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A SMALL REALM.
UNIQUE KINGDOM IN REMOTE CORNER OF ASIA. Romantic and 4dventurous Career of Its Founder, Rajah Brooke-Independence Recognlzed by Three Great Powers, America, Italy, Eugland. (Special Letter.) There is a unique kingdom hidden away in a corner of Asia of which most people know nothing or at most the bare outline. It was founded by an Englishman, and is ruled by an Eng lish king as absolutely as all the Rus ilas are ruled by the czar, and yet England has no right, even of super vision, in its internal government, and the warships of at least three great powers salute its flag when they an chor within its territorial waters. Its name is Sarawak, and its present king is Sir Charles Johnson Brooke. He succeeded the first king, his uncle, Sir James Brooke, whose life story reads like a romance. The son of a civil servant of the Honorable East India company, James Brooke was born in India in 1803, and, after attending the Norwich grammar :school, received an ensign's commis sion in the Sixth Native infantry of the Bengal army, and joined his corps at the age of 16. He was seriously wounded in an engagement in the first Burmese war, in which lie commanded ::a body of volunteer native calvary, and on returning from England-whither he had been on furlough-suffered shipwreck, and was thus delayed in rejoining his regiment, to which he had been recalled. As it afterward proved, this was a lucky accident, for it ultimately led to his resigning his commission and sev ering his connection with the East India company. In the voyage which he subsequently made to China he first saw the isles of the Malay archipelago, and some inner voice then whispered that his destiny awaited him in those long-neglected gardens of the East. The possibilities of adventure and discovery which Borneo held were suf ficient attraction for an adventurous man; but above and beyond this rose an ambition to extirpate piracy and slavery, to reform a distracted country by methods of his own, to stand as a shield 'between oppressor and op pressed; and it was an ambition to which he remained consistent to his last breath. In the face of great difficulties a yacht was procured and mannet, and in this Mr. Brooke set sail for Brunel in the year 1838. The sultan of Brunel was little better than an imbecile, and all state functions were practically in / Ei~ 'Np THE PRESENT KING OF SARAWAK the hands of his uncle, Rajah Muda Hassim, who gave Brooke a warm wel come, and at once enlisted his services for the suppression of the rebellion wdich had broken out in the state. In gratitude for this assistance, and in order to retain the services of an ally whose value he was quick to rec ognize, Muda Hassim handed over the then small province-some 3,000 miles in extent-of Sarawak and its depend encies to Mr. Brooke, one cogent rea son for this generosity being that he was unable to control it himself. Of this territory Mr. Brooke was formally proclaimed rajah on Sept. 24, 1841; but in the preceding two years during which he.had administered its affairs, he had completely won the hearts of all the better disposed na tives. In spite of the fascinations a throne exercises over most imagina tions, few kingdoms could have seemed less desirable than Rajah Brooke's, for the condition of the country was any thing but peaceful. There was practically no exchequer and absolutely no revenue; his peace ful subjects were harassed to death, and he never knew how much he could depend on outside assistance to right them. Yet his influence was daily on the increase, for by a marvelous in tuition he at once understood the char acter and the native point of view of tings. Brooke succeeded in enlisting the sympathies of the British naval author ities on the China station, and his great friend, Capt. Henry Keppel, wha, vwth sword, pen and voice did more for Borneo than any other man, the Brookes excepted, was sent in com mand of the frigate Dido to aid him in suppressing the pirates of the Sare bus and Sakarran rivers, and more particularly the formidable bands who followed the flag of the terrible Serif Sahib. These pirates had never been con quered, and were regarded by Mr. Brooke's people as invincible.Yet when he told them he should go, but gave them the opportunity to accompany him or not, as they thought best, they merely replied: "What is the use of our remaining? If you die, we die; and if you live, we live. We will go with you." So expeditions consisting of the Di do's boats manned by bluejackets, amnd pative craft, conveying a large force of Dyaks, under the command of Captain Keppel and Mr. Erooke, pro ceeded 70 or 80 miles up the great riv ers and their tributaries, and attacked the strongholds of Serebus and Sa. karran, so that for the first time in native experience these pirates were bearded in their dens. The fighting was of the most inter esting description, and was attended by quite a respectable number of casu alties on the winning side. Brooke's best fighting man, Patingi Ali; Mr. Seward, one of his white staff; Lieutenant Wade of the Dido, and many another brave Englishman and Dyak met their deaths in these battles, but in attaining their object the expeditions were entirely success ful. The once dreaded chief, Seriff Sahib, was driven across the moun tains single and unattended, beyond the reach of doing further harm. In 1847 Rajah Sir James Brooke visited England and met with an en thusiastic reception from those who could understand and appreciate his work. He was bidden to Windsor, where the queen not only made him a knight of the Bath, but conferred on him the appointments of governor of Labuan and consul general of Borneo. Two years before his death, in July, 1868, the independence of Sarawak was recognized by America, Italy and England, and the great man died with the knowledge that it had entered on the path of prosperity, with increasing population, trade and revenue. Sir Charles Brooke, his successor, was born in 1829, and having spent 10 years in the royal navy, served it.der his uncle for 20 years in Sarawak. He married the Ranee, Margaret, only daughter of Mr. de Windt of Bluns don Abbery, Wittshire, England, in 1869, who is now queen of Sarawak. By concessions and purchases of ter ritory, including coal mines, harbors and splendid rivers away to the north -chiefly from the declining sultanato of Brunei, Sarawak has increased to 13 times its original area. It now comprises 50,000 miles-five times the size of Belgium-with 400 miles of coast line, and has a population of 300, 000. Notwithstanding, the cost of its efficient administration is less than that of any Asiatic country presided over by Europeans. Its expenditure is about $500,000 annually. PSYCHE, OF GREECE. So Beautiful hbat Mortals Mistook H1er for Venus. Psche is an exquisite creation of the later mythology of Greece. She was the youngest of the three daughters of a king, and so beautiful that mortals mistook her for Venus herself, and did not dare to love, but only to wor ship her. This excited the jealousy of the goddess, who sent Cupid to inspire Psyche with a passion for the most contemptible of all men. Cupid, how ,ever, was smitten with her charms, and carried her away to a beautiful palace, where he visited her every night, unseen and unknown. He bade her never let curiosity overcome her, and one night while he was asleep she took a lamp and went to look at him. She saw with rapture that he was the most handsome of the gods, but in her excitement she let a drop of hot oil fall on the sleeper's shoulder. This awoke Cupid, who upbraided her for her mistrust, and vanished. Psyche then set out to look for her lover, and coming to the palace of Venus she was seized by the goddess and kept as a slave. Cupid, however, reconciled her to his mother, and was united to her in immortal wedlock. In works of art Psyche is represented as a beautiful maiden with the wings of a butter fly. Her story has been considered as an allegory of the progress of the hu man soul through earthly passion and misfortune to pure celestial felicity, but it must not be forgotten that it is merely a version of one of the most widespread folk-tales in the world. Keep the Hands Clean. To keep the hands nice, cleanliness is the first essential, and, therefore, when rough work has to be done it is well, if possible, to put on gloves. Pre vention is better than cure, and as nothing spoils the hands like getting them grimed it should be avoided as far as possible. When this occurs, however, don't go to work upon theni with soap and a brush. Instead, take some vaseline or oil and rub it into the hands and then wash them thor oughly with a good toilet soap and a piece of flannel in warm water. The flannel will soon clean them and with out injuring the skin in any way. It is far better than a nail brush for ordi nary use and if used regularly a nail brush will ,be found almost, if not en tirely, superfluous. Deluding Young Filipinos. In the maps of Europe which were used in the Filipino schools under the Spanish regime a large place in the center of the continent, usually occu pying more than one-half the page, was marked Spain; all the rest of the countries were scattered about the edge. Thus the young Filipino came to have a very distorted idea of the magnitude of the country of his op pressors. Even Aguinaldo was sur prised to learn that America covers a greater area than Spain. Millionaire Knows How to Live. James Gordon Bennett, who recent ly paid one of his semi-occasional vis its to New York, is somewhere in the 60's, but really looks ten years young er. One of his friends is quoted as saying that "Jim seems to have learn ed the secret of how to live on a mil lion a year. Nine out of ten men with his income would have been dead long ago, and Jim hasn't traveled snail fashion at that." =oI @.eeoe.o8oo6+o1)8··.........:...... SAn Old s OLD BILL PRITTS iAA * SM6ALL "Toon shInr: DISTILERY.0 m e®®ooo®®®oo~oi®a®m®a, oe®®mmmmmmm®8am o. One of the most remarkable char Icters of the mountain region of West ern Pennsylvania is Bill Pritts, who was convicted of moonshining in the United States district court at Pitts burg last week. He has long been a resident of Fayette county and was notorious far and wide as one of the most daring men in his line of busi ness. His two sons, John S. and Henry Pritts, were also included in the in formation, but they did not appear. The case excited great attention on account of the numerous efforts to ,apture Pritts in his mountain home and his numerous successful escapes from the revenue officers. He was finally captured at his home last May. Against the Pritts family the follow ing charges are. made, on all of which the United States grand jury found true bills: William Pritts, John S. Pritts and Henry Pritts, as distillers who failed to give bond and as distillers carrying on business with intent to defraud the United States; William Pritts, retail liquor dealer, failing to pay special tax. Ignored bills-John S. Pritts and Henry Pritts, retail liquor dealers, failing to pay special tax. John and Henry Pritts were ar rested in October, 1899, but the old man made his escape, being wounded BILL PRITS. in the heel during his flight by a bul let from the revolver of United States Deputy Marshal Frank Campbell. The two boys stood trial at the May term of court and the jury disagreed. Their bail was not renewed, but a stay was granted until this term of court, when they were told to be present. When called yesterday afternoon neither of them was present and the father was the only one who responded. At torney R. B. Kennedy of Uniontown, their attorney, was unable to explain their absence. The court advised Mr. Kennedy to have his clients appear. The case against Pritts was opened by Assistant United States District At torney J. N. Langham. Deputy Col lector of Un'ted States Internal Reve-' nue W. J. Dickson was the first wit ness called. He described how, while he and two others were engaged in de molishing a still on Pritts' farm in October, 1899, father and sons were seen approaching along a path. They stopped their work on the still and waited their arrival, when the three leaped out at the men and covered them with their revolvers. "Bill" Pritts escaped. Deputy Collector Dickson said that the still was then in operation. Hot embers were lying beneath the affair and a mess of some thing was in the still. Six barrels of mash, he said, were in the stillhouse. "Bill" Pritts, he said, was captured the following May by himself and Deputy Marshal A. McBeth. He was found near a house of one of his neigh bors. The officer said that when he caught the defendant the latter denied being "Bill" Pritts and said that at any rate he had done nothing wrong. Frank Campbell, ex-United States deputy marshal, and Emanuel Custer, who followed Dickson on the witness stand, corroborated Dickson's testi. mony. A plan of the farm of "Bill" Pritts, with the location of the house and the still, was submitted in evidence when W. B. Horton, a surveyor, was called. "Bill" Pritts first came into promi nence with the killing of Tony Hoch stettler several years ago. Robert Miller, one of the party implicated, gay himself up and served four years in the penitentiary. The others were never apprehended. The history of his numerous encounters and escapes has several ir"'s been printed, and romance has placed famous old "Bill" near the top of the list of the queer characters developed in the mountains of western Pennsylvania. Like all men of his class, Pritts had many stanch friends among his neighbors, and these assisted him frequently in' eluding the oflicers of the government. Among the people of the mountain region It is not regarded as a crime to cheat Uncle Sam out of the tax on whisky. Men otherwise honest would not scruple to traffic in whisky that had paid no tribute to the government, and those who endeavor to collect it have a rocky time of it. The moon shiner is seldom without notice of the presence of revenue' officers in the vi cinity of his still, and he has ample time to conceal all evidences of his illicit occupation. His patrons can never be induced to testify against him, and the officers, even though they may be morally certain of the guilt of a suspect, have a hard task to procure the evidence necessary to convict. Bill Pritts was fortunate in having the good will of his neighbors, and on that account he long enjoyed immunity from arrest. The officers now claim to have proofs of his guilt and are confident of being able to give him a long term in the penitentiary. During his trial Pritts manifested the greatest unconcern. He admitted that he drank all the whisky he could get and made the admission as though it were a good joke and it tickled him. He admitted, however, that he had done so twenty years ago. He was as delighted as a youngster when United States marshals told of the trouble they had experienced in cap turing him. Like many another man, Bill Pritts is a mixture of simplicity and guile, but the proportions are hard to determine. COAL CONSUMPTION. Per Capita Increase Fifty Per Cent In Ten Years. In spite of continued effort to in crease the efficiency of engines and boilers the progress of invention is such that coal is becoming each year a more and more important article of commerce. So short a time ago, view ing the history of the world, as 1831 the annual coal production of Great Britain was 24,000,000 tons; for the year 1901 the coal production will probably be 240,000,000 tons, an in crease of 1,000 per cent. In 1831 the population of Great Britain was 24, 000,000 and the next census, 1901, will probably show about 40,000,000 in that country, an increase of 66 2-3 per cent in seventy years. Therefore the pro duction of coal has. increased from one ton per capita to six tons, and the rate of increase has been fifteen times as great as the rate of increaase in popu lation. In 1840 the production of bitu minous coal in the United States was, between 1,000,000 and 2,000,000 tons, and the production of anthracite was 1,000,000 tons-say a total of 2,500, 000 tons, says the Engineering Maga zine. At that time the population of the country was 17,000,000, so that there was probably less than one-sixth of a ton used per capita. Compare that with the present tonnage of 220,000,000 and a population of approximately 75, 000,000, and it will be seen that Amer ica is now using per capita eighteen times as much coal as she did sixty years ago. In fact, since 1890 the per capita increase has been 50 per cent. Rural Pennsylvanians Great Readers. Private contributions secure at least thirty traveling libraries in the rural counties of Pennsylvania this fall and winter, the legislature having made no appropriation for their support. At the recent Bradford meeting of the British association a paper read by J. B. C. Kershaw dealt with the com parative cost of power produced by steam engines, water turbines and gas engines, with the result of showing that gas engines have a very promis ing future. The supremacy of the steam engine is now disputed, says the Baltimore Sun. On one side the wa ter turbine, on the other the gas en gine, has become its rival. "During the past ten years," says Mr. Ker staw, "a most remarkable develop ment of hydraulic power has been taking place on the continent of Eu rope, in France and Germany, and in America at Niagara. The aggregate amount of power at the present (late generated from falling water forms no inconsiderable portion of the total power utilized in the manufacturing industries, and two years ago it was estimated by the author to be between 236,000 and 350,000 horse power. On the other hand, gas engineers have been busily engaged in working out the problems presented by large gas engines and by the utilization of the waste gases of blast furnaces. Gas engines up to 650 horse power have been built and have worked smoothly and economically." Local considerations will often de cide one's choice bIwtween the three possible sources of power, but a large waterfall does not always give the cheapest power and the nearness of the coal field will not always mak' the steam engine preferable. The most economical source of power can only be determined after an exhaust ive study of comparative cost daca. Water, it is conceded, is the cheapest source of power if its fall can be util ized without much capital expendi ture, but if it costs heavily to utilize it or to transmit the power when ob tained, then steam or gas may be cheaper. Some water powers devel oped in Switzerland, it is observed, cost more than the other sources of power. The practicability of large gas engines is settled, and under some cir cumstances they must displace the turbine and the steam engine. Their use may unsettle practical calcula tions. "If they do not cost excessive ly for maintenance and repairs," says the writer, "large gas engines, in con junction with coke ovens and blast furnaces, may entirely alter the pres ent position of affairs, and the new industries which at present are be ing established in the neighborhood of water power stations may find themselves in severe competition with similar manufactures carried on in the coal and iron districts of the older manufacturing countries." PREVENTS SEASICKNESS. The disagreeable affliction of sea sickness often robs an ocean voyage of half its pleasure and fills the traveler with dread of a return of the malady on his next trip and mars the pleasure of anticipation. With the idea of elim inating, to some extent at least, this disagreeable feature of crossing the ocean, two Englishmen have designed a self-leveling chair, which we illus SELF-LEVELING CHAIR. trate herewith, the inventors claiming that it will counteract the rolling and pitching motion of the boat in any di rection. The method of suspension of the chair will certainly maintain the seat in a horizontal position and if this does not have the desired effect in ex tremely rough weather, or if the pas senger desires to sit on deck, suitable screens are arranged to prevent the occupant from suffering the optical ef fect of motion at sea. It will be no ticed that two rings are placed above the chair and by pivoting these rings at right angles to each other they will tilt it in such a manner as to hold the chair motionless in the roughest sea. The idea is also applied to berths on shipboard and by drawing the curtains and shutting out the view of the inte rior of the cabin the passenger may imagine himself safely on land again. Smallent of the Small. While we are accustomed to think of atoms as the smallest possible particles into which matter can be divided, re cent experiments, particularly those of Dr. Gustave Le Bon, have indicated that, through electrical dissociation, atoms themselves are capable of sub division into particles of amazing mi nuteness. Many years ago Lord Kelvin calculated the probable size of a mole cule of air, and according to him about 25,000,000 such molecules laid in a row would measure an inch. There would oe 600 air molecules in a wave-length of ordinary light. 'Every molecule is composed of atoms smaller than itself. Now, Dr. Le lion calculates that the particles dissociated by the electric energy which produces such phenome na as the Beequerel rays are so small that even atoms would appear to be "infinitely large" in comparison with them. IMPLEMENT TO OPEN BARRELS The purpose of the invention illus trated in the accompanying cut is to provide an inplement which will rap idly force the top hoops from barrels to allow the ends to be removed or in serted and the barrels headed up. A foot is provided, which rests either on the chime and projects inside the bar rel or engages the head if the barrel has not been opened. This foot forms the fulhrunc for the lever, which is provided at its outer end with a carved hook to be slipped under the hoops, DEVICE TO REMOVE HOOPS. when a downward movement of the lever detaehes them from the staves, the implement beinlg Inoved to two or more positions to loosen the different parts of the hoop. When used on a hogshead or large barrel the fulcrum and hook can be reversed, when a lift ing movement will have the same ef fect. The inventor claims that the im plement will do, its work rapidly, with out injury to the barrel or hoops. Give Your Spectacles a Bath. "Half of the people who wear glasses and complain that their sight is grad ually diminishing owe the idea to dirty glasses," remarks the optician. "Spectacles and eyeglasses are as much benefited by a bath now and then as people are. It is strange how many people there are who think that by wiping their glasses now and then they keep them clean. The fact is they want a bath as frequently as a human being. You see it is this way: The face, and especially the eyes, all the time give off a fine vapor. This clings to the glasses and the dust coi lects on them. As soon as they be come clean-that is, apparently clean -the wearer is satisfied. "So the process goes on. But, while wiping the glasses cleanses them and is necessary, a bath is also required," quotes the Cleveland Plain Dealer. "Every time the glasses are wiped a fine film of dirt is left on them and this accumulates, and no wiping will clean it off. In time this coating gets quit.e thick enough to blur the vision, even though at a glance the glasses may appear clean. When this occurs the sight is diminished and they come to me or sonic. other optician. What they ought to have done was to give the' glasses a bath in warm water, well scrubbing them with a small tooth brush and soap and afterward wipe them. This should he done with cham ois leather and then with tissue paper to polish them." Strance Snow on Mars. Prof. Johlstonie Stoney, in develop ing his theory cf the escape of gases from planetary atmospheres depending upon the force of gravity of the par ticular planets concerned, has conclud ed that helium at present is slowly es caping from the earth, and in a distant past time it probably escaped much more rapidly. From Mars, he says, water vapor must have escaped with about the same readiness as helium fled from the earth, and accordingly the variable white patches about the poles of Mars are not snow, but proba bly are frozen carbon dioxide. Other apppearances frequently observed on Mars are due, he thinks, to low-lying fogs of carbon dioxide vapor shifting alternately between the poles and the equatorial regions. The Evaporation of Gold. Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen has proved through an experiment extended over four years that when a column of lead is allowed to rest upon a column of gold a slow diffusion or evaporation of the gold takes place, resulting in the appearance of traces of gold in the lead. When a degree of heat not suf ficient to melt either of the metals is applied, the diffusion of the gold takes place more rapidly. The tendency of the particles is upward into the lead. As far as is yet known the evaporation of gold occurs only in the presence of another metal. Taming the Waves with Nets. A new plan for diminishing the force of waves has recently been tried at Havre. It is the invention of Baron. d'Alessandro, an Italian residing in Paris. The apparatus consists of a net work of water-proofed hemp, 360 feet long by fifty broad, anchored on the) surface of the water. It flattens out heaviy waves and prevents them from breaking, after the manner of oil spread upon the sea.