CRIME IN OUR LARGE CITIES
FILLING UP THE CANADIAN WEST.
Gossip from Gotham.
lid tf News Gathered in tie Metropolit by Our Correspondent'
Young GoulJ Shunned by Fellow SluJenti Suburban Cottage
Displacing Flats An Expensive Drill Floor.
comes up for a flve-cont fare in the subway. When the freshmen needed a
hell badly for Its crew young Gould i::ivo the ftiuo necessary for It. Ho gives
to everything liberally, but not ostentatiously.
Hut he was persistently snubbed. He concluded to try the experiment
of leftitiR Ms follow students haze him. So one evenit'i? he was reported to
the 'i:;.nK A vender," a sic.it society of hazers. numbering l.V They took
joiiim GouM in hand and tortured him for two hours.
Vming Gould came back last a 1 1 m i : 1 1 rt prepared to enjoy the distinction of
Ileitis hini-c If a sophomore and bavins the fun i f I:. Instead he found nothing
but fros'y ,?i.ii:cf.t. An oillcial public studen' ostracism was already awaliiug
There a society in Columbia called "Kin s Crown." Kvery ptud-nt
Is eliuible .ii'-r r f:f' hiiian ; ear. It is a 3ort of college club. 'I here wero 4
canilid.ves for elecidn atliletes. scholars, literary men, popular fellows all
kinds. Tlie;e Were ':! of the e.mdidateA elected. KIngdnn Gould of all alono
failed of election. I'ive blackbills were enough to reject. lie g"t II.
It is the custom to put yoiini; men of means or position on the sophomore
rhow comn.it tee. which ai ramies the sophomore dramatics, one of the social
events of the year. Yotitm Gould was left olT this ronnnlttep by his own
la-s. He was eligible to the Kngiiifcring society; he did not Join. He went
to the summer camp at Morris, Conn., with his classmates and was eligible
to the club. lie diil eves ything had a valet serve tea and other refreshments
rvcry day to bis less fortunate classmates but all to no avail. This year
the name of Kinsdon Gould 'Iocs not appear on the Junior ball committee,
as h's position should have entitled him.
He is no longer a sophomore; he has risen to the proud position of an
uppcr-cUeS man. But still there U the cold shoulder for Kingdou Gould.
DECLINE IN POPULARITY OF FLAT
to .suburban cottages.
These conilit ions are
lit ion in an unfavorable
were pushed to the top limit two and three years ago, when there was a real
scarcity of Hats ami a genuine congestion of population, tho new conditions
inake the market prices of obi Hats look too high. The fncreaslng number
of vacancies in Hat houses reduce the Income from the properties. As a re
Full, mortgage lending companies refuse to lend as much money on flat
liouso mortgages as they were lending a few years ago. They also refuse to
advance large building loans for the construction of new Hat houses, because
they do not consider the Hat houses such a good form of Investment as It
I'nder such conditions, the stop In Hat building Is unavoidable. It is re
yarded as a benefit to the general leal estate situation
DRILL FLOOR WHICH COST $37,000.
The armory oflicluls finally decided that they would have a 1oor that
would stay put, regardless or cost. The old lloor was ripped up and cleared
nway. Heavy plb s were then driven down until solid ground wag reached.
Beams were laid across these till a solid foundation was secured. A cover
ing of concrete an inch thick was laid on next and coated with blach varnish.
A layer of cement was laid on this, followed by a bituminous composition
known as 'mastic." Into this were set blocks of Interlocking wood flooring.
These blockB are made of comb grain yellow pine, each ll,s by Vj by 15
Inches In size, so fitted Into each other that no sleepers or nails were neces
sary. Planed off and finished with oil, the floor Is now damp, germ, vermin,
rot anil fire proof, and whilo the
lias a floor it can stand on.
HOTEL HAS 10,000 WORTH OF FLAGS.
frffSV i7 kri Guam.
I n il f .1 j makes
M W WjhrSJ.y U comes
can all be used.
As steady customers it is probable that .Tew York's hotels take the lead
In making Hag manufacturing'!! necessity. Your first-class metropolitan hos
telry carries an assortment which would put u battleship to fdiame. At the
Hotel Astor, for Instance, the flag supply represents an Investment U $10,000.
So cosmopolitan Is tho tide of visitors which stops there, and bo frequent
aro the banquet engagements, which during the Reason average three or
four a night, that a collection which will make available the right flag at the
right moment is tremendous. One may eee them flapping from the facade
any day a patch of brilliant color in the grayish vista of the. city street,
denoting that an Important peisonac from some foreign country is stopping
the., of that some swagger organization is giving a banquet. Thry arc lit
erally the signal flag of hotel social life. Indicating at do tbi wcfttuer bu
reau's ling la tot mariner what Is sting to blow l.
XKW YORK. Klngrfon Could, eldest HOB o!
George J. Gould, la suffering the worst punishment
(but ran be Inflicted upon a college man the pun
ishment of ostracism because hla associates be
lieve that ho committed tho worst ofTense a col
lege man can commit, that of "squealing."
Young Gould, on everyday American boy,
dared say that he wouldn't bo kidnaped and he
wasn't, lie refused to wear a rap that was tbe
hailue of a freshman. From that day to this he
has been systematically shunned by the very men
who would have been 111 friends. Ho has tried
to hliow that his resistance was only aKalnst In
sult: he has tried to make It clear that he Is not
a snob. He owns ati automobile, but Instead of
coining to college daily In It, us he might do, he
l'lat. builders In Manhattan nnd Hie Prolix are
no; planning new houses, says a real estate an
t hoi ity.
l'lat s are not In such strong demand as they
were n few years at:o. It Is believed that flat
building, which h:u I a the chief form of run-
sMui tural activity In the recent past, will take an
InsiMiilicant place among New York's building
operations for the next few years.
The declinn In Mat building has resulted rom
a conjunction of several potent factors. There are
too many llats; there are few available Kites re
maining: there Is ii crowing dislike among tho
masses for Hal house homes; there Is a constant
pressure of business on Hat house districts, re
Milting in an increased outflow of Hat dwellers
reacting on the financial side of the Hat house situ
manner. Because the market prices of Hat-houses
The most expensive floor In Greater New
York is that in the armory of the Fourteenth reg
iment, at Kighth avenue and Fifteenth street.
Brooklyn. When entirely completed nbo.jt f:17,r00
will have been spent on it. Its dimensions are
I'llu fei't hv I'.iO. Us area is about iri.SOO feet in
The aimory Is situated over one of the veins
of damp, marshy laud which run through this sec
tion of Brooklyn, and give a great deal of trouble
to builders of houses In the neighborhood. The
soggy ground has proved very deleterious to all
kinds of doors, causing rot to set In early. Tho
armory lloor suffered especially, repairs becoming
necessary so frequently that carpenters' hills
have footed up to nearly $100,000 In the last ten
process was expensive
tho regiment now
Ahkoond of Swat were to land In New
York today and put up, say, at the Hotel Astor,
see the glorious standard of Swat, In
brilliant bunting 25 feet large, floating over Long
Aeii. Mfitiai'o Willi lii the hour. Great Britain or
Itussia. Panama or the Isles of Greece, it
no difference where an important guest
from, his Hag is here.
orii. iicconung to me latesi ngures, is
the center ol tbe Ha;; industry, not only as a pro
ducer but as a consumer. Kvcrythlng from the
small fcilk Hag used for favors In table decora
tions to the hundred loot monster made for spe
cial use is turned out here, to say nothing of for
eign Hags, and in such tremendous quantities as
to cause the uniultlated to wonder where they
Process of the Evolution of the Criminal From Boy
hood Traced By Inspector McLaughlin of New
York That City Charing House for Crime
Few Reformations Recorded
"When I first came Into this office
nnder Inspector Byrnes," began In
spector McLaughlin, "you could count
tho Italian criminals In New York on
your fingers. But now " Ho pushed
back his chair and looked squarely
at me," writes Frederick Boyd Steven
son In the Brookryn Eagle. "Now no
one knows how many there are. It Is
the same with all other nationalities
they have increased so rapidly that
It Is almost impossible to keep track
"And Is there a proportionate In
crease in the criminals in other large
cities of the United States?"
"rmiuestJonably. Tho fact of the
Increase In New York would Indicate
that. New York Is the cleurlng houso
for crime in America. It not only Is
the starting out place, but it Is tho
winding up place. -New York has a
much larger criminal population than
any other city in America, and prob
ably than any other in the world.
Tho crime problem in New York is
getting away with us, and it has ar
rived at tho point where wo must do
something, and do It promptly."
"What Is the first step?"
"Tho first stop," said the Inspector
decisively, "is to drive tho crooks out
of New York city."
"I give orders every morning to my
detectives when they assemble nt tho
lino up of criminals at polico head
quarters to arrest every crook they
boo on tho street at unseemly hours.
Tho detectives aro carrying out my In
st ructions. This morning we had 44
well known thieves In lino. Tho morn
Ing after election wo had moro than
"And what happens to those thieves
after their arrest?"
"That is where tho law falls down,
Vo arrest the criminals understand
me, men and women who are known
to be criminals, whose pictures are In
tho rogues' gallery, and who have
served terms in prisons and the next
morning the magistrates let them go.
The magistrates claim that they can'
not hold these criminals unless they
aro arrested on some specific charge
that tho vagrancy law Is not strong
enough In this state. The result Is
that tho criminals from such states as
Massachusetts and New Jersey, where
they have strong vagrancy laws, flock
to New York, where they find a haven
of refuge under our easy going sys'
tern of justice. But tn the meantime,
let ine tell you, I am having every
crook arrested on sight. The police
will do their duty. If tho magistrates
set tho crooks frco, that is another
affair. We know when we arrest a
crook that he Is saro for that night,
and that ho cannot commit a crime
when he is In a cell. But I am In
hopes of seeing a change in the law,
A bill that we attempted to get
through before will be again Intro
duced in Albany. If that be passed
criminals can be sent to the work
house when they cannot show that
they are making an honest livelihood
and by continually arresting them and
sending them up we can force them to
go to work or get out of tho city."
Has No High-Flown Theories.
"But how about otner cities and
other states?" I queried.
Then it was that the trait of the old
thler catcher came to view. He smiled
cynically as he said:
"I am Interested In driving the
thieves out of New York city. Let
the other cities take similar methods.
It they would all do that the criminals
would havo to go to work. I would
havo them earn their livelihoods as
honest men do or put them all behind
"Then you do not believe In tho In
determinate sentenco as advocated by
the Prison association?"
Ho shook his head.
"See here," be said suddenly, and
he pet hla jaw flrmlv. "Not one habit
ual criminal out of a hundred ever
reforms. Once a crook, always a
crook, is an old saying that I have
found to hold perfectly good. Some
years ago a well known thief came to
me and said .he wanted to reform and
earn an honest livelihood, and I
helped him. Ho secured a place In
the house of a wealthy woman. Not
long after that he stole the woman's
diamonds. When he was brought be
fore mo he said: 'I couldn't help steal
ing those diamonds. I meant to be
honest, but when I saw them In the
drawer I couldn't resist tho tempta
tion to take them.' That Is the case
with the majority of criminals. Now
and then you may find an old crim
inal who wants to reform. But those
cases are exceedingly rare."
This feeling is shared by about all
the men who are engaged in the occu
pation of running down criminals and
endeavoring to prevent the perpetra
tion of crime. Robert Pinkerton once
expressed practically the same views
to me, nnd only the other day Samuel
Barrows, corresponding secretary
of tho Prison Association of New York,
told a story where he was made the
victim if a pretended reformed crim
inal. Tho man had come to him with
talo of reform; a small loan was
mndo to him and repaid, followed by
confidence resulting In the advnnce of
qulto a sum of money for goods to sot
him up In business. Since that ad
vance no word has been heard from
tho so-called reformed criminal. The
incident, however, did not affect Mr.
Barrows' faith, for he still believes
there Is good in many criminals and
that assistance should be given to
them to reform. But with tho profes
sional thief catcher It Is a different
matter. They are daily brought In
contact with such a low order of hu
manity and dally see the lowest side
of degraded humanity, so that they
naturally become Incredulous when
reform and crime are linked together.
Pathology of Crime.
But, nevertheless, there Is a path
ology of crime. Tho psychology of the
thief or tho psychology of tho mur
derer not only Is an Interesting study,
but It Is also a scientific study. And
coupled with the psychological Is the
physical Bldo of tho problem. If you
suggest to tho professional thief catch
er tho possibility of heredity or atav
ism, nino times out of ten he will re
ply positively: "No; a thief Is a thief
just hecauso ho Is a thief that's all."
But hack of the mirfaco Indications
specialists are beginning to trace a
cause and a possible cure for crime.
The euro docs not, perhaps. Ho In any
great reform movement that can reach
the habitual criminals of to-day. It
lies, rather, in a euro for the future.
It is not difficult to trace tho causes
of crime. They may be expressed In
a few general words: Pauperism, en
vlronment, physical disease, insanity,
with all It soclologic relations; polltl
cal corruption, anarchy and false eco
nomic and industrial conditions. As
an elementary course In the synthesis
of crimes one needs but to take a
glance almost any morning at the
faces tn the "line-up" of criminals at
New York police headquarters. There
you will see tho young criminal just
starting out on his career of crime,
and there you will see the old and
seared thief and murderer and all
around lawbreaker, with Intermediate
specimens between the first and the
worst stages. In tho faces of nearly
all the habitual criminals the pur
suits of the men and the women can
bo read like an open book. In the
faces of the younger offenders the
reader is often stopped with a query.
There Is a mixture of good and evil.
General Criminal Types.
New York criminal types may be
taken as general types throughout the
world. The extent to which this class
prevails in the United States was
shown by the complete census of 1890,
when thero were 215,000 criminals. In
sane persons and paupers In alms
houses. In edition to 3,000,000 paupers
at large In the United StateB. Since
then these numbers havo been greatly
augmented. This nation . expends
something like $200,000,000 a year to
protect the good from the bad. In
other words every honest man is com
pelled to pay from $3 to $5 annually
In order to receive protection from the
criminal classes and U frequently hap
pens that even then he is not protect
ed. The evolution of the criminal is
the natural result of tbe present sys
tem in regard to the care or rather
the lack of care of the children of
the poor. Tho boy of honest poor per
sons is allowed to play In the street
with the boy of tho criminal and tbe
degenerato. ' With these vicious asso
ciations tho result Is a criminal or a
drunkard. If a boy like this becomes
a man and has children what chance
jp it yrs.
have these children to become honest
and useful cltlsensT
Professor Poellmann. of the Univer
sity of Bonn, Investigated the charac
ters of the descendants of a woman
who was a confirmed drunkard. He
traced her descendants for six gener
ations through a posterity numbering
834 persons, and obtained a record of
709 of them. He found that 107 were
of illegitimate birth, 162 were profes
sional beggars, 64 'nmatea of alms
houses, 181 women of bad repute, 76
convicted of serious crimes, and seven
convicted of murder. Another statis
ticianthe Iter. O. McCulloch traced
the histories of 1,750 criminals and
natiners who were descended from a
criminal who lived In Kentucky In
1790, and ho ascertained that among
these descendants, nearly all of whqm
were criminals, 121 were women of
bad repute. In tracing 834 descend
ants of two sisters who died in 1825,
the Itev. Dr. Stocker of Berlin found
that 76 of them had served 116 years
in prison, 164 were women of bad re
pute, 100 were Illegitimate children,
17 were degenerates, 142 beggars and
Three Tenets of Crime.
Dr. G. Frauk Lydston, professor of
criminal authiopology of the Chicago
Kent College of Law, says there are
three tenets of crime:
"1. Tho criminal and vice classes
are tho product of certain influences
of heredity, congenital and acquired
disease, and unfavorable surroundings
Involving pernicious teaching and ex
ample, physical necessities and other
"2. Tho Influences result in a "class
of persons of low grade of develop
ment,' physically and mentally, with
a defective understanding of their
true relations to tho social system in
which they live. Such persons have : la not nearly so marked as that be
no true conception of that variable tween tho farmer of tho Maritime
thing called morality, and, in the case
of tho criminal, no respect whatever
for tho rights of others, save In so far
as It may be compelled by fear or
punishment. Some become criminals,
some pntipers, inebriates or Insane.
"3. These subjects are character
ized, upon the average, by certain
anomalies of development that consti
tute the so-called tt.igmata, or marks
of degeneracy. In them, vice, crime
and disease go hand In hand."
Dr. Lydston classifies criminals un
der the following heads:
1. Instinctive criminals: Born
criminals, the moral Imbecile, or so
called moral instane, the stable fac
tor in criminality.
2. Criminals by Impulse: The oc
casional criminal, criminals bjr pas
sion, criminals from accidenta. or In
tercurrent factors of disease, In
ebriety,, necessity, or social excite
ment. 3. Epileptic and Insane criminals.
4. Political criminals.
What Is the Remedy?
Now, the analysis of crime Is all
well enough In Its way, but tho prao
tical citizen asks: What Is the rem
edy for crime? Tho lncrcte In the
United States, and especially in New
York city, shows the necessity ol
some remedy. Inspector McLaughlin
admits that the criminals are almost
beyond control In that city, and h
believes that the law is to blame foi
this condition of affairs. The lawi
are numerous enough, for there are In
the United States 824 anti social actt
classified as crimes, but the case he
wishes to reach is not reached by s
specific law. Tho inspector wants a
law that will provide that whoever
has been convicted of a felony, ot
whoever has been convicted as a pick
pocket, thief or burglar, having no
visible means of support, found loiter
ing about public places or on the
streets and unable to give a satisfac
tory explanation of bis presence, may
be imprisoned for not more than sli
On the other hand, tho sociologist
"How will such a law prevent
When the criminal is born, society '
does nothing to prevent him from con- j
tintiing a criminal. In a period of 40
years In the last century statistics
show that the population of this coun-'
try increased 170 per cent, while the
proportion ot criminals Increased 445
per cent. This does not look as If we '
had treated the crime problem with
any great degree of Intelligence.
The American Settler Is Welcomed
A number of the leading newspa
pers on this side of the line hare been
noticing tho growth of the Canadian. .
West In recent years, and draw atten
Hon to the factthat there seems to ha
no abatement of the Influx of settlers
to that great grain-growing country.
The Buffalo Express thus refers to the.
"Canada West continues to grow.
There were 4,174 homesteads entries
there In July .of this year, as against
8,571 in July, 1905. Canada plume
herself over this fact, with becoming
pride. But what appears to make our
neighbors happiest Is the statement
that of these 4,174 homesteaders,
1,212 were from this side of the line.
Little' Is said about the 97 Canadians
who recrossed the border to take up
homes In Canada West, or of the 808
from Great Britain, or of the 1,236
from non-British countries. It ap.
pears that the Item In this July report
that makes Canada rejoice most Is
this of tbe 1,212 American farmers
who decided to try their fortunes In
"The compliment Is deserved. The
1,212 were mostly from Dakota and
other farming states, and go Into
Canada fitted better than any other
class of Immigrants for developing the
new country. They take capital with
them, too, say Canadian papers proud
ly. In every way, they aro welcome
As tho. Express well says, the
American is welcomed to Canada, and
tho reasons given are sufficient to In
vlte tho welcome. The Amcriacn
farmer knows thoroughly the farming
conditions that prevail In tho Cana
dian prairie provinces, and is aware
of every phase of agricultural devel
opment In recent years.
In practical knowledgo of what Is
wanted to get the largest return for
labor and Investment ho Is by long
odds superior to any European set
tler. He knews what Is required to
bring success, and he is able and will
ing to do it, and his future causes no
apprehension to the successful Cana
dian farmer. The agent of the, Cana
dian Government, whoso address ap
pears elsewhere, says that the differ
ence between tho manners and cus
toms of the farmer from Dakota, Ore
gon or Minnesota and the farmer from
Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Alberta
provinces and tho Ontario tiller or tno
soil. Hence the welcome to the frco
homesteads of the Canadian West,
and there are hundreds of thousands
of them left, that Is extended to tho
settler from the Western States.
Tea on the Down Grade.
Tea drinkers are finding scant en
couragement la a report recently
made by a large tea exporting house
In Yokohama to Its American cus
tomers. Incidentally It indicates that
the United States Is not alone In fac
ing Increased cost of living. The re
port says: "Owing to the rapidly in
creasing cost of living In Japan labor
costs more, and In consequence cul
tivation of the tea gardens is less
generous and extensive than formerly,
and less care and skill are expended
In picking and curing the leaf. Hence
the average quality of the teas now
offered for sale is below that of sea
sons prior to the war, and for the
same reasons we are not likely in the
future to see any reversion to the
excellence of former years." New
Mother What's Tommy been fight
Little Sister Oh, he's mad because
Jimmy Smith has to wear spectacles
and he doesn't Detroit Free Press.
Ely's Cream Balm
li quicktf absorbed.
Cixt Rtliaf at Once.
It cleanses, soothes
heals and protects
I he diseased mem.
brano. It cures Ca-
tnrrU and drives
war a Cold in the
Head quickly, lie-
stores tho Bcnws of 1
Taita and bmoll. Full Ue G0cts.,at Drug,
gista or by mail t Trial Size 10 cts. by moil.
Ely Brothers, 50 'Wurrea Streot, Now York.
ALWAYS READY TO USE. NO
DIRT, DUST. SMOKB OR SMELL.
NO MORE TQVe POLISH TROUBLE J
f (SOIDGDgY? f
I V Ji i
I 1 I
xml | txt