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ûTAAi^ 7 m V s 4 1 . J COWS NEED FEED TO PRODUCE DONE Heavy Milkers Drawing Con -1 stantlv on Skeletons for Mineral Matter. EXPERIMENTS PROVE Phosphorus, Magnesium and Calcium Must Be Supplied in Food Form. Careful Ohio experiments indicate that during the winter time dairy cows which are producing at all heavily draw to a large extent on their skeletons for Much mineral matter as calcium, mag nesium and phosphorus. Such a state of affairs cannot long continue. Soon er or later the cows must reduce their milk flow in order to save their skele tons. There is enough mineral material stored in the skeleton of the average cow to give a sufficient reserve sup ply during the ordinary lactation per iod. It Is essential, nfler a cow be comes dry, however, that she should he given an opportunity to restore the lost reserve. There is some indication that cows on pasture, especially on pastures rich in clovers, are able to secure in a readily available form the minerai materials needed. Clover and Alfalfa. None of the common farm grains are •t all rich in calcium. Corn is espe cially poor. Bran, cottonseed meal and oil meal contain several times as much calcium as the ordinary farm ■rains, but, nevertheless, are not so very rich In It. Corn stover, oat straw and timothy hay are all far richer in calcium than the ordinary grain ration fed to milk cows. But the only inn - ferlais available which are really rich in .calcium arc clover and alfalfa hay. In every thousand pounds of dry sub stance, red clover hay contains about 17 pounds of calcium, and alfalfa bay about 21 pounds of calcium, whereas com grain contains only about one fourth of a pound of calcium and corn stover contains about four pounds. From the standpoint of calcium it is highly important to feed considerable amounts of leguminous hay to milk cows. The question of phosphorus and magnaslum in the milk cow's ration is not quite so important as calcium. It is worth while knowing, however, that cottonseed meal and bran are the rich est of our common foods in phos phorus. Oil meal comes next. The re mainder of our common farm grains and roughages contain only about one half ns much phosphorus as oil meal, and about one-fourth as much us cot tonseed meal or bran. In magnesium, cottonseed meal, bran and oil meal are again the richest of our common feeds. As to how far it is possible to pro tect the cow's skeleton by feeding a ration rich in leguminous hay. cutton seed meal, oil meal, bran, etc., and therefore rich in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, it is Impossible to say. The Ohio experiments rather in dicate that even though a ratten may be rich in these hone-building mate rials, the cow is not able to utilize them at all fully when sh, Is giving a full flow of milk, of milk seem: matter In her preferring, up| skeleton for a mineral math mineral matter in t room for sonn along this line, the present indication being that it is very important to give a cow a good rent between lactation periods, making certain that .she has an opportunity while dry to store up the maximum of calcium phosphorus and magnesium by allowing her to pasture on clover or alfalfa aim un: * ,.f leguminous hay, together wii; su b grain feeds as cottonseed : i. al, oil meal and bran. This is simj iy from the standpoint of storing up an .Umn dance of reserve supply of mintual matter. The practical dairyman ktmws that such a poltcy is also worth «'nil, from the standpoint of spuing large reserve supply of fat Wallace's Farm. r. A row on a full flow to digt 1 «I lb* mineral food -\ •cry wasteful!?, irently, to draw mi imr •on.si dr r; iblo part ot the * rather than on the in tin food. There 1« • very careful studies >V BREEDING EWES FOR SALE One band of two-year-olds, cross bred breeding ewes; one band two to four-year-olds, white-faced, mi dium-woolen breeding ewes: one band two- to four-year-olds Hamp shire breeding ewes. These sheep are in first-class eon dltlon; home raised; ages guaran teed; and good, heavy shearing •beep. For particulars, call on or address ■ J. E MORSE DILLON, MONT. i ' Your Back Yard or Vacant Lot Could Grow Produce Like This •a m Just a lew o the many things this M.ssouia family raise j in men war g.truen last year. 1n the pic.ure are pump kins, potatoes, cabbages, melons, carrots, parsnips, tomatoes, beots, squash, turnips, onions, radishes, peppers. The high cost of sating isn t worrying them! Right Kind of Winter Feed Needed for Breeding Ewes Feeding breeding flock« during the winted depend« much upon the «canon. Many flocks receive little feed other than that furnished by the blue grans pant res, the wheat fields and the mea dows, until the winter show cuts off this source of feed. During the winter months, clover and alfalfa are the standard roughages tor pregnant ewes. Tin high price of these hays in recent years bus caused the use of other cheaper rough feeds to replace part of the more expensive bays. Corn silage and corn stover are the most common rough b eds used to replace clover or alfalfa hay. At the University of .Mis souri experiment station, feeding trials "ere conducted to compare the differ ent roughages foi breeding ewes. A carload of western ('dorado owes was purchased In the fall and kept on blue grass pasture until December B. The rams were left with the ewes fioin the middle of September till the first of December. The owes were divided into eight lots of seventeen éwes each. The various lots were kept as uniform In size, condition and quality as possible. A ration ol one-third of a pound of grain and two pounds of clover hay, with all the corn stover the owes would eat. was compared with a luliun of all equal amount of grain and three pounds of clover bay per head por day. In this cu e the corn stover was sub stituted satisfactorily for one-third of the clover hay. However, In the lots where grain was not foil, the substitut ing cut ttjird of tho clover hay with corn stover was not .successful. Tho lambs in the hay-stover tot were not as strong, and did not make us good tains as those on ebner hay alone. A ration of corn stover as the only rough feed, with one-half pound of grain per head per day. was fairly satisfactory, but not as satisfactory us in lots where on*.-third of it pound of grain and two pounds of buy were fed. However, corn stover proved to In a superior timothy hay, when fed ouml of grain per bead roughag' with ha per day. The feeding of times attended v many instand - th has been at tribun acid in silage the ally put up. She susceptible to th. •orn silage is spine lth ill results. In ; trouble with silage I to mold, or to the has not been prop ! seem to be more •oisons of moldy eil age than do cattle. in those trials, tin silage proved to be sup' rior i > the corn stover. Both feeds were fed in combination with grain and clover hay. In all cases the silage proved to be the better feed of the two. In tlying to reduce the cost ot replacing a part of the clover hay with silage, a ration of 1,6 pounds of corn silage and 1.9 pounds of clover hay was fed. This ration gave as sat isfactory results as clover hay atone. The average daily amount of liay per ewe was 3.25 founds. The ration con mining one-third of a pound of gra.in, . pounds of clover hay and 1.6 pounds of si age proved a« satisfactory as a ration of an equal amount of grain and three pounds of clov er hay. Silage In these lots was substituted for practi cally one-half the clover hay. It re quired practically two pounds of silage i to replace one pound of clover liay. However, rating the stluge at 05 a ton. it is in most cases an economical feed ' to use in connection with clover hay. A ration of .3 of a pound ol grain uud 3.5 pounds of silage, which was all the ewes would eat, proved superior to a ration of .4 of a pound of grain with all the stover that the ewes would eat. The Important objection to tho feed ing of silage by the average farmer 1« because the. small amount that ewes will eat makes it necessary to hay i quite a large flock In order to utilize enough of tho silage each day to keep It from spoiling. It will require about 500 ewes to utilize enough silage fed from a 14-foot silo, If it Is not fed to other stock also. The grain fed in all cases was a mixture of six parts of shelled corn, three parts of wheat bran, and one part of linseed oil meal by weight. The measure of efficiency of the va rious rations was weight, condition ami thrift if the lambs al birth, and thirty days after birth, and the condition and thrift of the ewes and their ability to suckle their lambs Missouri Farm station. AUTO IS NECESSITY TO MODERN FARMER Machine as Time-Saver Be coming Indispensable. Tho other morning 1 was down to a meeting held by the county adviser The speaker answered questions ufter his address for about two hours, until dinner time, on a subject of vital in terest to 95 tier cent of the farmers. Some men who came from a distance of eight miles, received and exchanged valuable ideas and plans und got home in time for dinner and a good aftei - noon's work. One of the notable fea tures about tho meeting was that ev ery one of those farmers except one came in his automobil. I have heard it said that as soon as tho average farmer purchases a motor ear Ills usefulness or etticiency as a farmer is lowered somewhat, as the pleasure gained from the car dls'racts him from his work. Yet; as t looked over the nun at this meeting and other meetings, I could not help hut notice how serious, interested and progressive they appeared, tnen of good purpose, interested in their welfare and that of their country I know that some of them would not have been at those meetings if they had had to poke along behind a horse, for the day would have been pretty well used up by Un turn they had driven Bix or eight miles. Tin val uable suggestions gained at the meet ings will compensate for a part of the investment in gasoline and the car. This is a day of rapid revolution in farm practices and methods, and the farmer who gels around in his car is able to take note of them, keep abreast f the times and us*' the knowledge gallu . d t o his profit. When the farmer loads his ear with t <H) i R aiu | drives down to fix the line fence, runs down town to get u repair lu , eded a hurPy for tU( . lraclor or i hinder, takes Ids family to institute or church* in stormy weather, or hitches a trailer on behind and hauls a calf, pig or garden produce to market —thene things show how he has turned a thing of pleasure and luxury, to prac .ileal uses .1 1 lustier. in Farm ' Uifc FAMINE LURKS IN LABOR SHORTAGE Department of Agriculture Sees Need of National Help for Farms. Washington, Feb. 23.—Shortage of farm labor may result in shortage of food, which may mean famine for the United States and the world. This fact Iiuh come lu.rne to authorities in Wash ington with tremendous force. The farm labor problem, as part of the2 big labor problem through the country, is engaging the attention of the president, tin* secretary of agricul ture. and members of congress who specialize on labor and farm subjects. The draft lias taken a large number of farm boys and an additional num ber have been lured l»y higher wages into munitions industries and other oc cupations. There is less "floating labor" than ever befoitj in history. Will the women have to turn out? Can boys of high school age be or ganized and got on the job In time? What is there to do about it? In reply t*> these questions, Secretary of Agriculture David U. Houston set. down the toilow mg as his department's answer: "If yve put our minds to the task, liiere are many things which can be done to help furnish relief The most promising lines and the ones which cover what wo bave undertaken are as follows: "first, a sysumatie survey of the farm labor situation in order to as certuin the possible needs of farmers and to determine ways of meeting them. The department, before the beginning of the next crop season, through its agents stationed in the va rious states and In co-operation with the department of lutmr and the state council of defense, will make such a survey. •'sheet:*!. the promotion of fuller co-operation in the utilization of labor among farmers in the same commun ity. "Third, the development of machin ery for assisting in the transfer of Is - Ivor from sections where t lie seasonal pressure lias passed to regions where additional help is urgently needed "Fourth. making available labor which heretofore has not been fully or regularly utilized in farming opera tions, including boys of high school age who have had experience on the farm. "Tho farm labor representatives of the department will continue to devote all their time and energies to these tasks, and they will keep in close touch with appropriate state and other agen cies. V fifth answer is the releasing of men for agricultural purposes, so far us possible, by replacing them y.ilh women and by diverting labor front relatively non-essential enterprises. "Conscription of labor for industrial purposes, of course, necessarily would present many difficulties. Powerful in fluences are operating, however, to bring about the release of labor and capital from less essential enterprises and their diversion into more urgent undertakings. "Steps must be taken to see that able-bodied men not now '-mg a full and useful day's work shall o«, fully »ml regularly employed This is pri U.S. MUST EAT MORE POTATOES Consumption for Next Five Months in American Homes Must Increase. SORTING NECESSARY Farmers Will Receive Better Price if Poor Stock Is 1 Discarded. Duting the next five months potatoes : must be used more freely in American homes than ever before unless the na tion, witii its heavy burden of respon sibility for food saving, becomes guilty of blamable waste. Unfortu nately last year's large potato crop was of very poor quality, as taken from the fields. Early frosts killed the vines and left only small, immature, watery tubers in large areas, and hard freezes before harvesting severely in jured tens of thousands of bushels. Added to this condition is the fact that the potato eaters changed their food habits last spring when these tubers became luxuries; and only the earnest and continuous co-operation of producers and distributers will re store the potato to Its rightful place on the table of every household. I Sort and Grade on the Farm. ! Convinced that potato grading will ultimately benefit all, the food admin istration is using every effort to secure proper sorting and grading of potatoes and also to prevent the abuse of these practices. At the price consumers are now charged for potatoes, or at a iy price that will give the producers and handlers living profits, the public will not buy freely such assortments as some growers are now bringing to market. Much of the stock is scabby, cut. In sect-chewed, frost-sweetened and even rotting, with a considerable pro portion of nut and marble sizes, trash and dirt. The shipper will sort and grade where the farmer does not and will make the farmer pay for this work. U I is consequently the part of wisdom to do this work at home—in your cellars or brside your storage pits. At home the small potatoes -those with smell scab spots, with cutH or with other in jured areas—can be used on the table. Potatoes too small or too badly In jured for human use are still valuable as hog feed, better if boiled; in the form . of pork they will bring good money. But in the * shipper's dump pile they are a total loss Help Relieve Car Shortage. Shippers have the support of Uncle Sam In adopting the two grades rec ommended by the department of ag riculture and the food administration. At present the use of these grades is not compulsory, but is urged to elimi nate waste stock at Us source and thus assist in improving transporta tion conditions. The food administra tion already prohibits licensed han dlers from shipping, or selling for food purposes from points of production, po tatoes which are not practically free from frost injury, and decay and en tirely free from specified injuries and diseases, dirt and foreign matter. COWS MUST REST TO PERFORM BEST WORK If we expect a cow to freshen once a year, it is a matter of course thtt we ought to prepare her each year for the next year; in other words, we ought to give her sufficient time and rest to prepare herself. Therefor**. I he cow ought to be dried up a short time be fore calving. If this is not done, we may not expect that she will do as well next year It sometimes occurs that the cow is hard to dry' up. She keeps on Riving too much milk to leave th* 1 bag. How can we now dry up such a cow? If a cow is only producing five to six pounds of milk, the milking can he stopped at once. If she is producing 10 to 12 iHHiiuis, the milk quantity would cause injury, and we then fol low this method; For two or three days we do not milk the cow dry. Then we milk her for a few days once a dsy. Later, once every second day. and If necessary, once every third day. Dur ing this dry ing-off period we put this cow on a hunger ration. That is. she gets only a little hay and water, with out other feed. It is a matter of course that cows with such a milk-producing capacity should be fed well again as zoon as they are dried up. She has to be pre pared for the big work again, and if she is in good flesh condition she is able to do so.— Farm Life. marily for consideration by state and municipal authorities. * "The largest possible production and ! fullest use of farm labor-saving ma- , chinery is essential. The department is 1 securing priority for raw materials t used in manufacture of farm impie- J ment*, facilities for moving materials to manufacturers and completed prod ucts to distributors and farmers. "Any constructive suggestion will re ceive careful eon*»deration " POULTRY BENEFITED BY CHANGE OF YARD I A change of yard is as beneficial to ! hens as a change of climate to folks. Some hen houses are so located that continued use of the O ' -yard seetns best, but others remain fixed for lack of thought until the run gets "fowl sick." and the owner's "luck"' with chickens chances. If the chicken hous< can be moved, move it to a new spot and turn the old ran into a I garden. If It cannot be moved, pos sibly the entrance could be changed, making the run..ay at a different side, until the old run can grow a crop. Knough well-built panels of portable I fencing to inclose a run is a great ! help to tho farm poultry keeper who! wishes to pen a mating nr to inclose ; his broody liens. Portable fencing is a convenient method of fencing the chick* ns out or the garden in. The colony houses this! year with panels of portable fence will : enable us to glean the stubble fields! clean and profil iblv. The Ingenuity ' exercised by campers-out may well be | exercised by all of us. There are many conditions which we might change for the better once wo see the ad vantage of changing. Necessity has always been the "mother of Invention." AVhat poultry breeders will do tills year in the line of utilizing hen labor in the tola wii'iiiiiii 1 # <p&FARM POWDERS STUMPING —AGRICULTURAL. For more than 50 years Giant Powders have cut the cost of western blasting. In all tills time they have been constantly im proved and adapted to western conditions by a western company. Naturally they make western bunt clearing easier, faster and cheaper. Giant Farm Powders—Giant and F.ureka Stumping—go further than ordinary dynamitic . Farmers and orchardists find that they ein do more and better work at less cost with Giant Powders. Hundreds write us that Giant brands "save money"—"give better results"—"have wider breaking power"—• 'shoot the roots"- and "are always uniform in strength and action." Caution; Hr Bt irr you frt the rrnuinr Giant Powdm. the p ol ihr man rrr- tv ho ongn rated the name. Look for tiic trade-mark. It ■ protection fu.im.st imitation?. 5<*nd coupoi i (or iiit? tht* paper) for rhr V»i«r frer " Buurr Far '• HtrlUyuu scurrs of manev-uiui? way? of (<*• W riu * for this gold n hue of information today. THE GIANT POWDER CO., Con. i'rtrything fer Blasting" Home Office: Sen l rsm i vo Branch Offices Denver, Portland. SuU Lake City, Seattle, Spoknaa MARK AND MAIL THIS FREE BOOK COUPON THE GIANT POWDER CO., Con., Fir-t National Bank Bldg-, San Francisco Send me 55-page illustrated booklet "Better Farming." I an especially interested in (please cheek) Q Stump Bl.itin. □ Boulder Blasting Nanu-___ O Ditch Blasting D Tre. Bed Blasting __Address_ □ Subsoil Blasting O Road Making * ! , 1 t J Imported and American Bred Stallions Percheron Belgian Shire We buy and sell all our own stallions and save the agent's profit for the farmers. These horses will be told at a rsatcnable price. Tims given to buyers. Every i-orse fully guaranteed. H. RILEY, Mgr. 11S Clay Street, Missoula. Mont harvest field will doubtless be of both interest and profit in future poultry operations. We wouldn't vouch for the truth of the following story, but the moral is good. The story runs that a thrifty farmer drove to town with one horse hitched to a spring wagon, hauling a load of vegetables. When lie tied his horse, he fastened a bag of oats where the animal could eat. then, reaching under the seat of the wagon, he drew out a Haired Itock hen which he hob bled to r* spoke of the wagon wheel, to glean th* oats dropped by the horse in eating. It is the pull all together on the little things which will make the big sav ings for the war. The fowl-sick yard means waste. Hct us start out with sweet yards, and cut out loss from this source. — Wallace's Farmer. Indigestion. Take a f* w doses of Chamberlain's Tablets as directed for In digestion, ana you will soon forget about your stom ach troubles. Try it.—Adv. Mak es Chick» Brow! _____ _ digestive organs and helps prevent wane Diarrhea. The clean balanced grains start and K* p kH growing. Oct tits or%t«al—Uonkey's. 1 « *»e*-ent. liyy » Emr. Aak your dealer. 6vn Fduitry Tonio ke»o» t»*n* Ityinc. 90«. ar Higgins Missoula Drug: Co..