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* / y t*
Are Responsible for Most of
Bacteria Finding Way
Into the Milk.
Investigation Shows That
Bam Filth Bears but
After an extensive* investigation of
the germ content of milk, tin* Illinois
Agricultural college has concluded that
the utensils arc far more responsible
for a high bacterial count than is the
barn. The Investigation is reported
In detail In a new bulletin, No. 204,
from* which we quote the conclusions:
The fact that the dirt which fulls
Into milk at the burn is readily visible
In the milk has led to the conclusion
that the barn is the principal source of
tha bacteria In milk. The results of this
•Italy, however^, show that it Is the
Utensils, rather than the barn, that are
largely responsible for the excessive
bacterial contamination of milk. The
extent ot tho contamination of the
mttk by the utensils is strikingly Illus
trated in one of the experiments In this
atudy: When all the utensils common
ly used for handling the milk at the
barn and In the dairy were thoroughly
steamed, the bottled milk hud uni
formly only about r»,000 baterla per cu
bic centimeter, but ns soon us the
■teaming was omitted, the bottled milk
frequently contained several hundred
thousand bacteria per cubic Centimeter.
"The cans used for swpplng milk are
a particularly prolific source of bac
teria when they are washed at the dairy
and returned to the farm without being
thoroughly steamed and dried. The
number of bacteria usually added to
1hc milk by such cans is many limes
larger than the number that would or
dinarily get Into the milk at the born;
the addition Of a million bacteria per
cubic centimeter of milk by such cans
is not uncommon.
"A detailed comparative study of the
effect of various other utensils at the
barn and at the dairy suggesls that the
greatest contamination comes from tin
more complex appartus. such as the
clarifier and the bottle filler. In one of
the experiments In this study, il was
found that the pulls added approxi
mately 11 times as many bacteria to
the milk as the barn Influences, the
strainer one and one-half times as
many, the clarifier 3b times as many,
the cooler 10 times as many, and the
bottle filler Co times as many—a total
Of 112 times as many added by the
utenfdls as by the barn factors.
"it seems to the authors that in an
attempt to produce milk with low germ
content, too much stress has been laid
on practices of minor importance, and
the influence of utensils poorly steamed
and not dried has been commonly neg
lected."—W a I la ee'x Fa rntcr.
WILL PAY TO TAKE
LESSON FROM PAST
No poultry-grower has escaped buy
ing experience, and paying dearly for
th4 same. This year we must profit
by the experience of past years. There
are fewer chickens in the country
than usual, and eggs and chickens art*
worth more. One can afford to take
the time to re-read old records; to
think and think and think, and then to
act instead of acting at what may he
a wrong impulse, and then having to
think and think and think.
The woman who thinks out her, lau
of action in her poultry work: Where
Is the best place for the broody hens?
Where shall the brood coops he lo
cated? .How many hens can she af
ford to mate to get all the chicks she
wants and at the same time have a
supply of unfertilized eggs to pack
down? When is the best time to cull
out old hens? Is it or is it not profit
able to caponize? Such a woman will
always have her business at her fin
gertips, and will save most of the
cblcks she hatches.
The story is an old one of the woman
to whom was given the secret of pros
perity, which was merely to stand in
each corner of every room in the house
sud bam for one minute each day.
What she saw as she stood in the dif
ferent corners brought about the cor
rection of methods which were making
her poor. She topped waste, pro
moted thrift, repaired and renewed un
til she got rich, and all because, as a
Hootch proverb says. 'The master's eye
to eumr* uucKitu mu
î Ml nttebtei
• »imitiert ud fctrvH»*e»t.
— - g jg *---•
Million Women Workers for U.S. Farms
Î r ..... ■
m i i ; >. mm: ______'
Recruiting Already Started and Labor Units Soon Will Be
Sent Into Farming Communities to Help Plant
and Harvest 1918 Food Crops.
April 13. —A million woin
ure needed on American
furms this year.
The agricultural labor shortage must
he made up with the aid of unem
ployed men in small towns, retired
farmers, members ol the F. S. Hoys'
Working reserve and women.
The shortage measured In manpower
is 3,000,000 laborers. This allows for
the increased acreage this year, the
young men who have been taken Into
army and navy and the farm labor
which has been drawn into war factor
ies in cities.
It Is expected that a million farm
workers can he obtained from the ranks
of unemployed men and retired fartn
ers now living In small
U. S. Hoys' Working reserve hopes P
enroll a million hoys.
That leaves a million short of lb
Tills the Woman's Hand army o
America hopes to make up
The land army was organized here
In New York following a conference of
officials of the F. S. dpcartmenl of ag
riculture, tile woman's committee of
the Council of National Defense and
the women's division of tlit* l S. em
Considerable experimenting was done
lust spmmer by the land army, camps ]
being maintained in six New York]
rural communities. Several hundred i
city girls were employed on truck gar- I
dens und farms. At first the larmcrs j
did not take well to the idea of hiring j
women tarm hands. Hut after a while, j
when man labor got scarce, they up- j
pealed to the «imps and many of them j
already have written to the land army's i
headquarters. 32 Fifth avenue, asking '
that working units he established in
their communities this year
three weeks tli
York girls and
at the Lund Army's
work. Most ot
farms last summer
e army's plan is
to pond t
under the direct
ion of a c
r. Units art* i
four to 1
, ant far
will live in
; during the
n tin* farms
How to Inoculate Alfalfa
by Means of Glue Method
There arc many methods of inocu
lating alfalfa seed. One of the cheap
est and most easily applied is the glue
method. For each tout bushels of alf
alfa seed, make up a gallon of glue
water by dissolving two handfuls of
furniture glue in a gallon of boiling
wutcr, and then allowing to cool. But
the alfalfa seed in a wash-tub and
sprinkle enough of this solution on it
to slightly moisten it. one quart of the]
solution per bushel being about light.
Stir thoroughly and then sift over the
slightly moistened seed finely pulver
ized earth that lias come from around
well-inoculated alfalfa or sweet clover
plants, at the rate of two or three
quarts of the earth for each bushel of
Secure the earth two or three days
previous to moistening the seed with
the glue water, taking pains to get the
earth from around well-inoculated
plants, on -the roots of which are largo
nodules. Carry the earth into a dry.
shady place ami pulverize it finely.
Then allow it to dry out. and pulver
ize again until If is a fine dust. After
mixing this earth with the slightly
moistened seed, stir the seed around
until none of the seeds stick to each
other, and until there are a few fine
dust particules clinging to each seed.
In cars furnished by the farmers. They j
will he paid $2 a day, out of which each
must pay her share of camp expenses. ;
or they can sign up for $tf> a month, I
and the unit pay all costs, collecting ]
from farmers al the rate ol $2 a day for !
Mrs. Henry Wade Ungers is chair
man of the Woman'.*? Hand army. Mrs. I
Clifford I'inchot is chairman of the com- |
tnlltee which will have the rcxponsibil- j
ity of spreading the Idea and of placing j
the units in other stall's.
Helen Kennedy Stevens, a New York i
college girl, tells of the work done by ;
fiirmerets in Westchester county, New !
York, last summer. 1
"We were all city girls," Miss Sie- j
yens %aid, "enthusiastic lull sublimely |
ignorant of farming. Camp opened j
with 30 girls. Ity the middle of March j
there were over 70. During the early j
part of the summer we weeded and j
cultivated. Those who knew how to,
handle horses worked with the horse j
cultivator; the others had to stick to ;
till' wheel line.
"We "♦re harden'd to our eight-hou
day by Hie time the farmers' orders]
began to come in. We liked tin* field 1
work (*n the big farm better than the 1
garden work. j
.. .....'V 1 :'
ford farmers club, says that when
HvkfMl anmit tin* work ol the women in ,
(lie Mi Klsco unit, tin* tanners testified ;
emphatically t« their efiieicney, intelli
gerne, zest, steadfastness and good le - ■
—. .-------- ]
TIBS ON THE KIND !
OF TRACTOR TO
Wallace's Farmer Replies to
lace's Farmer writes:
"What kind of a tractor would you
advise me to bu.*. ? 1 would like one
to pull two or three plows?"
it is very hard to answer such an
inquiry, because our correspondent
gives us absolutely no Information ns
to his farm conditions and the work
the tractor will be expected to do. It
is a good deal like'writing in and ask
work which ts anticipated, the
our correspondent has h
! of the firm should be looked after
what kino of a barn to build, with- j f
out giving any idea of what kind
stock or how many It is dost red t
shelter. Tractors should lie fitted I
tIn* farm In much the same way that a !
barn is. '
We should know about how many j
acres are under cultivation, the kind !
and acreage of the ieaiflng crops, the '
kind of soil, whether the land is level i
hilly, the kind and amount of bolt ]
I tractors or gas engines, and so on. It
i ts entirely possible that he should not
I buy a tractor of any kind,
j In general, a three-plow tractor ap
pears to be favored by the average
farmer. Kerosene is becoming the
chief tractor fuel, and the prospective
purchaser of a tractor should be sure
that It burns kerosene in good shape.
The matter of securing repairs and help
and it is not wise to buy an outfit
with no branch house or responsible
dealer within a reasonable distance.
otherwise one is not likely to he able
to get repairs after two or three years,
due to the firm having fniled in busi
WHAT FARM WOMEN
Miss Nora Ellis cures for 00 head
(*f stock on her homestead many
miles out of Pendleton, Ore. This
spring she is going to plant us much
grÄin as she can care for. All her
farm work is done by herself, in ad
dition to keeping house.
Mrs. Sophie Windier of Heron
Iaike, Minn., farms 320 acres. She,
with her two daughters, the oldest
18, do all the work of feeding more
than 200 hogs and superintend the
care of more than tin head of cattle
and growing many acres of grain.
Mrs. J. It. Williams of Fort Fair
field. Me., farms 300 acres, doing
much of the work herself and su
perintending all. Hast year she
marketed 20,000 busjieis of potatoes.
Miss Lucy McGInty of Belpre,
Kan., worked night and day last
summer rinsing food crops on lier
widowed mother's farm. She had 50
acres of corn and last fall planted
120 acres to winter wheat.
Do You Sloop Wall,
To Is- at ids best a man must have
sound, refreshing ......... When wake
fu| an „ n-.tlcss at night he is in no
condition for work or business during -
the day. Wakefulness Is often caused j
by indigestion and constipation, and is
quickly relieved !>.\ Chamberlain's Tab
lets. Try a dose of these tablets and
see how much belter you feel with a
clear lu-ad and good digestion.
. :r :-----TT
BUY!higgesr^G or iUnr 8 " far 1 e
Wheat—Rye Condition Good
The official crop and fît estock report issued by the United States bureau of
crop estimates, through the Montana field agent, is one of especial interest
to the livestock producers of the state. While the report includes the Im
portant estimates of the condition of winter wheat and rye. the bulk of the
statement has to do with livestock Iossch. numbers and condition.
The condition on April I of winter «heat and rye Is reported as high from
practically every Important producing area in the state, and all the indications
now are for bumper crops of these two much-needed cereals. Prospects for the
winter wheat crop for the country ns a whole are fair and promise a consider
ably greater | reduction than last year's poor returns. Bye, as i^ual, is In
somewhat ta tter condition than winter wheat.
( Stock losses from all causes for the past year have been relatively light, both
j f or the state and the entire country; a minimum of diseuse is reported among
II classes of stock and their general condition is high.
Tiic detailed report for Ihc state and for the F n I tod States follows: :
Condition of Winter Wheat and Ryo, April 1.
100 representing normal condition.
Montana United States
! ' r '
' " * nt
i '' ' nt
...... 84 93
... ................. 9.< 96
Mortality of Live.tock
93 j| 85.8
Year End ing April 1.
Number of deaths per 1,000 head of stock.
Glass of Stock—
10-Yr. Av. |t
Horses — From disease
Sheep—From exposure . ... 24
1 .limbs—From disease
Number of Breeding Sows, April 1.
compared with number for preceding year.
Class of Stock—
10-Yr. Av. ||
Condition of Livestock April
hv l Ol*.
Class of Stock—
10-Yr. Av. |
10 -Vr. Av
Horses and Mules......
AH Cattle .................
Sheep, not including Lambs 98
Don't Care What Flag They
Follow as Long as Good
Row Is in Sight.
German Private One Day, in
Ranks of Tommies on
San Francise«, Cal.—One day full
fledged private in the German lines,
marching with the regulation goose
step and breathing hatred for the Eng
lish, and the next a cocky British
"Tommy" hunting for his late comrades
with a Lee -En field. Is the kaleidoscopic
change undergone frequently in East
Africa by captured native soldiers of
the German army; and it is accom
plished without the slightest twinge of
conscience, declares Captain H. E.
Green, I>. S. O., of the king's African
rifles, who is ut the Fairmont hotel, en
route to East Africa, where he will re
join his command after a convalescence
leave in England.
"Both the native soldiers in our
forces," said Captain Green, "and the
natives in the German forces arc of
common origin, and when we capture
crowd of. their chaps, they Imnin
(liately petition to change their atle
glance and fight with us. Tilts is fre
quently done, and so it often occurs
that privates one day are following a
German officer's commands with re
spect, and the next day are following
him yvith a bayonet. In. addition
twenty battalions of native rlflAi have
been recruited in captured German ter
ritory from natives who were formerly
suiijccts of the kaiser, and they are
now doing their respective lilts for the
allies on the southern frontier of East
Africa. In addition they are a splendid
crowd of soldiers, smart and obedient
No Bolshevik tin re."
African Coffee Planter.
'"'uptain Green, who in peace times
was a coffee planter in East Africa, has
been joined here by his wife, formerly
Miss Editli Cleveland of Vallejo, who
left East Africa about nine months ago,
but Is now returning with her husband.
Captain Green was twice wounded in
the African campaign.
j tiinately "the
An Interesting comparison of the dif
ferent dairy breeds is made in farm
ers' bulletin 893 of the l\ S. department
of agriculture. The averages given
per cow for the different breeds arc as
Lbs. Milk. Lbs. Butter Fat.
Ayrshire« 9.51,', 377
Brown Hwiss ..10.868 433
j Guernseys 8,934 468
j Holsteins .....14,622 r. 0'1
Jerseys ........ 7,792 417
These averages are taken from the
production of Cows that had complet
ed a year's test for the official regis
try of the breed in each case. Vnfor
vital questions of feed
consumed and cost of feeds are not
given, so we cannot tell which breed is
most economical for the farm dairy
man to keep.—"Farm Life.
! it's the girl who can't sing that secins
'anxious that every one shogld know it.
HflFERS FRESHEN TOO YOUNG.
There is u movement on foot to keep
cows under a certain age out of the
eligible list for advanced registry.
There are a good many cod s of the Jer
sey breed particularly that arc too
small to freshen for the first time. I
was talking to an owner yesterday
that had u Jersey with a calf at 19
That means breeding at 10 months
"There's a good
As you drive through the coun
try it's easy to pick out the
farmers who are progressive
and prosperous. A shiftless
man allows his buildings to be
come shabby and weather
beaten. The thrifty fanner
keeps everything painted with
r\1 '1 7/NT -1 The Guaranteed
UlVUL Lead and Zinc Paint
Fewer Gallons—Wear*. Longer
t)i course, any paint you put on
is better than no paint. But for
long and satisfactory service
use Devoe Lead and Zinc Paint.
We guarantee it to be absolutely
pure. It contains no whiting, no silica, or
any other worthless adulterants.« That's
why Devoe paint goes so much farther and
lasts so much longer than ordinary paint.
It's real economy for you to paint Devoe
paint notv. Write for free booklet on
painting — "Keep Appearances Up and
DEVOE & RAYNOLDS CO., Inc.
New York CLie.'um Now Orleans Houston Iloston
Kansas City Buffalo Savannah Pittsburgh Minneapolis
The oldest paint manufacturing concern in the United Stiftes
Founded in New York in 1754
PAINT DEVOE PAINT
Sold by Simons Paint and Paper House
g '■W ' 1 »""" ■ ' " w
' ?v ",
..••Styl#' > ■.
■ vr-tN-jj ' ■ ——
? ■-.* - '-if ■ >-,v , Y
'T^.y t , ;
V-.i; ; ' %
**.. ' > 4 . r .y'L*; ; •' ' ; yjt
...... . &
Ws buy and sell all our own stallions and savs tbs agent*» profit for
ths farmers. These horses will bs sold at a reasonable pries. Tima
given to buyers. Every horse fully guaranteed.
H. RILEY, Mgr.
118 Clay Street, Missoula. Mont.
IN EASTERN MONTANA
Adjoining forest reserve. Will run 800 to 1,000 head
of cattle; excellent grass; plenty of hay and water and
open winters; 300 head of stock cattle, mostly two and
three year old heifers. Ranch can be sold with or
without stock. Compared with prices asked for
neighboring ranches this is an exceptional bargain and
must be sold by July 1st. For particular, inquire'
E. M. ADAMS, Owner
i and tlpit is too young for the good of
! the cow, the calf or the owner. The
breed suffers in the end and that is one
reason why so many people objeiÿ to
tiie small Jersey. They have a reason
If 24 months is made the minimum
for a cow to freshen and be admitted
to registry of merit, provided she
makes the other requirement properly,
it will be a big step upward for the
Jersey breeders.—Farm Life.
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