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Delaware journal. [volume] (Wilmington [Del.]) 1827-1832, April 27, 1827, Image 1

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NT. MILLS,
April 27.
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EAjteAM M. EvaAfovA.— -YvinUAanA Pyi\>Yis\vgA Ey IV. I'ovteT
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01, Markt! -Street, WvYmingtonç
F>/. /.
FRIDAY, April 37 , 1837 .
•T«. 3 .
''Y
Tiik Agriculture of the United States, ni»
le<
w _ . , ... r
AVe shall now proceed to speak of theculti- eo.J
ration oi tobacco—which is ebiefly an article j
of export, and ol two very different qualities, • n
(< Maryland and "Virginia, as they are j
commonly denominated, though made in small
er parcels in several other- stu es.
r I he produce of this article was greater be- see
.'«uv the rtwolution than it is now . Ja'en ni
1758. Maryland and \ iiginin. alone, exported our
70 'i°?l ) no 1 "r 8 * tüi oVe
and U93, [see thetai ,] I 1 rV'im™' V*
hut m the three y ar.. 18~2, - an! I8U,
only 259,061, notwithstanding tee g.eat. in
erraseof labourers. But the foreign market ti
■will not receive more than a certain quantity
the average of the Marylandquality, used or don
smoking being short of 80,000 hhds. and that
* tue Virginia, chiefly used for chewing, less
than 50,000 ; and such is the> peculiar cond.
°! «»» commodity, that 90,000 1,1,ds. ex
ported wi t produce no more money, on an
average, than 80,000! I Ins is a curious exam
ple or the. effect »( scarcity and supply, and we
speak understand,ugly, as will he seen by a if
reference to the table, made up from official do
ciments— take the following examples ol sue
reeding years :
Years. Hhds. ™li»rj. £
fi'ooS'SSn f
o'o«'non
iJsnonno
fi'S'S o 1S
' '
v „• whirl, mo.x, than anv other state
\ oo 5 Y 'vos to trXd te " la ml I
the Union, des« , vos to b„ called II,. land J
, , ,
il iîl!, a EÎXr?,m-S
jfly sujiersedmg it n t e c^' mi t f
"l^we^i. o whnb we shall mon
bar«»has decline«! !" ^ te 'ky, Ü.« Cn olmas. P
Georgia a« Louisiana, not being found so
profitable as other agricultural pursuits; and,
.perhaps, w**^thelafnmr ^'»capital employ
ed are considered, ,1 is the least pnhtablc ot
other hu.iiwss i. II*® United States iu iti, e
But truths like, these are offensive ;
P,,,,,, nnn
* S a , ««'nnn
4,855,000
. :. . thufcL
The. annual average value to the: last five j
' about 85,500,000-a te« «um than ,
that of the munufactirred articles ex|)orted in,
the year just ended.. The first s Malioaiy. .
declining, the latter rapidly advancing, and ;
very soon to become, alter cotton,■ Jj* j
largest item in our foreign tr ade. I he snnpte [
mention of these facte, .exposes '«»Yallaçy of
the arguments made against tfie >'®gv® «is-jthe
tern, which, after supplying the demand at
"'''^rMU^Xadv'a^rteïl^tü*
are protected, has alre^y, a woi tli in like aiti- 1
des eii»r e 1, (t mea tl ^mpe Ute n «f all
nations;) surpassing that ol one ol 0111 'great
stapfe commodities, and of which, by soil ami :
climate, and through custom, wc have some- :
thing lUie a monopoly ! |
Rut.it is to the planters and people of .Mary- '
lund tàpit we would now address ourselves. In
1790, we had 319,000 inhabitants, and one c/r
venlh of the whole population of thc United
States ; in 1820 we had 407,000, and a twen
ty-fourth part of the whole population—in 1830
we shall not shew a thirtieth part of such po
now we have, nine
From NileTf-eckh/ Register.
■Continued.
77,721
86,291
85,337
69,241
82,169
99,009
1802
1803
1315
1816
1822
1823
jfef steady habits," may long extensively con
tin
««uty
carried on in Maryland and Virginia, because
of the costly labour of slaves ; and it has also
powerfully tended to retard thc progress of po
TOat.ion and wealth in these states, by ex
ijjpg the soil and driving away free lahuiir
^K^irginia, late in the first rank of the
sta l», stands the .fourth in effective population,
anil, by the census of 1840, will probably he
thrown into tlie sixth grade ; and in regard to
actually operating wealth ( which begets wealth)
much further behind than that, unless her poli
cy is changed, though her territory is so very
extensive, and much of Iter land is of the best
quality.
and we wish to appeal to the reason of persons
without exciting their passions ; and, after one
or two remarks on the cultivation of tobacco,
shall immediately speak of Maryland, our
own state.
! Thc following shows the value of tobacco
exported in the years given :
1822
1824 .
hr.

we
1826
pulation, unless because of the increase in Bal
timoré arid tlie other manufacturing districts.
Indeed, if these, be left out, our population is
probably decreasing. In the. first congress we
had six members out of 65
■ out of 215 ; and if the present whole number of
members is preserved after the next census, we
»hall have, but seven ; and so, from the posses
sion of one eleventh part of the power of repre
sentation, jwe have passed to a. twenty-fourth
pact,quid''are just passing into a thirtieth. [The
same operation has taken plane and will act
upon pur neighbour Virginia—though her wes
tern grain-growing and grazing and manufac
1 ;uring district is doing much, indeed, to keep
ni» her•standing and would have a mighty of- j
le< t, it less restricted opinions prevailed, and a ;
r ^* * y representative government werc-allow
eo.J li'utii thus^jeaks to us " trumpet- j
tongue« —yet, we stop neither to hear or heed ;
n ; and what our chief commodity fori
export, and f urn isnea the chief means of pur-!
chasing foreign goods,(which we have so much
preferred, and the people still blindly wish to a
see introduced), is about to fail us altogether !
Olno has already materially interferred with
our tobacco, and raised with free labour, can
1« t ra,,s P ort ® 80 JTtïlesby bind, and
V* " nde, | sdl our planters in Baltimore, their
local and natural market. 1 lie fact is that
most of our intelligent planters regard the cul- .
ti va lion of tobacco in Maryland as no longer
profitable, and would almost universally aban
don it, it they knew what to do with their
slaves, for many reject the idea of selling them:
others, however, are less scrupulous, and the
consequence is, that great numbers of this un
fortunate class are exported to other states, the
cost of their subsistence being nearly or about
equal to the whole value of their production in
tins. But Maryland is abundant in resources,
if casting away her prejudice«, " the old man
and lus deeds," she will profit by her natural
advantages. We have good lands, and much
water power on the. western shore.* The last
£ "îk amf W''r'Y't
f , r l nnk aml "" gt ? ma -
nufacturing establishments are pretty nutner
?"? aml res P pcta,Ie ' "> al > «»«» t,lp population
1S l , nCre n^fT farm, ' rS h , aV ?J aPß 0 i b ? rn !
a,H ! T 11 fiHetl granaries, and with markets at
t,aai ; doors -f r f ° ^ P
I Ti'T V"'f TÏ« 8 Ï,- ' S f' FT
J tal,lcs-tl,e hundred little things which the
good farmer and prudent housewue collects
an<l Sa T «,* aWl 5 ? Tf * v « ase8 t V, e ?' ah)Wj bP '
pnllsr °p th e market for them sell for more mo
„eyn, a year, than the whole surplus crops of
raised on plantations cultivât
P d by eight or ten slaves, for they themselves
eat much, waste more, and work little—
The whole crop of Maryland tohaeço may have
average mjmml value of Sf,500,000_and
this is lielowdilie. el tar product of kilowr employ
e te .»,jgefa of B«ltint. ? , W.Jo
u«»t include fee j^nploy men t of mechanics, pro
perl y so ral l^||p fillil a V 0 ^ ( lon1 . 1
reign fomm'Itl 1 n , ^ am .1 at go.
luiine, tradftidW.haw^ înf^iBsin.i s ! ,f> • co '
leçfed and «^one-sixth part
of the gross> imputation,:"orHHpt a 1 10 ie
whole people ofithe state--an*-*r«ated a mar
ket for the products of the -farmers, « ai y ex
tending in the quantity required and, 11^pr ices
given, and to go on as our
tablisbments prosper and persons are gather*«^—
together to consume the products of the mftltk
But to the success of these and the conséquent
; we ll being of our farmers, a liberal encourage
ment of them, and a manly support of internal
improvements must he afforded Whoever
stands opposed to them, is opposed to the best
interests of Maryland—for increased attention
to both is the only means that we have to pre
vent ourselves from sinking yet lower m the
sca c ° e [ th® states. Maryland, without any
°f , " tepfc ™? ce with other pursuits, might
subsist two millions or more ol sheep, and the
r wUlC ! • f tlC , SC VV0U ! a 7 -s to
j bc sustained by ceasing to cultivate tobacco ;
, and besides, and what ,s more important, mes
in, inl p( )ld ant, indeed, ,t would prevent the actual
. comparative decrease o our people, keep the
; free labouring classes at the homes of their la
j them, and mightily advance the price of lands
[ and add to the general wealth of the state.
of R Pa property of every description, except,,,
«is-jthe distincts spoken ot, has exceedingly dcclin
at e d in value, and indeed, m some parts of the
f at e is seemingly " vifiteout price." If slave
1 labour ever was profitable with us, it is no
all longer so-,t does not yield more than three«,
four per cent, for the capital per capita employ
ami : e <l, if even that—this is clearly proved by the
: export nf slaves to the more southern states ; a
| cruel practice, and which we hope may be ar
' rested by the introduction of new articles ofag
In riculture, such as the breeding of sheep, and
c/r- tec cultivation of flax and cotton, and the rear
ingof the silk worm. These would afford em
pbn ment to many thousands, and employment
begets employment, and money begets money,
po- f 0P prosperity begets prosperity.
But let us further and for a moment regard
Baltimore as a market for the, farmers of Ma
ryland—for wc wish this home market clearly
iniderstood ; most persons know no more of its
pea ) value than they do of wliat is happening in
tee interior of thc earth—and it is the interest
of others to prevent inquiry or mistify facts.
We arc about. 70,000. Allow to each fforson
vegetable food equal only to " a peck of corn
pci- week," and we shall appear to consume
* Wc have also many valuable mines and minerals wllicl),
though rapidly coining into use, are yet only partially
worked. Large quantities of iron ore are carried from the
neighbourhood of Baltimore to the New England states,
there manufactured, and probably brought back again and
sold here to purchase or pay for more ore
is
we
of
we
910.000 bushels of grain : if we add what is re
quired for the support of horses used for draft»
^eo. t!ie whole may be moderately estimated as :
eqtud tonne million of bushels of wheat per an
num. Then suppose we admit that each per-;
son wastes or consumes half a pound of anima! I
food per day, as we think that they do and
more, and we shall have 25 millions of pounds
year. We also annually require for our fa
milies, work shops and factories, more than
100,000 cords of wood. Let us see what these
three articles, these three only will amount to :
i,non,000 bushels gain, at Si 1,000.000
25,000,000 lbs. animal food, at 4 cts. 1,000,000
ioo, 000 cords of wood, sold at g2 50 225,000
o.egS.OOO
A , a t these moderate estimate* it anne trs
tl j ftfSZÏ S Tiï
h P eUstofff anhnâl toolami toc LAction
JJjgg^ annYaTlv atnomits to more E two
Jg" an n à onaVter ôf dl u s ormie Lrth
^'ewholevtefof all e bread stuffs and
LET'E M
VrevEtoenterini u ion a moreffeneral
,„,*1 .Yu-t ruI u' Yxa n Vvvrio i or ouE^
(lr xn rt * w t7c ' 1
rf'Xdturew hîrh lias a Zst exErdhmrv
character ami oncYt on iX u »t o , e/
n / b . msumvlion • we mean smrar
Wc see it lately stated in the papers teat Co
lonel Dummett, of Florida, has made 30 hhds.
()f „ from cane Paised on thirty-five acres
of la ",_ sav , 0)1 | y 30 , 000 lbs. The duty, or
tax upon which, if imported, would be S< 00 ;
am , t ' his ft Fenmvlv( J n faPln ' cr , W0II , d of itse if
esteem a neat little profit on the cultivation of
fnr a vear. But such arc not so
f „ V0llpcd b 8oi , and olimatC) and thc hannL/of
t », 0 o- Ptl cr ii government
^ ^ «up of Louisiana is about 40,000
W|dSt (k £, t|lft ,' 10 , 000 in 1810<) 0P * 8av
44 . 000 ,000lbs. the duty on which, if imported
in exchange for brea.lJtuffs, ta:, would be one
mil)hm t ^ rec hllndl . e d and twenty thousand
doH au< i this is nrobablv divided between
loHS t!ian u „ 0 humlJd ue.vso'ns »,• if wc a
i(>w it to benefit all the ^people of Louisiana,
. .. • . M J ' , ,
f „ Now a fax equal to this on all the people
of the United States, would produce a revenue
w p ncar iy one hundred ami sixty millions of
dollars a year! Verily, verily, this is "taxing
the many for the benefit of the few"—and yet,
wonderful to be told, Louisiana is opposed to
the tariff and the protection of other branches
n f domestic industry, as called for by the farm
err . and othm> w j„, makc nca ,. Jy three
c oul . ths 0 f t |,e whole people of the U. States.
tllis is Hot a ||
?qUÄj^ bccamc a j |110gt a neccssaPy „f nf c
_it^[%ainivI^Kie8iiMts comforts desired
an(| (|SC( , b the Mch mPBwui ioi- The whole
amo , lnt mmn]md in the United States may be
a[)mit 120j000 | 000 || (S ., say 76 and
44 of d(Hnestic pro d uc tion. The Ohty on the
f()1 . mer js three cents I(CP and amounts to
00 m whiltcQsts ilbout f|VC mi ||j nllfi in
thc foPeign islam i s and p laC es wherein it is ob
tained so that the tax is very ncariy «fly per
£ valorem, which is aclLuy collated on
tw() . t|lip(U of tiie whole qiiant i t y used, to the
beneftt of thoso of our own countrymen who
dllre the otbor third. And yet Louisiana
| ler , aims agaiust » monopolies" and the tariff,
which 8 " lios ber with such cotton goods for
( , ent< * )ep pd as , atply cost ll01 ? 2 0 or 25
cellts UC r yard'
(m is (m) M h> and it would
Educed but for the encouragement of
picu it lIPe 0 f Louisiana-a„d that which
. fop b hep ec „, iap and seim advantagc> ifthc
. mJ be allowed while it denrivos thc
tax£ t.mpeo
. ^he sum of *1.140.000 annually, more
{, t| W01|ld ir tllP duty was Educed
1 ' J
j J"
IIU1 "
1
j
|
only to two cents per tb. which would still he a
liigli one. As it is, the poor black wood-saw
yer, purchasing only two pounds per week for
his family, pays a tax of three dollars and ten
' _ ;• 1 it is the
most onerous tax that wc have, and hears par
tirularly hard upon the labouring classes, es
pecially the fanners, mechanics and manufac
We ourselves use as much of it, in
cents a year on this solitary article.
I proportion to the number of our family, as the
j riebest persons among us, in the ordinary way.f
It is teile, we might dispense with it—the tax
paid is " voluntary," in thc impudent cant of
purse-proud dealers in foreign merchandize,
who are daily using our money, obtained time*
; credits at the custom house, for tlie support of
their trade ! So, as the Indians dispense with
the use of shirts, might we—and it is " volun
tary" to prefer the snug and comfortable clothes
that we wear to the sheep-skin dresses of thc
Hottentots—it is " voluntary" even that we
live and pay taxes at all, for we might escape
■f Tliefamily of the writer ofthis, consisting of nine per
sons, consumes not less than 45C lbs. a year. The tax that
lie pays then, on sugar, is thirteen dollars and a half a year.
them by suicide ! But the freeman who labours
industriously and attends to business faithfully»
has a right to he enabled to use sueai*. wear
shirts, have decent clothing and enjoy life, the
gift of the common Creator of us all ; aye, and
such will defend that right: and, what is worth
a whole volume of speculations, they have the
means of doing it ! The time being fitted for
it, we will confidently make it known to the
sugar planters and ship owners, that if the ta*
riff hill of Î 8 24 had not passed, the tax upon
imported sugar would have been reduced to two
™mtsper lit'., and that any deficiency in the re
venue which might have arisen from that defl
cicncy, (though we believe that it might have
increased the. revenue by increasing the eonsump
lion of sugar,') would have been more than
compensated for by withdrawing the fleets of
men of war that are kept abroad for the pro -
of property in ships and their cargoes.
TheSÜ «»»5» would not have taken place wl.,ol
^ «" «10 retaliatory principle, though the very
NVOrm tl,at is trodden upon is allowed to turn,
but because of the special rightfulness of them,
circumstanced as the grain growing and ma
nufacturing interests were. If refused the
means of paying taxes,! it waslhcir bounden
d,lt >' to n " ,lllr( ' the amount of taxes demanded,
There is a 1 uid i m,( I U0 which operates in every
condition of life ; and, as the saying fsfv every
f™*"* ] f coat according to
hls at... !-hero was Louisiana
rcccivln S a " l*ot-hed protection" of Si,320,000
a J' cai h »7 bounty paid by the people on flier
sl, S ar ' , alld there were the ship owners defend.
e<1 at the cannon's mouth, at the cost to the
people of amuch larger sum-the whole, trade
to _ tho Mediterranean, for example, not taking
off so much of gross value ,n our products as
the cost of tee fleet amounts to ; ami vet both
f ,cs , e ''ere agai ist the tariff hill of 18.4, i„.
tended for the encouragement of our farmers
and manufacturers, and supported by their re
P^c-Hativcs m Congress, as the votes will
sl,t ' w ! We wollld »»t either « razee" thc
duty on sugar, or " tomahawk" tee, navy
but those who " live should let live." No state
«• the Union profits like Louisiana by the tg
rift—the price of her cotton is assisted by it,
es tve si,ell ehotv tvlien we .peek about '**
artl( , le ' though she is supplied with cotton
g°ods at fi r om 40 to 50 per traf, cheaper than
before the act of 1824 was passed; hut the di
r f c ^ and ac ^ n(l ^ protection or bounty which
fbe receives, is equal to .sixteen dollars per
bead fir every one of her people—and were all
* people of the United States so protected,
Lie. amount of protection would be in the sum
of one hundred and sixty millions of dollars a
y ear •' as before stated, and repeated that it may
not he forgotten. No one can dispute this. Anil
further, is a " monopoly" because of climate
in the south, less odious than a "monopoly
because of climate in the north, or the west, or
tlie east ? What is the sugar planter better than
t,ie w ° o1 S^wer? Is it not quite as necessary
to have dotl1 ^ to shield us from tee cold of our
winters, as sugar to sweeten our coffee? But
we desire both, and only ask, while, the pro
'»"Çtu»" of the last is protected, that the
»«»'1 manufacture of wool for the other may be
^oumged ; and Louisiana, who receives so
«'bcrally, should instruct her senators and rc
pw»ntat,ve8 to give a little. It is by mutual
concessions and accommodations that the peace
°f families and societies is maintained ; hut
^e is a disposition wisely implanted in the
1 ''umau mind, to require such concessions and
accommodations between persons possessing
! equal rights, and it operates in great thing?
a * «»e writer of this really put it into practice
about two years ago in a small affair: in rc
turning from my dinner, I was accustomed,
almost every day, to meet a dandy English
.just imporid, (or eloped, a^i the'cai
'»[gbt he ) who majestically strutted along the
micldlc of the pavement. I gave way, and went
*■' ^ ^ ■ - -
5,
middle of the pavement. I gave way, and went
unthinkingly to the right or lett, lor a consi
( J ci 'able time : but, at last, was satisfied that lie
demanded this homage to his puppyism. The
,K ' X *' ''J 110 we were about to pass, I kept
the middle of tlie pavement—he came on rapid
as usual, with his head up and eyes raised,
and wholly unprepared to receive my elbow,
which he run afoid of, (having turned myself
half-round to accommodate him with it,) and he
| m> arly fell down in consequence—being a liglit
! 01 ' man than myself. He looked wildly for a
moment at me, I looked calmly at him, hut not
a wo, ' d was sa ' d —we passed, and ever after
that, he conceded a part of the pavement to me,
as 1 had bee.i quite willing to yield a part of it
to him, or any other person, though black ami
This familiar case, will serve
as tlie most elaborate one that could be stated,
to show the principles on which society is sus
tained.
a slave.
as well
(To be concluded in our next.)
J It is a notorious fact, that every profitable mamtriic.ur
ing establishment increases the consumption of foreign
luxuries or comforts. A manufacturing- village of 3 or 4:JCl
people, consumes'more coffee, tea, sugar, silks, 8cc. than
live times as many persons of the sattle class, employed in
agriculture.

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