Newspaper Page Text
•m—*—mmaeeamm—mmrnemmieemmm—amm l m t mmmmsemaöaae*nmneamm**eiemnasmameiammä*nmsm*ma~+mmeeenamm
mntK\ v/'/'f * / y t* DUTY UTENSILS PRODUCE CERMS Are Responsible for Most of Bacteria Finding Way Into the Milk. ILLINOIS EXPERIMENT Investigation Shows That Bam Filth Bears but Minor Portion. After an extensive* investigation of the germ content of milk, tin* Illinois Agricultural college has concluded that the utensils arc far more responsible for a high bacterial count than is the barn. The Investigation is reported In detail In a new bulletin, No. 204, from* which we quote the conclusions: The fact that the dirt which fulls Into milk at the burn is readily visible In the milk has led to the conclusion that the barn is the principal source of tha bacteria In milk. The results of this •Italy, however^, show that it Is the Utensils, rather than the barn, that are largely responsible for the excessive bacterial contamination of milk. The extent ot tho contamination of the mttk by the utensils is strikingly Illus trated in one of the experiments In this atudy: When all the utensils common ly used for handling the milk at the barn and In the dairy were thoroughly steamed, the bottled milk hud uni formly only about r»,000 baterla per cu bic centimeter, but ns soon us the ■teaming was omitted, the bottled milk frequently contained several hundred thousand bacteria per cubic Centimeter. "The cans used for swpplng milk are a particularly prolific source of bac teria when they are washed at the dairy and returned to the farm without being thoroughly steamed and dried. The number of bacteria usually added to 1hc milk by such cans is many limes larger than the number that would or dinarily get Into the milk at the born; the addition Of a million bacteria per cubic centimeter of milk by such cans is not uncommon. "A detailed comparative study of the effect of various other utensils at the barn and at the dairy suggesls that the greatest contamination comes from tin more complex appartus. such as the clarifier and the bottle filler. In one of the experiments In this study, il was found that the pulls added approxi mately 11 times as many bacteria to the milk as the barn Influences, the strainer one and one-half times as many, the clarifier 3b times as many, the cooler 10 times as many, and the bottle filler Co times as many—a total Of 112 times as many added by the utenfdls as by the barn factors. "it seems to the authors that in an attempt to produce milk with low germ content, too much stress has been laid on practices of minor importance, and the influence of utensils poorly steamed and not dried has been commonly neg lected."—W a I la ee'x Fa rntcr. en he is of WILL PAY TO TAKE LESSON FROM PAST No poultry-grower has escaped buy ing experience, and paying dearly for th4 same. This year we must profit by the experience of past years. There are fewer chickens in the country than usual, and eggs and chickens art* worth more. One can afford to take the time to re-read old records; to think and think and think, and then to act instead of acting at what may he a wrong impulse, and then having to think and think and think. The woman who thinks out her, lau of action in her poultry work: Where Is the best place for the broody hens? Where shall the brood coops he lo cated? .How many hens can she af ford to mate to get all the chicks she wants and at the same time have a supply of unfertilized eggs to pack down? When is the best time to cull out old hens? Is it or is it not profit able to caponize? Such a woman will always have her business at her fin gertips, and will save most of the cblcks she hatches. The story is an old one of the woman to whom was given the secret of pros perity, which was merely to stand in each corner of every room in the house sud bam for one minute each day. What she saw as she stood in the dif ferent corners brought about the cor rection of methods which were making her poor. She topped waste, pro moted thrift, repaired and renewed un til she got rich, and all because, as a Hootch proverb says. 'The master's eye fattens.'* to eumr* uucKitu mu \ Lu«fflc«4 î Ml nttebtei 1 p«tlwt«4br • »imitiert ud fctrvH»*e»t. — - g jg *---• EM J Million Women Workers for U.S. Farms Î r ..... ■ i «ei ; >4sX m m i i ; >. mm: ______' ; 1 Recruiting Already Started and Labor Units Soon Will Be Sent Into Farming Communities to Help Plant and Harvest 1918 Food Crops. April 13. —A million woin ure needed on American New York en workers furms this year. The agricultural labor shortage must he made up with the aid of unem ployed men in small towns, retired farmers, members ol the F. S. Hoys' Working reserve and women. The shortage measured In manpower is 3,000,000 laborers. This allows for the increased acreage this year, the young men who have been taken Into army and navy and the farm labor which has been drawn into war factor ies in cities. It Is expected that a million farm workers can he obtained from the ranks of unemployed men and retired fartn s. The ers now living In small U. S. Hoys' Working reserve hopes P enroll a million hoys. That leaves a million short of lb required number. Tills the Woman's Hand army o America hopes to make up The land army was organized here In New York following a conference of officials of the F. S. dpcartmenl of ag riculture, tile woman's committee of the Council of National Defense and the women's division of tlit* l S. em ployment service Considerable experimenting was done lust spmmer by the land army, camps ] being maintained in six New York] rural communities. Several hundred i city girls were employed on truck gar- I dens und farms. At first the larmcrs j did not take well to the idea of hiring j women tarm hands. Hut after a while, j when man labor got scarce, they up- j pealed to the «imps and many of them j already have written to the land army's i headquarters. 32 Fifth avenue, asking ' that working units he established in their communities this year j In three weeks tli s spring over 200 Now York girls and women r •^Istf red at the Lund Army's hoadqim *tors for farm work. Most ot them wt irked on farms last summer Th e army's plan is to pond t ut 111 it», each under the direct ion of a c taper un !'*adi r. Units art* i om posed of ft om four to 1 tents or summer. ««men , ant far The; llous and fn will live in ; during the n tin* farms How to Inoculate Alfalfa by Means of Glue Method There arc many methods of inocu lating alfalfa seed. One of the cheap est and most easily applied is the glue method. For each tout bushels of alf alfa seed, make up a gallon of glue water by dissolving two handfuls of furniture glue in a gallon of boiling wutcr, and then allowing to cool. But the alfalfa seed in a wash-tub and sprinkle enough of this solution on it to slightly moisten it. one quart of the] solution per bushel being about light. Stir thoroughly and then sift over the slightly moistened seed finely pulver ized earth that lias come from around well-inoculated alfalfa or sweet clover plants, at the rate of two or three quarts of the earth for each bushel of seed. Secure the earth two or three days previous to moistening the seed with the glue water, taking pains to get the earth from around well-inoculated plants, on -the roots of which are largo nodules. Carry the earth into a dry. shady place ami pulverize it finely. Then allow it to dry out. and pulver ize again until If is a fine dust. After mixing this earth with the slightly moistened seed, stir the seed around until none of the seeds stick to each other, and until there are a few fine dust particules clinging to each seed. ] i I j j j j j i ' In cars furnished by the farmers. They j will he paid $2 a day, out of which each must pay her share of camp expenses. ; or they can sign up for $tf> a month, I and the unit pay all costs, collecting ] from farmers al the rate ol $2 a day for ! each worker Mrs. Henry Wade Ungers is chair man of the Woman'.*? Hand army. Mrs. I Clifford I'inchot is chairman of the com- | tnlltee which will have the rcxponsibil- j ity of spreading the Idea and of placing j the units in other stall's. Helen Kennedy Stevens, a New York i college girl, tells of the work done by ; fiirmerets in Westchester county, New ! York, last summer. 1 "We were all city girls," Miss Sie- j yens %aid, "enthusiastic lull sublimely | ignorant of farming. Camp opened j with 30 girls. Ity the middle of March j there were over 70. During the early j part of the summer we weeded and j cultivated. Those who knew how to, handle horses worked with the horse j cultivator; the others had to stick to ; till' wheel line. "We "♦re harden'd to our eight-hou day by Hie time the farmers' orders] began to come in. We liked tin* field 1 work (*n the big farm better than the 1 garden work. j .. .....'V 1 :' ford farmers club, says that when HvkfMl anmit tin* work ol the women in , (lie Mi Klsco unit, tin* tanners testified ; emphatically t« their efiieicney, intelli gerne, zest, steadfastness and good le - ■ havior. j —. .-------- ] TIBS ON THE KIND ! OF TRACTOR TO Wallace's Farmer Replies to Montanan's Question. spondent A Montana lace's Farmer writes: "What kind of a tractor would you advise me to bu.*. ? 1 would like one to pull two or three plows?" it is very hard to answer such an inquiry, because our correspondent gives us absolutely no Information ns to his farm conditions and the work the tractor will be expected to do. It is a good deal like'writing in and ask ing work which ts anticipated, the our correspondent has h 1 ! of the firm should be looked after ( what kino of a barn to build, with- j f out giving any idea of what kind stock or how many It is dost red t shelter. Tractors should lie fitted I tIn* farm In much the same way that a ! barn is. ' We should know about how many j acres are under cultivation, the kind ! and acreage of the ieaiflng crops, the ' kind of soil, whether the land is level i hilly, the kind and amount of bolt ] xperi- j I with I tractors or gas engines, and so on. It i ts entirely possible that he should not I buy a tractor of any kind, j In general, a three-plow tractor ap pears to be favored by the average farmer. Kerosene is becoming the chief tractor fuel, and the prospective purchaser of a tractor should be sure that It burns kerosene in good shape. The matter of securing repairs and help and it is not wise to buy an outfit with no branch house or responsible dealer within a reasonable distance. otherwise one is not likely to he able to get repairs after two or three years, due to the firm having fniled in busi ness. WHAT FARM WOMEN HAVE DONE Miss Nora Ellis cures for 00 head (*f stock on her homestead many miles out of Pendleton, Ore. This spring she is going to plant us much grÄin as she can care for. All her farm work is done by herself, in ad dition to keeping house. Mrs. Sophie Windier of Heron Iaike, Minn., farms 320 acres. She, with her two daughters, the oldest 18, do all the work of feeding more than 200 hogs and superintend the care of more than tin head of cattle and growing many acres of grain. Mrs. J. It. Williams of Fort Fair field. Me., farms 300 acres, doing much of the work herself and su perintending all. Hast year she marketed 20,000 busjieis of potatoes. Miss Lucy McGInty of Belpre, Kan., worked night and day last summer rinsing food crops on lier widowed mother's farm. She had 50 acres of corn and last fall planted 120 acres to winter wheat. Do You Sloop Wall, To Is- at ids best a man must have sound, refreshing ......... When wake fu| an „ n-.tlcss at night he is in no condition for work or business during - the day. Wakefulness Is often caused j by indigestion and constipation, and is quickly relieved !>.\ Chamberlain's Tab lets. Try a dose of these tablets and see how much belter you feel with a clear lu-ad and good digestion. . :r :-----TT BUY!higgesr^G or iUnr 8 " far 1 e -------- j j ! Wheat—Rye Condition Good T, The official crop and fît estock report issued by the United States bureau of crop estimates, through the Montana field agent, is one of especial interest to the livestock producers of the state. While the report includes the Im portant estimates of the condition of winter wheat and rye. the bulk of the statement has to do with livestock Iossch. numbers and condition. The condition on April I of winter «heat and rye Is reported as high from practically every Important producing area in the state, and all the indications now are for bumper crops of these two much-needed cereals. Prospects for the winter wheat crop for the country ns a whole are fair and promise a consider ably greater | reduction than last year's poor returns. Bye, as i^ual, is In somewhat ta tter condition than winter wheat. ( Stock losses from all causes for the past year have been relatively light, both j f or the state and the entire country; a minimum of diseuse is reported among II classes of stock and their general condition is high. Tiic detailed report for Ihc state and for the F n I tod States follows: : Condition of Winter Wheat and Ryo, April 1. 100 representing normal condition. Montana United States ! j ! ' r ' ' " * nt i '' ' nt ] j I s wheat 1918 1917 ...... 84 93 ... ................. 9.< 96 Mortality of Live.tock 10-Yr. A 93 1918 78.6 93 j| 85.8 Year End ing April 1. 10-Yr. Av. 83.6 89.0 Number of deaths per 1,000 head of stock. Glass of Stock— 1918 1917 10-Yr. Av. |t 1918 1917 10-Yr. Av Horses — From disease ..... 15 17 IS || 16.5 16.» 19.4 t'nttle—From disease 12 18 19 || 18.2 19.4 28.0 Cattle—From exposur 0 17 50 34 || 13.3 14.6 14.3 Sheep—From disease —..... 13 19 23 || 19.8 21.8 24.4 Sheep—From exposure . ... 24 77 47 || 19.2 32.4 30.2 1 .limbs—From disease and exposure .......... _________ 35 70 62 49.3 60. > 58.8 Swine—From disease -------- 15 23 21 | 42.1 48.6 67.5 Number of Breeding Sows, April 1. Per cent compared with number for preceding year. Class of Stock— 1918 . 1917 10-Yr. Av. || 1*18 1917 10-Yr. Av Breeding Sows 85 87 ~ 1! 109.5 96.5 Condition of Livestock April 1. Normal condition being representei hv l Ol*. Class of Stock— 1918 1917 10-Yr. Av. | 1918 1917 10 -Vr. Av Horses and Mules...... ........... 94 92 97 II 96.2 95.8 »6.2 AH Cattle ................. -........ »4 87 96 j| »5.6 »4.4 »5.2 Sheep, not including Lambs 98 «8 96 |j 96.9 93.8 »5.4 Swine ...................... ....... £7 90 98 |l 96.3 »5.0 »3.7 FIGHT ANYWHERE Don't Care What Flag They Follow as Long as Good Row Is in Sight. CHANGE ALLEGIANCE German Private One Day, in Ranks of Tommies on Morrow. San Francise«, Cal.—One day full fledged private in the German lines, marching with the regulation goose step and breathing hatred for the Eng lish, and the next a cocky British "Tommy" hunting for his late comrades with a Lee -En field. Is the kaleidoscopic change undergone frequently in East Africa by captured native soldiers of the German army; and it is accom plished without the slightest twinge of conscience, declares Captain H. E. Green, I>. S. O., of the king's African rifles, who is ut the Fairmont hotel, en route to East Africa, where he will re join his command after a convalescence leave in England. Change Allegiance. "Both the native soldiers in our forces," said Captain Green, "and the natives in the German forces arc of common origin, and when we capture crowd of. their chaps, they Imnin (liately petition to change their atle glance and fight with us. Tilts is fre quently done, and so it often occurs that privates one day are following a German officer's commands with re spect, and the next day are following him yvith a bayonet. In. addition twenty battalions of native rlflAi have been recruited in captured German ter ritory from natives who were formerly suiijccts of the kaiser, and they are now doing their respective lilts for the allies on the southern frontier of East Africa. In addition they are a splendid crowd of soldiers, smart and obedient No Bolshevik tin re." African Coffee Planter. '"'uptain Green, who in peace times was a coffee planter in East Africa, has been joined here by his wife, formerly Miss Editli Cleveland of Vallejo, who left East Africa about nine months ago, but Is now returning with her husband. Captain Green was twice wounded in the African campaign. MILK PRODUCTION. j tiinately "the An Interesting comparison of the dif ferent dairy breeds is made in farm ers' bulletin 893 of the l\ S. department of agriculture. The averages given per cow for the different breeds arc as follows: Lbs. Milk. Lbs. Butter Fat. Ayrshire« 9.51,', 377 Brown Hwiss ..10.868 433 j Guernseys 8,934 468 j Holsteins .....14,622 r. 0'1 Jerseys ........ 7,792 417 These averages are taken from the production of Cows that had complet ed a year's test for the official regis try of the breed in each case. Vnfor vital questions of feed consumed and cost of feeds are not given, so we cannot tell which breed is most economical for the farm dairy man to keep.—"Farm Life. ! it's the girl who can't sing that secins 'anxious that every one shogld know it. HflFERS FRESHEN TOO YOUNG. There is u movement on foot to keep cows under a certain age out of the eligible list for advanced registry. There are a good many cod s of the Jer sey breed particularly that arc too small to freshen for the first time. I was talking to an owner yesterday that had u Jersey with a calf at 19 months. That means breeding at 10 months i ! '.V'*\\, . "There's a good Farmer!" As you drive through the coun try it's easy to pick out the farmers who are progressive and prosperous. A shiftless man allows his buildings to be come shabby and weather beaten. The thrifty fanner keeps everything painted with r\1 '1 7/NT -1 The Guaranteed UlVUL Lead and Zinc Paint Fewer Gallons—Wear*. Longer t)i course, any paint you put on is better than no paint. But for long and satisfactory service use Devoe Lead and Zinc Paint. We guarantee it to be absolutely pure. It contains no whiting, no silica, or any other worthless adulterants.« That's why Devoe paint goes so much farther and lasts so much longer than ordinary paint. It's real economy for you to paint Devoe paint notv. Write for free booklet on painting — "Keep Appearances Up and Kxpenses Down." DEVOE & RAYNOLDS CO., Inc. New York CLie.'um Now Orleans Houston Iloston Kansas City Buffalo Savannah Pittsburgh Minneapolis The oldest paint manufacturing concern in the United Stiftes Founded in New York in 1754 PAINT DEVOE PAINT Sold by Simons Paint and Paper House g '■W ' 1 »""" ■ ' " w ' ?v ", ..••Styl#' > ■. %■ r ■ vr-tN-jj ' ■ —— ? ■-.* - '-if ■ >-,v , Y 'T^.y t , ; V-.i; ; ' % **.. ' > 4 . r .y'L*; ; •' ' ; yjt ...... . & iS ' sst Imported and American Bred Stallions Percheron Belgian Shire Ws buy and sell all our own stallions and savs tbs agent*» profit for ths farmers. These horses will bs sold at a reasonable pries. Tima given to buyers. Every horse fully guaranteed. H. RILEY, Mgr. 118 Clay Street, Missoula. Mont. STOCK RANCH IN EASTERN MONTANA Adjoining forest reserve. Will run 800 to 1,000 head of cattle; excellent grass; plenty of hay and water and open winters; 300 head of stock cattle, mostly two and three year old heifers. Ranch can be sold with or without stock. Compared with prices asked for neighboring ranches this is an exceptional bargain and must be sold by July 1st. For particular, inquire' E. M. ADAMS, Owner Billings, Montana. i and tlpit is too young for the good of ! the cow, the calf or the owner. The breed suffers in the end and that is one reason why so many people objeiÿ to tiie small Jersey. They have a reason too. If 24 months is made the minimum for a cow to freshen and be admitted to registry of merit, provided she makes the other requirement properly, it will be a big step upward for the Jersey breeders.—Farm Life.