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The Daily Missoulian. [volume] (Missoula, Mont.) 1904-1961, August 07, 1912, Morning, Image 9

Image and text provided by Montana Historical Society; Helena, MT

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025316/1912-08-07/ed-1/seq-9/

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S'4
oWhat i rete
The worst otf bi
t "th" Mtlo
ll thes fery ,in'-a . d!'e l tftle
st. te b the t it t
p . in tro t hiret d byll
Mver tsis bt h thoe edol.s as
Ow e?9ind every L cro o te
to sit- nt `wiThe 1iy
'rle Coe tie poWer o of ur people u a
the t sr ta s i by the' onstit titon
for this very pirpohe. Grave IlI.USttio
Sone by the e onhe when a fwilll
to ive he hntional governmeht om-n
pest tepwer In this natter. and still
graveer iualt by thae fderalourts
when they endrivoe In any wat to
le down the riht of the people ool.
ctielyen to sot In thisr matter they
deem wise; sCpoh condut does itsef
tend to oue tu ethe re tion or istwllight
bne tn Whioh neither the nation nor
,the inteo have tpower. .Ortuaately.
the federal oourts ve morha e and
ator o reent years tended to whdopt
te truae do trine, whineh i that all
tee mtteras are to be settled by the
ople theasse'yes, and that the con
sclenoe of the people, and not the
preferense or bay servants of the peo.
pe, Is to be the standard s deciding
Wat aon shall be bye tlen by the peo
le,. Als incoln phrased Itb "The
the Prneiple or generality and lo
calioy. Wh tever concerns the whole
shuld be confided to the whore-to
'the ieneral *overaneot; whi'o vhrt
ver conscerns only the !tre should be
lift etolqusvely to the stateo."
Irt Is utterly hopeless to attempt to
control the trusts merely by the anti
tust Ilw, or by any law the sane in
licathons may be Iln detril. on the
first plcea these Ireat t crpoations
cannot possfly by controha e merely
' atf.o surqes o recenty wsute.dedoe ad
nmlstrat dlvr branh of the omvernment
must eserheise suh control. The pre
lctenrous failure of the commerce
court has shown that only damae
comes trome the effort to substitute
rudlclal administrative control of
gret orporations. In the nesth plce,
a loosely drawn law which promises to
do everything would reduce business
to complete ruin it It were not also so
drawn as to apcompllsh almost noth
Irn.
. As construed by the democratic
platform, the anti-trust law would, if
It could be enforced, abolish all busi
ness of any, else or any effleency. The
promise thus to apply and construe
the law would undoubtedly be broken,
but the mere fitful effort thus .to ap
ply it would do no jood whatever,
Would accomplish widespread harm,
and would bring all trust legis'atlon
Into contempt. Contrast what has ac.
tually been accomplished under the
Interstate commerce law with what has
actually been accomplished under the
anti-trust law. The first has, on the
wholq, gohleved real and even great
results (a!though I firmly believe that
If the power of the commissioners a
grows greater, It will be- necessary to
make them and their superior, the
president, even more completely re
sponsible to the people for their acts). I
The second has occasionally done
good, has usually accomplished noth
Ing, has generally left the worst coq- 1
ditions wholly unchanged, and has
been responaib'e for a consideralle
amount of downright and positive evil, 4
What is needed is the application to a
All industrial concerns and all co-op- I
erating intefests en ed in Interstate
commerce In whloe there is either I
monopoly or control of the market of a
the principles on which we have gone
In regulatlnl trahsportation concerns
engaged In such commerce. The anti
trust law should be kept on the stat
ute books and strengthened so as to i
make It genuinely and thoroughly ef
fective against every big bonoern tend
ing to monopoly or guilty of anti-so- 3
ial practties. 'At the same timea c
national industrial commission should I
be created which should" have com- I
plete power to re ulate and control all I
the great Industrial concerns -engaged a
in interstate business-which prao- t
Scally means all of them In this coun
try. This, commlssion should xernocise
over these industria' conoer.s like a
powers. to those exrised, over" the c
r·alwys by the aint'state omerce v
commisswn and. over th ltionalt
banks by the comproller of the out'
Tenoy and sdditionail Woers if found
neoe55Rt',. The s tabltsitment of such I
a- oommJiiloh wo ld eniable us to pun-%
ish the individual rather than merely t
the corloratlon, Just as we now do r
with the tLanks, where the aim of the a
government i, n'not to close the bank, t
but to bring to justice pereodrlly any 'c
bank official who' has: gone 'wrong. c
This oenmisston shtul4 dea' With al t
the abuses of the trusts-all the buses r
such as those developed by the gov- a
grnmstlt suit against the itandard Oil
and tobacod trusts-as the Interstate b
commerce eomivnslon now deals with t
bettee( l IU should have compl
towerr to ma1ke the caplittalltlon. abso. i
lutely ht s a put a op to all I
stock W<tqr pg. Souh supesvislon over "
the Isisie of corp e soeautttes v
wu Ocalastop to .xP Itatio of the c
peep a bdisonresrt captalistb desire t
int lre Rlytdn4s oi watered a
u it and iw op this rind t
of iPuslr 1 to iaow 0sli s by d
the' pi #Iqp . It eal habve d
tto e1(of cor s
a sad p ad~ I f an oufot*
IAal
II 5
'Rt ,
iil
a ttroust|
S la .
thne at w, aid: .
@ompe nad in shod iuch
b uok up l4o t nto a d tofa ri
inr a nnlde nte coastrtun
Sa ted to eros
Sdownj *to'tin t he ol
veibty~ancumtp tth eir aioeonu n
mhe aeontras ate aa s went u, tO
obittr oonde pention f the crlmit
by the highet oourt in the ontly.
'Not one paitiote of benefit to the
cOtanbiunty at IJare was gained; on
the contrary the prices went up, to
oonstuners, independent aco etitoro
were placed in greater eopardy than
ever before, and the poess of the
wrongdoers gleltly appr'eciated in val,
est ofer never wa n more flagrant
tvesty of Jurstco, nintver mnstance
in Whtolh welthi wron o ers bene
tfted more conspiouously by a law
Whicah was supposed to be aimed at
them, and wheh undoubted y would
hive brought avout sevire punishment
of less wealthy wrongdoers.
The progressive proposal is definite.
It is practicable. We prbmise nothing
that we cannot carry out. We prom
ise nothing which will iJopardise hon
eat business. We promise adequate
control oS all big business and the
stern suppression of the evils con
nected with big business, and this
prOmise we can absolutely keep. Our
D prool is to help honest business
actlvlty. however etxensive, and to see
that It Is rewarded with fair returns
so that there may be no oppression
either of business men or of the conm
mon people. We propose to make it
worth whole for our business men to
develop the most effiolent business
agencies for use in International
trade; for it is to the interest of our
whole people that we should do well
in intrnatiol htbusiness. But we pro
pose to make thoes business, agencies
do complete justice to our own peo.
ple, iveery dishonest business nean
will unquestionably prefer either the
program of the republtcan conventiqo
or the program of the democratic con.
vention to our proposal, because
neither of these programs means or
can mean what it .pprpbrts to mean.
'But every honest business man, big or
little, should support the progressive
program, and it b the one and only
program which offers real hope to all
our people; for it is the one program
under which the government can be
used with rbal effiioency to see justice
done by the bhi corporation alike to
the wage-earners it employe, to the
smirl rvales With whom it competes,
to the consumers who chase Its se
curities, and to the consumers who.
purchase its products, or to the eon
eral 'publt which, It ought to serve,.
as well as to' the business man him
self.
We favor co-operation in business,
and ask only that it bp carried on 'in
a spirit of honesty and fairness. We
are against crooked business big or
little; we are in favor oe honest busi
ness, big or little. We rp9Pose to
penalise conduct and not else. But
all very big business, evep though
honestly conducted, is fraught With
such potentiality of menace that there
should be thoroughgoing governmental
control ever it, so that its efficiency
in promoting prosperity at home and
Increasing the power of the nation in
international commerce may be main.
tained, and at the same time fair play
insured to the wage-workers, the small
business competitors, the investors, and
the general public. Wherever It is
practicable.,we propose to preserve
competition; but where under mod
,ern conditions competition has been
eliminated and cannot be successfully
restored, then the government must
step in and itself supp'y the needed
control on behalf of the people as a
whole.
It is imperative to the welfare of our
people that we enlarge and extend our
foreign commerce. We are pre-emi
nently fitted to do this because as a
people we have developed high skill
in the art of maniufacturingl: our busi
ness men are strong executives, strong
organisers, In every possible way
federal government should co-operate
in this knportant matter. Anyone who
has 1hd op.portunity to study and ob
serve first-hand Germany's course in
this respect must realise that their I
policy of co-operation between goy
emrnent and business has in compar
atively few yearq rimade tlthn a luading I
competitolr for the oopnmerce of the I
world. It shoMld be renemnbefed that
they are doing this op a national scale
and with lare units of business,
while the demoorats would have ue be
lipve that. we should do. t with ,small
units of bsinies, Whioh whio be con
trolled not .. the natitgdl govern
nent, but by 491 oonl "tln state
sovereignties, uoh I policy Is ut.*
terly out of keepingr with the progress
of the times itad gives our commer.
cial rivals in europe--hungry for in
ternatlonal markets-golden oppottu
nities of which they are rapidl taking
advantage.
I very much wish that le.itimate
business would no lOnger permit itself
to be frghtenedby the OIoiMs of il
legitlmate business lnto believng that
ther have any pommunltty. o tearest,
stand that it intere.ts a leop us
when they are c onfounded wih those
of illegitimate tbsilssg7 and the lat
ter, whenever threatened with Just
control, alwas tres to ersude the
former aaslas s .erd iA ,A
ai mstt rof flat, lýI H tslm business,
seadedr into our osittaiI It is
r V#4
'C1
tthe au# t A
v ie. Ta ir.f e.'ll.
S nmetr ta hei t OpO t ,
thapt n t e
lve de o
ed of toaf nmki ng ae
Iet old be on theory that
stobh Protpctin will sre {o keen up
*re atn the tandad of lvn
f the ae-woke that hot he revndust
wbiUthd ee for the tari mak of the
o t tr i b admW sattratn. Wherever
out fth methe oage-orker.
iAot m uld be on t hhehery that
h ptotpctlon will serve to keen up
the maes and the standard of living
at th wa.re-worker a that hindustry
with all re ard for the interest of the
henumer. To 'ecomplish this thear
iff to be levied. should, as neatly as to
entdfically poshlble, approxmate the
ntial gtween the cost of proa
n at home nd abroad. This dif.
1e is I.ohlel . it not wholly, In
goet. No duty should be per
to stand as reards any in
1 u . yaless the workdrs receive their
pell r,nof the bonefits of that duty.'
t other words,,,there Is no warrant
bo ootectlion ntnless a legitimate share
of thb benefits sets Into the pay en
velope of the wage-worker.
The practice of undertaking a aen
ral revision of all the schedules at
one time and of securinf information
as to conditions in the different Indus.
tries and as to rates of A.tv desired
chiefly from those engaged In the in
dustries, who themselvs benefilt da
rectly from the rates they propose, has
been demonstrated to he not only Ino
IOultrus but futile. It has afforded
onportunltv for practlcallv all of the
ahusee which have crept into our tar·
Iff-maklng and ouar tariff admlnisCtra -
tion. The day of the low*-olline tariff
temust end. The proererrlive thouWht
of the countnry has reonlised thin fact
for several years and the time has
eatne when all genuine protressives
shotn'd Isist uason a thorough and
rP*Nlcal changie in the, method of tar
Iff-maklng.
The gret step should be the creation
of a permanent commisslon of non
nartlsan experts whose business shall
be to studv sMlentifloalty all phases of
tariff making and of tariff effects.
Thli commisalon should be large
enourh to cover all the different and
widely-varviln branches of American
industry. It should have ample powers
to enable It to securs exact and re
liable information. It should have
authority to examine closely all cor.
related subJects, such as the effecti of
any nlven duty on the onsumer ofl
the article on which the duty is levied:
that is, It should directly conslder the
question as to what ens duty costs the
people 1n the price of livinr. It should
o amlnre nto the wages and conditions
of lahor and life of the workmen in
any industry. so as to Insure our re
fuilng protection to any industry Un
desa the showing as regards the share
labor receives therefrom is satisface
tory. Thlb onmmisalon would be whaol
Iv different from the present unsatls
farectory tariff board, which was crce
ated under a provision of law which
failed to o.ve it the powers Indias
penserbl cI it was to do the work Jt
should do.
It will be well for us to study the
experience of Germany In considerlnl
this question. The German tariff com
mission has proved conclusively the of
ficiency and wisdom of this method of ,
handling tariff questloin. The reports
of a permanent, expert and non-partl.
san tariff commlsrion would at once r
atrike a most powerful blow asainst l
the chief Iniquity of the old log-rolling
method of tariff making. One of the
principal difficulties with the old meth.
od has been that it was impossible for
the public generally, and especially for
those members of congress not dli.
rectly connected with the committees I
handling a tariff bill to secure any- i
thing like adequate and impartial In.
formation on the particula subjects i
under considPration; The eports ofa
such a tarlff commission would at I
once correct this evil and furnish to
the general public full, complete and
disinterested Informatlon on every sub
Jest treated in 'sa tariff bill. With such
reports It would no longer he possible I
to construct a tariff hill In secret or
to Jam It through either house of con.
Kreas without the fullest and most l
luminating discussion. The path of the c
tariff "joker" would be rendered In- I
finitely diflmoult. I
aImer4uy UIICIIUI.
As a further means of disrupting the
old crooked, lor-rolling method of
tariff making, all future revisions of
the tariff should be made schedule by
schedule as changing conditions may
require. Thus a great obstacle will be
thrown in the way of 'the trading of
votes which has marked so scandalous
ly .the enactment of every tariff bilt
of recent years. The tariff commis.
slons should render reports at the call
of congress or of either branch of con
gress, and to the president. Under the
constitution, congress is the tariff
making power. It should not be the
purpose in creating a tariff commis
silon to take anything away from this
power of congress, but rather to af.
ford a wise means of giving to con
greas the widest and most scientific
assistance possible, and of furnishlng
it and the public with the fullest dis
Interested information. Only by this
means.can the tariff be taken out of'
polities. The creation of such a per
manent tariff commission, and the
adoption of-the policv of schedule by
schedule revision will do more to ac.
co.lplish this highly' desired object
than any other meas. yet devised.
SThe democratic platform declares for
a tariff for revenue only, asserting that
a; protective tariff is unoonstitutional.
To say that a protective tariff is un.
constitutional, as the democratic plat
form insists, is only excusable on a
theory of the constitution Which would
make it unconstitutional to le-lsl.te in
any shape or way for the hbttertment
of soclal and industrial conditions, The
abolition of the protective tariff or the
substitution for it of a tariff for rev
enue olv, as proposed by the demo.,
cratic platform, would ptunge this
country into the most widespread in.
dustrial depression we have yet seen,
and this depression would continue for
an indefinite period. There is no hope
from the standpoint of our people from
action such as the democrats propose,
The one and only chaMca to secure
st-ble and favorabls husinabe, cond.
tiona;ii this country, while at the same
time guaranteeing failr play to farmer,
consumer, business man and wage
wolkrW; lies in the creation of Suoh a
aomhaiion as I herein adV . Ot Only
ar suoh'i acommislon i'only by
b atvIties of the o t will
Ib!# ;or :s to st S .
e y n m ,,sImý1ia
be morn, at b
rthe l lt he
The maim pu
movement .toe p the
pie in iret
of measmal pit lml
Creather do te. " t
iy are tbulh with gree
tures. alt u stit I ae.d
beint pthe,"n Po pe tn
m rtes uthe eonstn oa tie
mniftrcul thoutth wae t repu h
s ecost reof living in tols
it e dur ing the last few
Srathe ofts most certarianly
ame sintuation confr hnts
s -i a dionrlty of wage-orkeson
guftiit. ae men, smail proelesional
ten kr , the donctors, citl
men It gave though the prof m
,th tone wa to manv e ntiont makes
and tto deal with let insincThe dely
to ae alm remedies, to promisfind theen
thhe e high ur opponent , reg in
tils -dldemnrrats alike, prop reme to
deal wittlit in this way. Ihe repust
eane. thl tte platform prome the an tnt
Ifct that the froct. Moat certainly
that evd bhe ruch Inquilry But the
wane t n termany and Jataion hasIt
faome t veryp its promises bln the al-t
amil deer th k dishonesty of action on
have any pfft upon the PturoseBarnes.ug
ation. n the senn conve pntaioen the demo
their prod ise worf thless. The demo
craticy we lannt afford to find the en
tire the hdowh on.t oTh wlfvinare ofin
the ta the snd promis s to remedy itas
by free trae, eaipecialty tree trade In
the WsOellrles of life. In the him-t
placebo this attitude ignorer the patent
fact that the prnblem is world-wide
that evarywhere, in EOnland and
profinc. 01on thermnv hand Japanthe conit
owed toith greater or leat thev lowesty:
that in england, for instance, it hae
become a very rvere problem, al
thoug .neither ft tn riff nort tenav to
Sresell the cree, the trof distr can there
have any posaible ettect upon the sittt
ation. In the second place, the demo
cratche plaodutrm. . it is sinrevre, must
mean that all doie st will be taken otn
the peffeduct s f the produrmer Yet motn
serta.inly we annmust be legislationve the
farmier utrck down. The welfare of
the iiler of the sil out am important as
the welfareh o the wag faworker him
el, and we mer.st eduluscently exgurd
both. Turehe armr, the per ,centr of the
nerceitisf ., ran himproductself live only
it he rel.i these necesito the okr t
prt ofit. O the oerr hand, the con
umer who, must s probable that farmer's
product in order to live. moast be al
lowed tof "urc thse t at the lowest
ent thats neele than be farmvedr h prof
oth a nd evythnm p). mud can there
done retur to the rmr any middleman
whome sundtlon does not tend to in
crease the acpnems of distribution of
the prodr. nd, thmoe propos, eved rnter
must be done dutro stop all mmission we can eg,
allvey do away with theany arbitrary
whichntrol ha combinations of the nces.
ous effect ,pun the producer and con
sumer. of life. J u t he legislation
which will Ing abouit a closer bust
na rnmenlationllp natween the of trmher
and the oonapmer. Recently exports
in the sagriqulturl department have
figuvery that hey can per cent of the
price qr iultural products paid by
the const I, es into the pockets,
not of the tar, but of various mid
dleme' business probable that over
half oef. wmt Io thus paid to middle
men is needless, can e aved bncr wise
Ibusires metheds (introduced through
both lpw and'custont), and can there
fore bthe retured to the armcor and the i
conshumer. Through the proposed iminationter
state industrial commission we can ef
fectively do away with any arbitrary
control by combnations o the nbusiness
ethods of lifene. urthrmorlly, the developmentov
ernmntod rod, the nation of aridthe
several states must comlands, thbine In mproveng
everyth in they can to ty of fake the
farmer's butiness profitabile, so that he
shalloo raget more out of the sall agenciesd whn
ndy better businesstry faliifes for mar
keting whallt h more profgets. In thbl
manner his movements will he ncreot onsed
While the price to the consumer is
diminished. The elimination of the
middleman by agricultural exchanges
and by the tume of improved business
methods generally, the development of
good roads, the reclamation of arid
lands and swamp lands, the improve
ment in the productvty or farms, the
encouragement of all agencies which
tend to bring people hack to the soil
and to make country life more inter
esting am well sa more profitable-ttll
these movements will help not only'
the farmer but the man who consumes
the farmer's ,, duetm
There is urgent need of non-partisan
expert examination Into any tariff
schedule which seems to Increase the
cost of living, and, unless the increase
thus caused is more than countervalled
by the benefit to the class of the com
munity which actually receives the
protection, it must, of course, mean
that that partleular duty must he re
duced. The system of levying a tariff
for the protection and encouragement
of American Industry so as to secure
higher wages and better conditions of
life for American laborers must never
be perverted so as to operate for the
Impoverishment of those whom it was
intended to benefit. But, In any event,
the effect of the tarIff on the cost of
living Is slight; any householder can
satisfy himself of this fact by consld
erlng the Increase in prlce of articles,
like milk and eggs, where the influ
ence of both the tariff and the trusts
is negligible. No eqndltlons have been
shown which warrant us In believing
that the abolition of the protective tar
iff as a whole would bring any sub
stantial benefit to the consumer,
while It would certainly cause un
heard of Inimediats disaster to all
wage-workers, all business men and all
fArmers, and in all probability would
permanently lower the standard of
lving here. In order to show the utter
futility of the bellef that the aboll
tion of the tariff and the establishment
of free trade woqid remedy the condi
tion complalnedu of, all that is neces
sary is to lonk' *t the course of In
dustrial events in Enliand and in
Germany during the last 80 years, the
former under free trade, the latter un
der a protective system. During these
30 years It Is a matter of common
knowledge that" Germany has forged
ahead relatively to EIngland, and this
not only as reguads the employers, but
as regards the W *gi-earners-In short,
as relards all eambeas of the Indus
trial classes. Iull.tless, many causes
have combined to produce this result:
It is not to be eolnlbed to the tariff
alone, but, on the other hand, It is evI.
dent that It coult toet have come about
if a protective tariff were even a chief
cause among manyv other causes of
the high cost of livlng,
It Is also asserted that the trusts are
responsible for ta high cost of living,
I have no qu . , that as regards
certain trusts t.lis true. I also have
no question that I*-WIll continue to be
true just as log the country con
fi1es. tself to ise the Baltimore
.Slatforir dem t we act. This
.amn4 di, In . or the states an.d
tlonal aver t o',to makt thI
1it2 cofictint ml. rlptis in thp"'
#It° '.fl~lVttll trust,.a
dith in the , r'. t at-teaaftade
theu-. i the ý oý fstet.ate
lItnIock coedoittt c buietness t
1nl atgo by ts' uea.
n of lawsuits the anti
t 1t.law-.a metaib4 Vin, t: tins been
deat alY shown V rlts to the
whleh really oumht to ve. but
Which cause dllstiL'rbtenc sano distress
to multitudes of maller concerns.
Trusts which increasle noluotion.-un.
les they do It west i'y, as tIn er.
tain formn of mniing anM lumteibrlt
cannot permanently lfterasse the cost
of livingt it is the trualte which limit
production, or. wbit h, without lmlitinr
production, take adventlel of the lack
of smvernmental cntrol, and ellmlnate
competition hv combaning to control
the market, that cause an Increase in
the cont of living. There should be
eatabllahed at once, as I have else
where said, under the national govern
ment an Inter-state Industrial commis
slon which should exercise full super
vision over the big industrial concerns
dolng an Inter-state business into
which an element of monopoly enters.
Where these concerns deal with the
necessaries of life the commission
should not au'rk. If the necessity is
proved, of groln to the extent of ex
erelsing raetlatory control over the
conditions that create or determine
monopoly prices.
13y such action we shall certainly be
ahle to remove the element of eon
trihutnry causation on the part of thie
trusts and the tariff toward the high
coat of living. There will remain many
Otther elements. Wrong taxation, in
eluding failure to tax swollen Inheri
tances and unuse.) land and other
natural resourcea held for speculative
purposes. Is one of these elements. The
modern tendency to leave the country
for the town Is another element; and
exhaustllon of the soil and poor aneth
odes of raising and marketing the
products of the soll make lp another
element, as I have already shown. An
other element la that of waste and ex
travagance. Individual and national.
N'o laws which the wit of man can de
vise will avail th make the community
lrosparoul if the average individual
llves in slch fashion that his expendi
ture always exceeds his income.
National extravagance.--hat is, the
expenditure of money which is not
aarrnated--wn can ourselves control.
and to anole degree we can help in don
ing away with the extravagmncc
caulsed by International rivalries.
These are all definite methods hby
which sonmethiln cant be asenolpllshed
In the direction of decreasing the ecat
of living. All taken together will not
fully tnett the situation. There are in
it elements which as yet we do not
understand. We can Ihe certan that
the remedy pllposed tIy the democrautic
party is a quack remedy, it is just
as emphlltlica4ly a quack remedy as
was tle lquack remedy, tih Impnacea, the
unlliversal cure-all which they I'rloPosed
16 years ago. It is instructive to com
Pare whant they now any with what
they saild in R180. Only 16 years ao
they wore telling us that the decreasen
in prices was fatal to our Ieople, that
the fall In the production of go&t, and,
as a conseqluence, the all In the prices
of conlmmodities, was respionsthle for o.lr
.lls. Now they ascribe these fils to
diametrically oiposle causes, such as
the rise in tile price of cunlllodlditis.
It ay' well be that the Immensie oullt
put of gold during the lust few yeatrs
Is partly responsible for ertnaill phases
of the present troult'o-.which is an
instructive eomnlllenary on the wisdoml
of those met who 11 years ego 'insisted
that the remedy for everything was to
be found In the more additional output
of coin, silver and gold alike. There
is no more curious de'uslon than that
the democratic platform is a progres
sive plat4ornl .TheT democratic plat
form, rlepresenting the heat thought of
the acknowledged democrath. leaders
at Baltimore. is pire-ly reirolgresalv.
and reactionary. Tiler. is no proress
in it. It represents an effort to to
back; to put tills nation of 100,000,000
existing under modern conditions, back
to where it wasn s a nation of 25,- '
000,00 tn lh days of the ntagecoach
and canall-Iout. Such an attitude Ia-'
toryism, not pIrogressivism.
In addition, then, to the remedies
that we call begin forthwith, there I
should be a fearless, Intelligent, and
searching inquiry into tile whole sub
ject, made by an absolutely non-par-*
tisan body of experts, with no preju
dice tor warp their mhda, no object
to serve, who shall recomlllatend any
necessary remedy, heedless of what In
terest may be helped or hurt thereby,
and caring only for the Ilnterests of the I
people as a whole.
Currency.
We believe that there exills an im
lerative need for promlpt legislation for
the Improvemelnt vof our national cur
rency system. The experience of re
piutPd financial crines in the last 40
years has proved that the present
method of issuing, through private
agencles, notes secured by government
bonds Is both harmful and unlcien
title. This method was adopted as a
means of financing the government
during the civil war through furnish
Ing a dometlic market for govern.
ment hbond. It was largely success.
fill in fulfilling that purpose; hut that
need is long palst and the system has
outlived thin feature of its usefulness.
The luaue of currency Is fundamen
tally a governmental function. The
nystemn to be adopted should have an
its basic principlen soundness and
elasticity. The currency should flow
forth readily at the demand of com
mercial activity, and reti * an prompt
ly when the demand dinlinishes. It
should be automatically suffilcent for
all of the legitltnate needs of busl
neas In any section of the country.
Only by such means can the country
he freed from the danger of recurring
panics. The control should he lodged
with the government, and should be
safeguarded against manipull'ation by
Wall street or the large interests, it
should he made imposible to use the
machinery or perquisites of the our
rency system for any speculative pur
poses, The country ehould be safe.
kuarded against overxlpanalon or un.
just contraction of eilther credit or
clrculating medium.
Conservation,
There can be no greater Isune than
that of conservation in thins coulltry.
Just an we must conserve our men,
women and children, no we milst con.
nerve the resources of the land on
which they live, We must conserve
the soll so that our children shall have
a land that is more and not leIs fer
tile than that our fathers dwelt In.
We must conserye the forests, not bhy
disuse but by use, making them -nore
valuable at the same time that we
use them. We must conserve the
mines. Moreover, we must Insure no
far as possible the use of certain types
of great natural resouces for the bene
fit of the people as a whole. The
public should not alienate Its fee In
the water power whioh will be of in
calculable conisquene, as a aource of
power int the immediate future. The
nation and the state" within their
several spheres should by immeeiate
leoelatjon Itrai tibtm t *1 the water
POWe l lsiilitgs.eonly for a re4
sans i c lIi ti terms that
I *. . tat) ~ist of the pu.b
'l the 1 niation has gone into
,;ýtiC 91 V$i04l194,l R bl! 17984 sQ
Sneat etd o nl the wcot r
e shotiml t1th the 1
appl s national work, *t4 we
e udertalken the work ll
the Panama canal. We an, use t
plant, and we can use the thumaa ef.
portehe Ieft free by the .oats o n
of the PII.m l roali an_ i' doilbtn
the Miasiselppi as to mak t a might
highroad of commaerce, fnd a souree
of fructification and not of death to
the rich and fertile landa IWingt slon
its lower length,
In the went, the forests, the, grns
Ing lands, the reserves of every klnd
should bie so handted as to be , kindt
tnterests of the actual settler, the. c
tual home-maker, He should be en
couraged to use them at once, bUtt in
such a ,way as to preserve and not ex
haust them. We do not intend that
our natural resources shall be ex
ploited by the few against the Inter
eats of the many, nor do we Intend to
turn them over to any man who will
wastefully use them by destruction,
and leave to those who came after us
a heritage damaged by Just so much.
The man in whose Interests we are
working s the smnall farmer and set
tier, the man who works with his own
hands, who is working not onty ,or
himself hut for his children, and who
wishes to leave to them the fruits of
his labor. His permanent welfare is
the prinle factor for cnnsideration In
developing the policy of conservation;
for our aim is to preserve our natural
resources for the public as a whole,
for the average man and the average
woman who make up the body of the
Amerlcan people.
Alaska.
Alaska should he developed at once,
but in the interest of the actual set
tier. In Alaska the government has
an opportunlty of starting In what is
almost a fresh field to work our varl
otul prtblems by actual experience.
The government should at once con
struct, owln, and operate the railways
in Alaskn. The government should
keep' the fee of all the coal fields anrd
allow thein to le operated by lessees
with the condition in the lease that
noln-lltse shall operate as a forfeit.
Tehnlegraph lines should he nloernilte as
the railways ar',. Moreove.r, It would
Ihe well In Alaska to try n syntll of
iind taxatllont which will, no far as
psslrnl,h, remove all the burllens from
thios, who actually use the land,
whether for hillding or for aglricul
turntl purposes, and will operate
agnlinst iny man who holds the. landt
fror Ispl.eclatltion, or derives an incm',ome
fr''ao It based, not on his own oexer
Itins, lbut on the increase In valuhe dii'
Ito altivltioe not his own. Tlleret I'
ve.ry real noeed that this ation shl il
asrlllnaly pIrepllare itself for thel ltlsk
of rtntedli'lng mtoral injilstie and meOot
ing sclial iprnlteniso by well-motnnsldered
gove'rnnlenltali effort: and the ho'st
prelaratitn for such wsle aot inn Is
to tealt by antitl elxpirlmettil i"l"
favoraile co.nditioins tIhe devir' whI,"'
we have reasonl to believe will work
well, but which it Is dlffitiilt to n,.
ply in old settled t ,vintmmlnlittes wtll
out preliminary exp,'rnlment.
International Affairs.
In Internatlional afrnlr thlis 'entntry
alhould behllve towrd other ltltiion
exact.ly as an Ihonorahle private (iti
ntle hAehar es tolwld othe elrlvmat e ill
ell,.m. We should fII no t wrong Ito any
Ilation, weak or streoieg, alndi we hlleli
sublllmit to mL wrong. Alove. all, we
mhould enever In any treamty melitke ellny
pronltie which c e tdle not Intllenl In
geml famithl to fulfill. I l ieellm it ien
sentlll tlhat our small nrmy shoulld he
ket at At high Ieltch rto petrfeetieon. andl
In no waey (can it IIe ll damagledl as by
permlitting i to Ioe.t'et the Ilaythlne
of neltm In congreNs who wish to Igratli
fy either spite or favorllisnl, or to
seicure to locmlitlles advantagels to
whiclh those loelalitis are not etlltlelld.
The navy should be steadilly hlilt elp:;
and the l.re)esa oef uphlulldllnig nlelm not
he sMtlolpld ulntll-and not before--lt
Iro'nves posslhle to smeculre h.y interna
tional agrreement a genleral reduction
orf arlelalemeents. The Pana'llfnt eanalli
mu lt e feoirtiflid. It would have hbneni
urlmlnal te helIld It if we Were mot
prepallreed to forltify It anlld to kcell oeilte
navy at leuclh pitcll(h of strengLth eas to
rentder It unsafete for Ule)y forerIgll Iepwer
to attack tis and .et control of It. We
have I) prfoe''t right to permit oeur
e'oantwlme traffic (with which, there
can be no cornmlttlion by the, inrcrehant
lmarline of alley forelign naIltlion --im)e that
theere le no dtlsrhnrlnatlol agelnat any
forelign marine)) t parns through that
c'etlnal Lon any terms wee chmose, and t
pIrsonally think that eno toll eshould le
charged on such traffic. Moreover,
in time of war, where all Irlntles he
tween warring natliton, esevo thome con
nIecteede with the maInlemalllemeent of the
war, mt oncel Ipllase, the nllll would of
courseo e oln in thle Ise of of our war
shile and closed to warships of thee nla
tion with wltleh 'we were enllagedl In
hostlllitles. ut at all tmnes the c0a
nal mhoull bie opened on equall telrms
to tile shilpm of all nltlmon, including'lll
our own, elngageed In inte'rnational eom
mlerce That wais the mleerstandllng
of the treaety when It wan adopted, and
the United tlatetes mInallt always, ae as
mliatter (Iof honornlleie ollligation and
with ll crllupuloels nicety, live Imup to ev
ery uInderlstndingll which she hla en.
teered Into with any foreign power.
The queetion that has arlPeni over
the rlght of thtlis nationi to charge tolls
eon the canal vividly IIIustrates theo
folly tanld Iniquity of mnaklng treatles
whlich carnnot and ouglht not to ie keplt.
A a l. people( there IL no laeson ,we
miore nileced to learn than the lemsoen
tenot in rit o(ltheurst of e'lotionaltlarn to
makel a treenty that oulght not to he,
and cemld lnot be, kept; and the fur
thoer lesuon that, when we do make It
treaty, we must soberly Ive IIve to It
ee long as changed condlltions ldo not
$trrant the serioull stop of denoulnching
It. If we had been so unwtl.e as to
adopt the general arbitration treatles
a few months ago, we would now he
bound to arbitrate the question of our
right to free our own cenlll wwise traft
fie frmne canal tolls; and Lat any fur
ther time wee rilght have found oulr
senrVs oblliged to arbitrate the question
whether in tIhe' evente of war, we celelld
ieeeIp the e'anfl opeln to, our own war
voelwl arnd elosed to thosei of our flues.
There c,:clte he no letter Illuatratti
of the extrnemeo unwlsdoalm of entering
into Interrnattrersl a.Kroeemrtttl wtllh
out payin.lllg hl.d to the questionl of
keetfdng tlhem.ll, the otheer hand. we
dellbheately, and with our eyes open
anld after amplel conmlderationl and
discusilon, agreed to treat all tmer
chant ahips on the eame bslls; it was
partly becausee of this agreement that
there was no question raised by for
eign nations as to our digging and
forttylnng the canal; and having giv
en our word, we must keep it, When
therAmeriean people make a promise,
thfat promise must and will 'bu kept.
Conolusion,
Now, friends, this Is my onfessalon
of faith, I have made it rather long
because I wilh you to know just what
my deepest convictions are on the
great questions of today so that If you
choose to make me your standard.
bearer In the ftiht you shall anake
your choicee understanding efrotly how
I feel-and if, after hearing me, you
think you ought to shoose sopneone
else, I shall loyally *8ede by your
choice. The conviotlong to whuih fI
L$Y V99r ki l*VY9 8Q$ V .9ft 4 S
that without the
power many of the
remedled, I believe
portunity for the
directly to partlepat
and to control their
agents, because lon,
taught me that witeht
many of their agenti
them badly, By adtiual
office I have found that,
could secure the triumph o
in which I most believed, not
politicians and the men wh O
an exceptional right to spea k b
neas and government, but
over their heads and appealdis
ly to the people themselves.
not under the slightest deluslonl
any power that durlg mny.
career I have at any time
Whatever of power I at an.t melha
I obtained from the people. I t y, t
exercise It only so lone as, and to
the extent that, the people not merely
believed In me, but heartily backed
me up. Whatever I did as pl sident'
I was able to do only because I had
the backing of the people. ,When on
any point I did not have thaln beek
ing, when on any point I ditfere.tfrom
the people, it mattered not whether
I was right or whether I was wr.ig,
my power vanished. I tried my buet
to lead the people, to advise thentl
to tell them what I thought was right;
if neeeaeary, I never hesitated to tell
them what I though they ought to
hear, even though I thought It would
be unpleasant for them to hear it; but
I recognlsed that my task was to try
to lead them and not to drive them.
to take them into my confidence, to
try to show them that I was right,
and then loyally and in good faith to
n('eaept their adcelslon. I will do any
thing for the people except what my
e'nalelence tells me is wrong, and that
I aitn do for no man and no sqt of
meln; I hold that a man cannot serve
peop't1,' well unless heo serves his con
hiener; but I hold also that where his
atanselience hild him refuse to do what
the pur.le desire, he should not try
t, continulte in office against their will.
Otur government system should be ire
halped that the public servant, when
he alltnot conscIentiously carry out
the wishes of the people, shall at their
Ides.re leave his office and not mis
relpres.nt them In office; and I hold
thtl the public servant can by so do
Inag Ibeter than In any other way,
servye lIath them and his connscience.
uutrely there never was a fight bet
tr warth mnaking than the one in
whllh we are engaged. It little mat
trs what hefalls any one of us who
rfr het. tlnae being stand In the fore
frort of the hbattle. I hope we shall
win, tand I he'leve that if we can wake
the, leople to what the flght really
means we shall win. Iout, win or
lose, we shall not falter. Whatever
rite ,,ny at the moment overtake any
ofr us, the mtnvemnent itself will not
stop. (our eausle is based on the
eternall prlnciples of righteousness:
and even though we who now lead
may for the time fall, In the end the
cnare Itse'f shall triumph. 81x weeks
ngo,. btrer, In (chiango, I spoke to the
honllet replre.sntuativea of a conven
tiLon which was lnot doaminated by
holtal mlon; In conventlion wherein sat.
hnia! a atnjor.ty of meno who, with
snaleirllng inldfferncee to every prin
liple of right, so acted as to bring to
a shameful ndl a party which had
been founded over half a century ago
by men In whose souls burned the
fire of lofty endeavor. Now to you
tlmen, whil, In your turn, have come
together to sapend and be spent in the
endless crlluaadl against wrong, to you
who facae thie future resallute and con
fideant, to yaou who strive in a spirit
aof brotherhtold for the betterment of
aouar nation, to yout who gird yourselves
for this great new flght inl the never
endingll warfare for the good of human
kind, I say in closin.g What In that
Ispeech. I said In ll.asing: We stand at
Armageddon, and we battle for the
Lord.
CALL FOR PROGRESSIVE PRIMARY
All persons who affiliate with, or
who Intend to affiliate with the pro
gressivie party, are called to meet in
their respective precincts In 'Ravalll
co(unty, Montana, Saturday evening.
August 17, 1912, at 8 o'clock, for
the purpose of selecting one person
from their precinct to act as a mem
her of the county central committee
of the progressive party for lRavalli
county, and to selec't one delegate to
the progressive state convention to be
held at Helena on Septomber 3, 1913.
Each meeting will organise by se
lecting a chairman and secretary, who
shall Issun certificates to the persons
saelcted as county central committee
man and delegates to the state con
vention, and notify the undersigned
who have betn so selected.
The county central committeemen
thus selected are hereby called to
meet at the courthouse In Hamilton,
'Montana, on Thursday, August 321
1912, at 12 o'clock, noon, for the pur
pose of selecting a chairman and se.o
retary and any other officers deemed
,advisable, for the purpose of calling
a county convention of the progres
sive party of Itavalli county, and to
transact such other business a' may
come before said committee.
The following places are designated
as the meeting places for each pre
cinct, for the primary to be held Au
gust 17, 1912:
Overwich-Postofflce.
Kula-'4choothouse.
Darby--Hammond's hotel
Orantsdale--Iolt's halr.
Hamilton, No, 65-County courthouse.
Hamilton, No. 6-Burns' hall,
Woodnide - Popham's blacksmith
shop.
Corvallis-Slack's hall.
Victor- Appolonlo & Waters' hall.
Stevensville, No, 9--lewis hall.
Htevensville, No, 10-Town hall.
Florence ,Woodman hall.
'Eight Mile-Schoolhouse.
All vacancies existing in the mem
borship of the county central com
mittee on August 2., 1912, and all va
cancies existing In membership of del.
egates to state convention, will be
filled by the county central committee
selecting some person from the pre
cinct wherein such vacancy occurs.
Dated etovensville, Mont., August 1,
1918, Gl4BlRT AIIAM,
Progressive state Central OPumnlteek
.man for Itavalli County. A& .Iet
Btevenaville; 'Montana.
-hat anim alv, ,e, r da
overthe
variou ' ry

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