutive in Missoula Everywhere it is, as a gen eral proposition, a necessity. But in Missoula this urgency Is stronger than anywhere else in Montana. For tils reason, It seems to us that the week was particularly helpful to Missoula in that It brought expressions of ap proval and of warm commendation for features of 'the work in our city schools. This Is a fact which should be given wide publicity. It Is a genuine boost for the University city. Pass it around. Keep it going. If no other good cme from last week's institute than this, Missoula profits wonderfully from the session. REAL BENEFITS--But we do not wish to be understood as saying that there were no other benefits from the institute than the commendation which came for our local schools, any more than we wish to be understood as say Ing that our schools are not capable of a good deal of improvement, There was much said by the Instructors In the Inhtitute whl~., taken as a guide, will result vi st to the school work here, se U From what we gathored of " institute's practical ;#Y, there was wholesome connsel lwise advice in tas talks which W egiven That soxu of the work of c 1ools was commended to earnest effort to make worthy of commenda e q isbh was 9e 4) "d of praise ct ag**ous en. F,~II l~t~ wsies sC "Vavw to make our schools deserving t SPalns In every department. The ieok's assiatance came in the form of l practiCtd suggestion there was much ( Of it which will help trustees and pa- a rotas is well as teachers and there is t maiA1 of It which we may all consider In connection with the desire to de velop our schools into a system which will give us a national reputation for excellence in this direction. 1 NGLISHM-For our part, we comr* mend the prominence which was given to the discussion of English as the most encouraging feature of the In stitute's work. It is our judgment that the speaking and writing of cor rect English should be made the aim of all school work. Not in any branch a of the routine of the day In the school room, should there be any lapse al lowed into loosely constructed, poorly expressed English. A recitation In mathematics should be conducted with a view to clearness of expression and conciseness of language just as much as would a class in grammar or rhet. oric. The best instructor in the use of English whom we ever knew was a teacher of geometry. A student might as well confess himself unprepared upon the subject of the lesson as to attempt to make a demonstration In faulty English. The teacher's own language should be exemphry; the ex ample of good English Is, In Itself, good Instruction. The student unconsciously drifts into the use of proper language and when this comes about, half the battle has been won It does not make so much difference how the pupil learns good English, if he does learn it. And the weakest point In our school work these days is that it too often happens that he does not learn it and that he leaves the high school, even, unprepgdred to express himself properly. UNFORTUNATC-It is unfortunate that so little attention has been given ofttimes to 'this important feature of our school work. We are certain that there are many advanced students in this field who feel the lack of proper training In English and who feel it keenly. We believe, from the experi ence of last week, that the teachers here realise, more than ever before, the necessity which exists for the most careful work in this direction. A vast fund of Information is valueless it it cannot be expressed and It cannot be expressed if its possessor Is not qual ified In the use of English. Right to the point were some of the talks of last week and the speakers were men and women whose own work was, it self, a worthy example to emulate. Many a student has failed In his ex aminations by reason of deficiencies In this direction and many a man In active life has found himself handi capped because he could not express himself as he desired. It should, we think, be the constant aim of the teacher, from the beginning to the end of a child's school course, to develop as fully as possible the power of ex pression. How best to do this is vari ously counseled. The general prin ciple, however, is accepted that con stant practice is the surest way to reach the result sought *OOKS-Another important point in the development of the student is that he should be taught the use of books. The finest library In the world is of no use to a student if he does not know how to use books. A limited library is of inestimable aid It its possessor knows how to use it. Some pen get more out of an almanac and a diction ary that many men get from a great library. hooks are for use and not for the ornamentation bof shelves. The student who succeeds is the student who early learns this and who finds how to make the books about him ser·ve him. The ability intelligently to use a reference library gives the stu dent great Independence; It gives him mastery of the situation. Combine this with ability to clothe hisl thoughts In acceptable form and you have given the student an equipment which will serve him well. He may not be able to make as good a showing on his ex amlination reports as some of his fel lows who have worked by rote, but he will be better fitted for what is ahead of him. CREDITS--And this suggests an other point There is danger, under the credit system, that a student will work all the while with the credit score before him and lose sight of the fact that it is practical preparation for real work tthat he should seek. We all know students who pass brilliant examinations and whose credit marks are maximum but who really are not as well equipped as some of their as sociates whose examination reports are away below the average. We all know youngsters who are not at their best under the test of an examination. Of course, some check Is necessary; there must be an examination of some sort. But the teacher who has been In touch with a student through the year, if the contact has been characterised by the right spirit, knows well enough with out an examination whether or not the student Is fitted for advancement. We know of good students who have been discouraged by the domination of the examination system in the scheme of promotions, It seems io...s that I this Is something to be guarded against a most carefully. The credit system is f necessary but it is capable of modifi h cation in the hands of a good teacher and our assumption must be that all a teachers are good. ASSI.iLATION-The demonstration h which we have had In Missoula of the ,r excellent results which follow the in troduction of supervised play suggests the great possibilities which lie in the force of example. It is the testimony n of those teachers who have most closely observed the effects of the su. pervised playground that the children It have been benefited in their general school work; they have become more n tractable; they are more earnest; they h recognise the rights of others; they have unconsciously absorbed the spirit of comradeship; they have become y working parts of the machinery of n the school If this is true of the work h of the playground, cannot It also be d made true of the work of the class h room? The same spirit can surely be Infused into the schoolroom; the ex If ample of the teacher can be made as a strong for good ah the example of the it director is upon the playground. If id the teacher uses correct Engllsh, for o instance, is It not likely that the chil n dren will unconsciously acquire the 'n habit of speaking correctly, even if they are shy in some of the elements ,d of making diagrams or if they are ly weak In rattling off a lons list of deri re vatives? te THE GANG-When a boy reaches the age of twelve, he loses interest in m toys; the games which have amused r and Instructed him cease to have any o charm for him; he craves the compan I lonship of his fellow~. This period of a boy's life has been aptly termed "the f gang age." The boy seeks the com panlonLhlp of "the fellowa" and be comes gregarious. The problem of the teacher in dealing with the boy be in comes composite. But It is not as se rious as it appears at first. While the gang Is a power for mischief, it is also ina power for good itf It I handled car n rectly. If the teacher can make th6 gang her gang, her troubles are over. I- And the system of supervised play does rs this better than apything else which we have found. It directs the energy of the gang toward the right goal; the youngsters become effective for good without being goody-goody. The spirit of manliness which underlies the whole work of the supervised play to ground catches the boys. And the ) healthy girl is Just as susceptible to in the argument of the square deal as is t her brother. It is this which makes .e the playground work successful. E: GOING AHEAD-These are merely in suggestions which come from a more or less casual consideration of the in " atitute work of last week. They are oe suggestions which are prompted by a te desire to see the school work made of d the greatest possible benefit to the 'P child. They are not offered as tech ' nical advice nor are they made In any spirit of criticism, unfriendly to the k. schools. The Missoulian has a de I sire, which we believe is shared by. all to the people of this city, to see the local schools take high rank in the systems of the state. We believe, too, that In there.lkas been great advance made in Lt recent years toward the attainment of A. this ambition. Iburing last week, much 10 of thd comment which was made re garding the local schools dwelt upon S...' ." :".' -.-n. '-- - .-.. -. . -. - -- -. .. . SAll Confident of Success t r a A n U a II N O e r 6 LI r e It t h )t eL JogS~amA. Providence, t. I., Oct. 14.-There is so much democracy almong the demo cratio candidates for the office of mayor in Providence, It. I., that three of them, the oul. ones in the field this year, have secured permission from the state central committee and elec tion officials to try out the direct pri mary systPm of making nominations although the state laws contain no the harmony of purpose which pre vails amongst the teachers, the trustees and the patrons. It there is any place where the pull-together can accom plish remarkable restlts, the schools are that place. Missoula is fortunate in the men who compose the board of trustees; she is fortunate in the spirit ministration of her school affairs. Her schools are setting better all the while. , They have made great improvement, but there is much more Improvement to be made. Last week's institute ses sions furnished an Inspiration for a renewal of the effort to bring about the improvement which must be made. We are certain that good results will follow. The kind words which were spoken concerning our school work should not bring any degree of com placency; rather, they should be an in centive to more earnest effort towkrd making Missoula's schools the best In I the state-worthy of the University I city of Montana. And here is the gleat opportunity for co-operation. Here is the chance for the pull-together to demonstrate its vast power of ac- C complishment. Let us all enlist for the campaign. Now that the daughters of the Gold- I en G(ate have suffrage, we hope they I will make good use of it. They have t a splendid field for their promised up- 4 lift Influence in California politics. 1 If the weather man can maintain clear skies for the baseball series, he will perform a miracle. The fans are such atmospheric disturbers that they breed storms. SWestern Montana's exhibit has start ed for New York. When the metrop olis gets a whiff of the McIntosh Red, It will learn for the first time what an apple is. When you feel dissatisfied with Mis soula, go away and sad some other ilaces. You'll come back better con tent than ever. They all do. Cal)ornmla's women 'joined In the welcome to the president with more than ordinary ust. He is their pres Ident more than ever before. It is now in order for the funny fel lows to ask if the use of aeroplanes signifies that the Turks have the Italians pp in the air. The I)lssoulian's advertising pages this morning contain good counsel and helpful s0qgestlon for every house holder in M'ssoula. The Missoullan dictionary Is one of the big hits # the year: if you haven't obtained ,ei already, get it at once. This week's theatrical bookings Indi cate that Missoula wllftJave a wealth of high-class amusement for seven days. The reclamatloh work is adding amazingly to the area.and the produc tiveness of the reservation district. The McNamaras are likely to endure imprisonment for life while a jury is being secured at Los Angeles. Los Angeles has attained new fame: she has a silent barber and he will shave the McNamara jurors. The Indications are that Alaska will be prominently on the map during the next session of congress. We got by Friday, the thirteenth, in pretty good shape, and now we may expect better things. There may be glory In umpiring a world's series but there's a heap of i grief. I such aystcmn. Each candidate for hon or* feels that he will be the popular choice and is willing to take chances with "all the peopip" rather than with the old machine methods of nominat ing party candidatees which have been in force for many years here. The candidates ae Joseph F. Cole. a coli tractor; Joseph H. Gainer, alderman, and former Mayor Patriok McCarthy, a lawyer, Following Old Trails XVIII.-A Quick Descent. Fifty-five years ago this week, a young North Carolinan was trudging down the Bitter Root valley, swinging a whip over a four-yoke bull team and heading for the Hell Gate'river-un known to him as the 14le but to which he had contracted to pilot that team of plodding steers. October 15, 1856, just 55 years ago It will be on Sun day, this young man and his party reached their destination. The tar was so well worn from the heels of this North Carolina boy that when he reached the Hell Gate ronde, he stayed there and ever since it has been his home. And thus It happens that the Sunday upon which this story will be printed In the anniversary of the arrival in the Missoula valley of the man who is the oldest white citizen of Montana in point of length of residence, a citizen who is honored by his fellows and re Wpected by all, Judge Frank H. Woody of Missoula. I esteem it an unusual privilege that I have been admitted to some degree of Intimacy with Judge Woody. In the visits we have had together during the 20 years that we have been friends, he ham given me the clearest Idea I have ever obtained from anybody of the conditions and the customs of Mon tana's early days. But more than that, the pleasant associlation which I have had with Judge Woody has given me a good insight into the sturdiness of the men who made Montana; it has Implanted in me a wholesome respect for the effort which they made and for the hardships which they passed through to build this mtate for us who came later. It Is not that Judge Woody has preached or has ever complained. I have never heard from him any story which was not happily told and In which the humorous side of the situa tion was not given at least all the ) prominence which It deserved. His word-pictures are always painted in bright colors, but they are portrayed in such accurate detail that they afford b the listener the opportunity to see for a himself the incidents which they de pict. It is, therefore, rather from the study of these details that I have formed my impressions than from any appeal which the judge ever made for sympathy for the pioneer or from any gallery play which he might have made for applhuse-for he has never done one or the other. The strongest appeal which can be made Is the presentation of conditions so graphically that the listener forms his own concluslone-or, at least, thinks he does-from the story which is told. Judge Woody is one of the f best story-tellers that ever lived. He a possesses a repmarkable memory for t details and wheh he has recited an in cident of early Montana days, it makes the hearer so thoroughly familiar with what happened that he feels himself t so well qualified forAhe pioneer class n that he to likely to apply for member ship in the Montana old-timer society; before he escapes from the spell, he is apt to Imagine that he, himself, was here before 1865. It would be a great thing for Mon tana if Judge Woody would tear him self away from the consideration of water-right litigation and forget his law library, devoting himself foi' awhile to the preservation In black and white of the recollections which he has 11 of the days when Montana was young. I know of no other man who is so well qualified to present accurately and in it detail incidents which, otherwise, will be lost. And Montana can hardly af ford to loge theme stories. I mat in Judge Woody's office the other afternoon and asked him if there y was any datall which he wished to add to the story which he had already told me of his arrival in Montana. I told a him of my purpose to make his story the subject of this week's Old Trail contribution and gave him the chance to illumine it further if he wished. "I guess not," he answered with a laugh. "I never think of coming over the Big Hole pa.s oh that trip that I do not recall just how fast we came down that hill. I don't know as I ever told you how fast we came but I don't know as I could tell you if I tried. I never traveled so fast before 0lown any hill and I know I never have since. There was just a streak of wagons and oxen in an atmosphere of dust and profanity. It was a regular toboggan slide and we sld it. That is the ono feature of that crossing of the divide into the Bitter Root that I see first whenver the thought of the trip comes to me. I think the record we made that day for speed on a mountain road will never be equaled. I don't want to be on the trip if it is." It was about sixteen years agg that Judge WoOdy first told me the story of how he came to Montana. We were driving up the Bitter Root, headed for the Big Hole country, following the trail over which the Judge had come in 1856. He had not been over that por tion of it since the first time he trav ersed it and he was alert for land marks. As we Jogged along over the road, he told me the tale. Shortly afterward. I wrote it and laid it away. This anniversary seqms to mte to be a good time to call the story out of the drawer where it has been folded so long. It is an interesting chapter in Montana history. In 1855 the Kansas fever raged along the Atlantic coast. Judge Woody was a boy then but he caught the fever and started weit from North Carolina. He reached Leavenworth in the spring of that year and looked about. The lure of the west by thii time had a strong hold upon him and he looked out for a chance to get fur ther from the states. A jOb as mule skinner presented itself which would have taken him to eastern Montana, but he didn't like the, look of the army mulep. So he waited and the next Schance was offered by a Mormon out r fit that was starting for Salt Lake. SThe young man accepted thls chance h and headed for Zoio. Salt Lake was reached In August. n But Woody didn't get there with the 9 outfit. He participated In a mutiny g aal~st a drunken and abulsive wagon * bog, And left the train with eight other v. young fellows. They made their way to salt tuke by a woundibount ro.ts !4 JUDGE WOODY. wintered in Utah. During that at tumn and winter, the future Montana had tough experiences; he was with out funds and he was not a Mormol which was a bad situation for a young ster in Utah in those days. E worked at making adobe bricks, I found some employment as a fari hand and he helped dig a big Irrigatin ditch. Once or twice he found It nec essary to pose as a Mormon, but 1 was a good-enough actor to make th bluff work to the extent that he g, tood and shelter when both were badl needed. 8o passed the winter and th spring of 1856 found the young ma well seasoned and ready for almoi anything. He worked again in tt farming districts and got a hombinatio job as ditch digger and cook on an It rlgation scheme. Here he worked ur til August, when he quit and went 1 Salt Lake with an order on the cor tractors for his pay. "That order was what started me ft Montana," said the judge. "I went 1 the office of Hooper & Williamn draw some of my money, when Cai tain Hooper stopped me anti asked I could drive oxen. If there was an! thing I had learned, it wag drivit oxen, on that trip across Knuas. told the captain I could certainly drhi oxen and he said there was a man I town who wanted to go to the P'lai head country to trade with tihe Ir dians for horses; he wanted to tal two ox-teams and he was looking ft drivers. I didn't know where tl Flathfad country was, but I was wil Ing to take a chance. I was anxiot to get out of that G'od-forsakten cour try and I didn't care what tile chan( was that took me out. "The result was that my chum and contracted to take these ox-teams I the Hell Gate river, 600 miles or so, fo $15 a month, and to start In two i three days. Our boss was a Morme pamed Van Etten. *Itooper & Willian sent a three-team outfit along wit our two teams. Both of our teams wei oxen, four yokes each. The other ou fit had two slmilar Ox-teaims and or mule-team. Early in Septemher v headed north. Otr route was along ti lake and then up the Malade valles then over Bannack mountain and dow the river of the same name: acro country to the Port Neuf river at north to the Snake river at Fort Ha Then we followed the Snake until v could ford it, then over to Market ial and Medicine Lodge creek, where v struck an Indian trail whloh took i over the Rocky nmountains and dow to Red Rock creek. 'This brought us into what is no M1ontana. An nearly as I can remen her, It was about the 1st of Octob that we struck this place, and for tl firsr time I saw our state-not forms then." The journey had been withbi mishap and we had made good tim Ahead of us loomed the mountali that marred the location of the Bitt, Root. and 're turned across Hon Prairie to tub Big Hole basin. "Over the 1ig. Hole country, v moved rapidly. It was a wonderful va ley, we thought' then and I think i now. Such graes'I had never seen 6, fore. The stock go,t fat, and despl the pace at which we, moved. At I soon, one night found'us at the moui i of Trail creek, almost at the very hei of the Big Hole. We figed the stei pass of the continental divide. V camped there on Trail creek that nigi and pulled out early the nex mornir for the climb over the pass. "That wab the worst teaming we bf i on the trip, The streams--and the are a good ma'iy of them-have-ci I deep channels in the soft soil of tl I valley. It was terrible fording. I mar aged to upset my outfit and had lively scene yith the boas, But" I I righted after a While and we strugglh on out'of, the valley and up the ha All day we pounded those steers x that hill; they ptilled and heaved ar strained, but it was night before v reached an open glqa4 at the summ and I am sure the ani~,is were as gl as we were Wbin we *made camp, was a beautiful park and didn't seer except, ýor the chill air, as .If we wei on the top of the divide, We slej well'that night. "In othe morning eama the prepari thle for the de.cent on the Bitter Ro! sld5. Wo prospecte4 the trail at - lr'C'".', - found that we had two miles of n straight-down trail ahead of us. There - was no road-just an old Indian trail, I, One wagon outfit had been over the. - pass the year before, but it was lightly e loaded and had made no road. Eman e uel Martin-known as Old Manwell, the n Spaniard, had takeh three wagons over, i we learned later, but it didn't help us - much. We looked over the old Indian e trail and followed that. e "The Indians we e better road mak l ers than most of the civil engineers; Y they didn't know much about grades e and levels, but they had good sense In 3 picking a route. Our trail ran a little t to the*east from the present road over e the pass, but it was practically the s eame and you know how steep it is now. It was just as steep then, only it hadn't been dug at all anywhere. 0 "We rough-locked the wagon wheels and took the two swing-yokes of oxen and hitched them behind, to pull back. r W\ith the leaders and"wheelers in front 0 and the swing-teams behind, we start O ed iown the hill, two men.pounding the swing-teams over the heads to make them pull back: they just slid down the hill. And the dust they madel g The yells and the snorts and the dust I made a Bedlam. But we got to the Q bottom all rliht and were mighty n thankful'to find everybody there and - everything right side up. That was - the hardest bit of traveling that I ever (lid. r "We straightened out and went down along the stream to Ross' Hole. There - l9a good road down the Bitter Root S'romn there now. but there was none at Sall through the canyon then and we had e to imake a detour over a small but steep mountain on the east side before I we got into the Bitter Root, proper. We o did this, however, without accident, and .r entefred the famous valley. r "The rest of the way was easy go n Ing. Whein we reached the mouth of a Willow creek, just below the site of h Corvallis. we found the first sign of e white settlement. Here were the cab - Ins (of Lieutenant Mullan's camp of e 1853. There were a couple of white " men there then, herding sopje stock. e At old Fort Owen we found- a log stockade and a little group of cabins. n Major Owen' was away at Benton at i I the time, but there were three white A men at the fort, Henri M. Chase be I. Ing in charge. The journey from Le there to the Hell Gate river was with :e out incident and we reaphed the end of a, our journey October 15. That was my i first glimpge of the Missoula valley. n Where Missoula now stands, there were that day 300 lodges of Indians, camped . for trading with Owen when he should come back from Benton. I have bees 'r away from this valley for short perl *p ods at different times since then, but d this place has ever since been my it home and it is as good a place as I D. havo ever found. There have been a Is good many changes here since then, r but the picture of the valley as It e looked to me that day is now Us dis tinct as if It were only yesterday. And 'e I have never since traveled am fast as I- I did that day coming down the Big io Hole pass." -A. L& B. Missoula, October 14., 1911. d ThoughMtf . d p Sent nd it "In what d it ie it it **rate" S "In what *yP" "Why he *oadni let me k t 4 sjhaautaed alil