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HAS A OU1ER BEII[EF. .
This Woman Believes That Dogs Have Souls... Mrs. Izora C. Chandler, of New York, painter of dogs' pictures, author of stories about dogs, and lover of these intelligent animals, is a firm be liever in the theory that they have souls. "Yes, that is my conception," said Mrs. Chandler. "If dogs live up to the best canine ethics they will go to heav en just as we, if we live up to human ethics, will go to heaven. And I think that their heaven and our heaven are the same. Dogs and human beings are too close friends here to be separated hereafter." Mrs. Chandler has a pet St. Bernard named Rex that died a few years ago and left a void in the world for her. "Heaven is a state in which we shall all be content," continued Mrs. Chand ler, "and I should never be satisfied unless I met Rex there, and I know he would not be content to follow another angel about. The Indian is sure that the first object he will see when he goes to the happy hunting ground will be his dog. And why should he not, if he was a good dog and lived according to his light? "We claim to be their superiors. In some respects we are, but we can learn much from dogs. They serve us faith '~aliy, they show their gratitude for the smallest kindness and their faith In us is sublime. Dogs feel love and ixatred. They experience despaf', they p)ave patience that is angelic, they know the pangs of jealoiisy, and they show a dttlre to hele and comfort that is more than human. Man has a will. 80o have they. They are capable of obedience, whether present or absent from the one giving the command. They endure self-denial for the object of their affection. I believe that the MRS. IZORA C. CHANDLER. possession of all these indicates a soul and that all souls have a future state." Mrs. Chandler paints minatures of men and women as well as those of dogs, but the novelty of the dog mina ture painting has made it a fad. Re cently she painted the heads of three French bulldogs belonging to one of New York's fashionable women and received $300 for the work. "Three of Us," one of Mrs. Chand ler's books about dogs, has been called the "Black Beauty" of the dog world. It is dedicated to the memory of a pet dog she once owned, and is full of the author's pleasing belief in the immor tality of our faithful dumb friends. ZANGWILL.'S STORIES. SRe Recalls Delightful Taler of Married Life. 'I was married in Ventnor, at least so I gathered from the local news papers, in whose visitors' lists there figured the entry 'Mr. and Mrs. Zang will.' I do not care to correct it be cause the lady being my mother, is perfectly accurate and leads to charm ing misconceptions. 'There, that's he,' loudly whispered a young man, nudg ing his sweetheart, and there's his wife with him.' 'That! Why she looks old enough to be his mother,' replied the young lady. 'Ah!' said the lover, with an air of conscious virtue and a better bargain, 'they're awful mercen ary, these literary chaps.' The re verse of this happened to a young friend of mine. lie muarrid an old lady who possessed a vary large for tune. During the honeynms) n his so licitous attentions to her excited the admiration of another old lady who passed her life in a bath chair. 'Dear me!' she thought, 'how delightful in these degenerate days to see a young man so attentive to his mother!' and, dying soon after, left him another large fortune."-Philadelphia Press. WHITE-HOT BOLTS Bent Spinning Through the Air by a Deft Twist of thei Wilst. The passing of white-hot bolts from section to section of the new Contin ental building, in course of erection at the corner of Baltimore and Ci!,eart streets, is one of the spectacles in con nection with the setting of the steel for the structure which helps enter tain the great numbers who day after day congregate about this busy vicin ity, says the Baltimore Amciriaan. The bolts and rivets necessary in joining the great steel glrder.; are heated in portable forges, which, with the at tendant, are placed high in the air on strong enough, but what lock from the street like very frail, platform of 'boards. All about the forge the set ters are at work placing the bolts, and as each is riveted another is placed in ,position. It is the method by which the blazing bolts get from the forge to the riveter that supplies the spectacle a fascinating, and at times an alarming one. The bolt is caught securely in pincers, and by a deft twist of the wrist is sent spinning through the air in the direction of the men at work on the structure, from five to ten feet away, and sometimes farther. There is a swift, brilliant flash through the air, and then a shower of sparks as the bolt reaches its des:lnat on--t:.e bcttom of a bucket held by one of the workmen. There is play for dexterity both in throwing and in catching the blazing metal, and, while misses rarely, if ever, occur, still there is a chance, and this chance gives zest to the interest of the watchers on the sidewalk. The bolts in their comet-like flights ordinarily pass from girder to girder, with open way through the skeleton structure be low them, so that a miss means that the hot metal will come earthward at an alarming rate of speed, and with probable dire results to one or more of the scores of men at work between the sky line and terra firma. The men, however, who (do this little turn have done it before a few times, and them selves and the hundreds below them have perfect confidence in their ability. PAID FOR HIS FISH. Bow Senator Quar.l& Vi.etnize a irellow Stndent, When Senator Quarles of Wisconsin, a new man in public life, was a stu dent at Racine college, he had for a classmate a young man who was more attentive to the pleasures of fishing than he was to his studies. He always relied upon Quarles to coach him at recitations. One of the requirements was an original essay from each mem ber of the class once a fortnight. The piscatorial student had drawn on Quarles until that worthy thought it time to call a halt, and one day he re fused. His chum had a big flshing expedition on, and pledged earnestly for one more essay. "What do I get?" asked .Quarles. "Half the fish," was the reply. "All right," said Quarles, "I'll help you out once more." On the afternoon for essays the fisherman student took his place, and when he was called he stood and read in the most solemn manner "Lochiel's Warn ing." His voice never changed from start to finish . Lochiel and the Wiieard were one and the same to the reader. The class suppressed its !aughter, see ing that the professor never changed a muscle, After the reading the profes sor asked: "Mr. A., do you wish the class to understand that you offer this as original?" "Certainly, sir. En. tirely so," was the reply. "There is a striking similarity between your paper and the poem of Campbell on the same subject. Have you ever read Camp bell?" "Which Campbell?" "Thomas Campbell, the poet." "No, sir." "II you will come to my room after the class is dismissed I will show you the poem." "You had better show it to Joe Quarles," said Mr. A., who real ized by this time that he had been vic timized, and, turning to Quarles, he said: "If you get any fish today you pay for 'em; understand?" Skilill Australia Stouts. $ In March, 1892, a great corroboree, or mimic fight, was held by two savage tribes of Australian aboriginals at Port Darwin, and it became so realis tic that grave fears were entertained that it might become a real instead of a sham battle. The accompanying pic ture shows one of the scouts, who, in real warfare, climb trees and keep a lookout for the enemy's reinforce ments. But they also provide for ac tion in the treeless deserts. Armed with a pole about 20 feet long, he scoops out a small hollow in the ground and plants the butt of his pole therein, afterwards ascending it and balancing himself so skilfully that his 'I-~ SCOUT ON POLE. insecure perch remains perpendicular. His curious mode of climbing is well shown in the snapshot. Grasping the pole with his hand, he draws up his legs until the soles of his feet are parallel and resting against the pole. With the purchase so obtained he then raises his body and takes a fresh grip, repeating the performance until he reaches the top of the pole. Every man tells his friends he would do lots of things if he were in their place which he wouldn't expect them to do if be were in their place. F ARM AND GARDEN. MATTERS OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURISTS. Iome [p-to-Date llntq About 'ul tivatlon of the Colt and Yield's Thereof-Hortliculture. Viticulture rand Floriculture. ITortcnultur:,l Ob.bervatolnn. Whether, in making new strawberry plants by runners, it is advisable to pull off the first runners is a dis ýuted point. A Wisconsin grower says that this practice is a mistake, and :hat the first runners are strongest and noreover they will not set too many plants in a row if permitted to grow. Summer pruning always means a loss of foliage, and that in turn means a loss in the development of root, in cluding its vigor. While some advo cates of summer pruning say the tree will survive, yet it is hard to under itand why it is not better to do this work at a time when all growth is at t standstill. It is rather surprising that the secre taries of horticultural societies do not show more enterprise in advertising !heir meetings. The horticultural so ciety of one of our large western states has just held its summer meeting, and not only were no notices sent to the agricultural press, but not all of its members received notice of the meet ing. This is an inexcusable blunder. It not only lessens the attendance on the meetings, but is exceedingly an noying to those that wish to attend and receive no notice. A horticulturist advocates a hedge of the Amur barberry. He says it is "perfectly free from rust, is a dark green, occupies but little space, is a very strong bush and spiney enough to turn stock, dogs, cats, rabbits and boys." That may be so, but what do we want of such hedges anyway? The day of the hedge as a boundary is past. Wire fences are more serviceable and can be made more beautiful in appear ance. A barberry hedge is something to keep away from. What advantage is there in surrounding one's self with a wall of thorns? * I • In preparing the land for grape vines, plow the ground deeply, and, if possible, subsoil. Then pulverize the ground thoroughly to give the small roots all the chance possible to develop. It is best to set the vines not nearer to gether than 8 feet. The holes in which the vines are set should be each 2 feet square and from 18 to 20 inches deep. If a large number of vines are to be set, the land should be previously marked off, so that the rows of vines will be straight both ways; as this both improves the looks of the field and makes it easier to cultivate. One grape grower advises to keep the sur face soil separate from the subsoil when digging the holes, and to put back this surface dirt first when filling up the holes. This will give the roots a good medium in which to develop. Once well rooted and growing the vine can send its roots into the less con genial soil, without experiencing a back-set. In the fall, in regions where winter protection is needed, this may be obtained by plowing a furrow on each side of the row and throwing the dirt up toward the vines. In the spring this dirt must be leveled to admit of even culture. The vines may be staked and tied to the stakes till they are two years old, when they may be fastened to wires strung between posts. The Northwestern Greenlnn. (Condensed from Farmers' Review Steno graphic Report of Wisconsin Horticultural Convention.) Mr. Kellogg made a sharp attack on the Northwestern Greening, saying that in his experience it is not a good keep er, though the tree is hardy and all right. Mr. Adams-I planted about a dozen Northwestern Greenings ten years ago. They began to bear three years after planting, and bore up to two years ago. I had no difficulty at all in keeping the fruit till spring, even till May; and I kept them in an ordinary cellar. Mr. Chappell-My experience is that it is not a good keeper. Mr. Tarrant-I have had a lipmited experience with this fruit; it has not kept very well with me. Dr. Loope-I think the fruit is bet ter than what we have been hearing about from the southern part of the state. In some sections of my county the trees were injured the previous I year, and some of the apples they bore last summer broke open, while on other trees the same apples were perfect. Those poor apples will not keep, but the perfect apples keep well. You do pt want to select for keeping those apples with a yellowish cast to them, but you want to select the ones that are green in color. The tree is very good, and so is its fruit, and I think very much more of it than I did a few years ago. R. J. Coe-In the fall of 1898 I was in Omaha. It was the end of Novem ber and the apple exhibit had been ex posed to weeks of hard conditions; and the Northwestern Greening was the best-kept apple on our tables. If the Northwestern Greening is carelessly handled it will rot, but when it is fie from bruises it will keep till spring. In that it differs from the Wealthy ap ple, which, when bruised, merely leaves a hard spot. Mr. Barnes-The tree requires a won derful amount of pruning, and it takes a great deal of moisture to mature its fruit The fruit will keep well if it is properly handled. Last season I had 1,400 bushels of Northwestern Greenings, and got $5 per barrel for the best of them. In planting these trees be sure and put them on the out side of the orchard, where they will get plenty of free air. Quite a number of otbera testified to the long-keeping power of this vari ety, some basing kept it till midsurn mer. The testimony was so strong that Mr. Kellogg was apparently con vinced that the men that did not suc ceed in keeping it had not treated it properly. iHe said that be was re joiced at the direction the testimony had taken, because the tree itself is hardy and all right. Orchard Grasm Orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata) is widely diffused, being grown all over Europe, from Norway and Russia to Portugal. It is also found in north western Africa, in Asia Minor, and even in India. It is now extensively cultivated in the United States east of the Mississippi river. In this country 1O. 3. Orchard-rra Fie S6. Orchard egras. It is called orchard-grass because it I thrives in the shade as well as in the sun. In England it is called cock's foot. It grows well in pastures that are quite heavily wooded. It will grow upon every soil not too wet, but prefers a loam fairly sandy in texture. Heavy soils are not suited to it, as in such soils it roots so lightly that it is easily thrown out by the action of the frost. On suitable soil it is a vigorous grower, and in this respect is surpassed by but few. It is nutritious and inakeQ good growth after being mnowf. lor this reason it is said to stand grazing remarkably well. It will also stand a good deal of tramping. This grass will be found to be very serviceable in a good many locations. Mexican Cattle Industry. Consul Gritfft of Matamoras, under date of March 23, 1900, says: Mexico contains a great many haciendas ad mirably adapted and almost exclusive ly devoted to the raising of cattle. A fact which is attracting general in terest here is that every season shows an improvement in the care taken of the animals, and also in the class im ported. The stockmen throughoiut this country are taking such an In terest in this direction and have im ported so many pure-.bred cattle from the United States that on many ha. ciendas one may find animals which compare favorably with those on noted breeding farms in the north. In former years, they consisted exclusive ly of the old, long-horned, Spanish and Mexican types, which have large bones and frames and long legs, bul are deficient in flesh. This deficiency is certainly not due to the country, for the climate, grass, water, and gen eral topography are decidedly favor able to animal growth and comfort, and, while it is a generally recognized fact that Mexican stock is inferior to United States animals, it is the pre vailing opinion that a cross between the pure blood of the north and the cow acclimated here produces a large, healthy, vigorous offspring, with an unusually compact muscular develop .ment. Peach Yellows. Yellows is a highly contagious, in curable disease of the peach. Trees affected with it should be destroyed at the earliest possible moment by uproot ing and digging them out and burning .Toots, trunk and branches, including fruit, on site. No remedy save that has ,proven successful. Dragging diseased trees or branches through an orchard will infect healthy trees. Late summer and fall are the most favorable times for detection of yellows by symptoms of fruit and twigs. These are: 1. Pre mature'ripening of the fruit, which is highly colored and spotted and has the flesh marbled with red. 2. Premature unfolding of winter buds. 3. Abnor mal development of new buds in the trunk and branches, which grow into slender, sickly-looking shoots. A Novel Clock Regnlatlon. A clock regulated by Hertzlan waves was a novelty shown at the late Itoy al Society conversazione. It was sug gested that all the clocks of London -public and private--could be con trolled by wireless telegraphy, a co herer on each clock receiving the elec tric waves and causing the time to 0s set to that of the central transmitting clock. An Edible Taber. The Oussunify, for which the botamn ical name of Plectranthus Coppini ha. been proposed, is an edible tuber of the Soudan to which M. Maxima Cornu has just drawn attention. It re sembles the potato, with the advan tage that it can be grown in a truly tropical climate. . Home men are good re nothing; others are good because 34 $ them, DAIRY AND POULTRAY. INTERESTING CHAPTERS FPCOT OUR RURAL READERS. -low S.ucessfl Farmers Operate Thoq Department of the Farln-m-A Few Iltnts as to the Care of Live Stock and Poultry. Destroying Our MBarket Abroad. The secretary of agriculture of Mis soiuri, in his last report, says: Adulterated Chccse.--Oneof the worst features of this business is that imi tation butter compounds and adalter sted cheese are destroying the market for United states dairy products abroad. To illustrate, in 1880, the United States sold in Great Britain one hundred and twenty-eight million pounds of cheese, while Canada only sold forty million pounds or less than one-third what the United States (lid. In 1898 this condition of the trade was reversed, the United States selling to Great Britain only forty-six million pounds, while Canada sold one hun dred and fifty million pounds, or more than three times the amount sold by the United States, a condition that may be attribiutd almost solely to the fact that in this country the laws per mitted manufacturers to brand skim milk and filled cheese as full cream ar ticles, and as such it was exported and sold. Adulterated futter.-The same in crease in the sales of Canadian butter and decrease in the sales of butter from the United States may be noted since butterine has been manufactured and placed upon the market in imitation of and sold as creamery Inltter. In dicating this decrease in 1898, New York exported to Great Britain only sixty-five thousand packages, while Montreal exported two hundred and twenty-seven thousand packages, and in 1899, with Secretary Wilson, of the United States department of agricul ture, making every possible effort to extend the sale of dairy products in Europe, New York exported one hun dred and three thousand packages, while Montreal exported four hundred and twenty-live thousand packages, or hnore than four times as lmuch as this great country with its largely extended area, its abundance of all kinds of stock, food and grasses and its supe rior climatic conditions. The pure food products of this country are equal in character to those of Canada. The demand should be as good and the supply far in excess. The unfavorable. condition of our butter trade with Eu rope may be attributed to the fact that we have offered for sale in that coun try frealldulent imitation articles, chat we have lost the confidence (K: con sumers and brought into cmestion the purity of our product. lMaking a Natural Starter. The method of making this natural starter is simple. There may be vari ous plans, but one which is satisfac tory enough is as follows: A perfectly healthy cow fromn a cloanly. well kept dairy Is selected. After the under parts of the body are carefully brushed, and the udder moistened with a damp cloth, the first few jets of milk front the teats are rejected, and the rest is drawn tlto a sterilized vessel. This is then covered at once and taken to the dairy, heated to a proner temperature and passed through a separator. The skih milk thus obitained is again col lecIed in a sterilized vessel, carefully c.vered, and set aside to sour. After it has become properly soured it serves as a starter for the cream ripening process. Of course there are many other methods of obtaining a natursal starter, for a natural starter is noth ing more than a lot of skim milk or whole mir,k obtained under specially cleanly conditions from an exoepti.on ally good dairy and allowed to soar natnrally. Of c-ourse it is impossible for tthe dairyman to be sure that. such a natural starter contains the species of bacteria that is wanted for ripening. Sometimes it may contain proper species and at other 'times an unfaror ;able species. Logic-ally then the use ojf a natural starter is very unsatis factory. Ilut o.ur dairymen are nc son :much Interested in the loglic of the method as they are in pr actical re sults, and care not whether the process they use is theortically the best, pro vid al it gives them a gcod quality of buts r. There can be no question that the use of , aturE.l start-res thus made: has been a very dlecides, advantage to the butter maker as it has .been adq.ted in the last ten ,'ears. Clman ndlt1 Ulle.:tn I)anrieIsL A California milk inc ector has this -to say: Unclean dairic.: have been so widely adlcrtised in efflcial reports and newspaper articles that many eiti zoens think welCIt:ondlucted dairies do not e::ist, .or, if they do, no way is 2nown by which one can be assured of getting their milk. And many per sons will go without milk whenever passihle rather than run the risk of getting the dangerously impure arti cle which they are convincer Is very common. This the scarce articles have the effect of reducing the production and use of impure milk; but they have the same effect also on the use of pure milk. It is unfortunate that the ex cellent features of the best dairies are not given as much prominence as are the defective features of the worst, so as to show those interested that good milk is on the market as well as bad. A practicable plan by which this could be accomplished could easily be fol lowed, greatly to the benefit at all con cerned. Although only a few dairies were visited, it was readily seen that at least a part of the milk going into Sacramento and San Francisco is pro duced with great care and can be re lied upon as a safe and wholesome food. As already suggested, if these first-class dairies and other ik. them Coula be brought to the attention or the public as forcibly as the worst types, a decided step would be taken toward the improvement of the general city supply. -Fowls With or Without Illeit hoods. The Geneva experiment station has, as previously mentioned in the Farm ers' Review, been making trials in feed ing fowls with and without meat in their food. A part of the report says: The results were convincing, almost startling, in the case of ducklings fed the contrasted rations. The first lot of ducklings was fcJ on corn meal, ground oats, animal meal, and a little skirnmilk and dried blood. The second lot was fed on wheat b..n, corn meal, ground oats and skimmilk or curd. Both lots were fed green alfalfa; and sand and coarse grit were freely sup plied. Before the experiment had been long under way it was not unusual to notice scrawny, grain-fed birds, with troughs full of good, apparently wholesome food before them, standing on the alert and scrambling in hot haste after the unlucky gras.hopper or fly which ventured into their pen;, while the contenlted-looking meat-fed ducks lay lazily in the sun and paid no attention to buzzing bee or crawl ing beetle. The 32 meat-fed birds lived and thrived; but the tegetable food birds dropped off one by one, starved to death through lack of animal food, so that only 20 of the 33 were alive at the close of the fifteenth week of con trasted feeding. They were then fed for four weeks on the meat meal ra tion, and made nearly as rapid gains as the ether lot at the same size, two months before; but they never quite on ercame the disadvantage of their had start on grains alone. Some of the comparative averages for ten weeks from birth, the period of profitable growth for the larger ducks, are shown graphically below, the first figure or upper line representing tihe nient fed birds in each instance: o':.l weight alliir ed. Cost of food for 48 r I Pound gain Dry matter in food oar I pound ian 3 1 Ibs. -- ------ - d~~ 5 2 Ibs. In conclusion, then, It may be said that rations in which from 40 to 50 per cent of the protein was supplied by animal food gave more ec:onomical re iults than rations drawing most of ;heir proltetl .ro- vwget.!hl sources. The chief adlvusiiiage Zi ;s in thd produc tion of rapid growth, although tho cost of p ;cdiiction is also in its favor. W,'hit.r inferior palatibility mray have dii something to do with the marked icsults, especially a'ith the dJcks, the whole hearing (,f those bxperimenta and others uot yet ri puorte1 seems to In dicate ihat the .superiority of the one ration is ldue to the presence in it of animal food. 1lialth nan Confition orf 1orses. A recent government report treats of the health and condition of horses for the year ending March 31. It sum marizes as follows: Losses.-Of the 10 states each estl mated to contain 5,iti.u0) horses or up ward, all except Miss-ouri report losses from disease so.mewlhia less than those of the preceding year. The year 1898 95, however, w.as rharacterized by a rate of mortality slightly higher than that of any previous year for which ltgures are aveildable, and accordingly a comparison of the year now under discussion with the ten-year average is less satisfactory. Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Neblraska, and Texas report a rate of mortality below their respective ten-year averages; in the. ease of Pennsylvania and Missouri the percentages of loss agree exactly with the ten-year averages, while in New York and Illinois they are slightly above such averages. Condition.-The coi.iition o' .a1t . fulness and flenh on April 1 was very high, being only 3 per cent below the normal, as compare] with 5.6-Der cent below the normal on April 1 of the preceding year. Chloke on Free Range. We notice that one poultry writer is advocating giving the old hen full liberty to drag her chicks anywhere. He says that if this be done the chicks will be hardier, more fully developed and in every way better birds when mnature than those reared to the wean ing age with the hen confined to a coop and.a few square rods of ground. But we would suggest that the trouble comes in the fact that there are like ly to be very few birds to mature. By the time the old hen has dragged the lives out of some of them, and cats and rats have had their pick, to say nothing of the bout with the gape worm, the number will be few. Nor are we convinced that it is healthful for a chick to be over exercised or that it is rendered hardy by being soaked with the dew or chilled by cold winds. When a hen drags her chicks to a re mote corner of the farm the mink or cat finds it a good chance to gather in one of the stragglers now and then. Firm Fences.-There Is nothing in relation to poultry keeping that gives more satisfaction than a well-built poultry fence of wire on posts that are so deeply set t.y will never incline in any direction. It pays to have a firm fence. It will sav'e a great deal of vexation. The posts should be so deep ly set that they will stand wind and rain, frost and soil moisture. This can be obtained only by having the holes lug so deep that the bottoms of the posts will be below the region subject to heaving in the spring, which does not necessarily mean below the region )f tff