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a Edited Jd. BvadEoïd.-—Txintedand Published hy U. ïovteT &Son, No 9"l, Mavlcet-Street, Wilmington. ï'fKmir, J!f« y î, 1827. JVo. S. roi. i. ££i=^=s —— TUE DELAWARE JOURNAL will be pub fished on Tuesdays and Fridays, at fai r dollars * *• ' •' Mverhsemcnts inserted on the usual terms— Viz: Ou e dollar for four insertions of sixteen, lines, and'so in'proportion for every number of additional lines and insertions. cobtottions The Agiucditure of tueUnited States. •Concluded. From Niles' Weekly Register. We shall now present some facts and opinions bearing upon the present great staple of our rountrv. cotton ; whatever belongs to it is full of interest and highly important to every see* ion of our country and all descriptions of persons. Andonthisoccasion.it may be proper to express our serious belief, t. at if the doctrines which we have supported for so many years, have been beneficial to an v one class of the people more than another, that class is the cultiva tors of cotton. Tt is with much satisfaction, indeed, we observe that many of the planters begin to dis cover this, and that a radical change of opinion may be speedily hoped for. A little while ago, or three or four years since, the people of the eastern states, devoted to commerce and navigation,' were as much opposed to a tariff for the encouragement and pro tection of domestic manufactures, as those of the southern states now are. Tt has been demonstrated , tuet success in manufactures has increased the com merce and navigation of the east, and was, also, ad ding powerfully to the wealth and population of diese states. But with how much more reason may it be expected that they will assist the southern states, seeing that they even now and already con onc-fourth of the whole crop of cotton raised sume in them. We have been lately honoured with many letters Énnfaining sentiments similar wÂù|re about, to introduce, vm n^Hhieidv honoured aadrffl i extract bAufthe ui.ne e savs— m pWmriridence of opinion w set of protecting home man is; factures. Bad as the times are for cotton planters, '(of whom T am on" in a small way.) they would be much worse, but for the demand of our manufacto ries for the raw article. I should like to see more effectual protection extended to the growth and ma ri*: fiot-i re of iront. These and such like measures will in time make us independent. The preceding is a literal extract, and the parti cular words are marked as bv the writer himself : and such, we repeat it. is a rapidly growing opinion among the people of the south. The time will come. when cotton planters shall he many times more anxious for a protective tariff than the cotton spin ! To the last, indeed, it is now of little im portance. except to maintain steadiness in the home market : foi*the.v meet the British in fair and manly comnetition abroad, and undersell them in evarv market which is equally free to our fabricks and theirs.* This is " confirmation strong as proof of holy writ" that, while they consume so large a por tion of the products of our planters, they neither de mand or receive anv advance from the said planters the manufactured article, over and above what Id be paid to foreigners, whether the cotton s of American product or pot : hut furnish them with cotton goods at murh reduced prices. The progress of the cultivation of cotton in the fruited Slates is. everv wav. wonderful. Tf any per had predicted, thirtv-fivc venrs ago, that the of 1826 would have amounted to 720,000 bales. tween (is on ners on won wn son cron or about 250 millions of pounds, we should have put him down for a madman or a fool—sayina;, "go to the hospital, go :" if anv one had asserted only fif fonn years ago. that North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama. should now produce what they do, to could not have believed him ; if it had been said ontv five years ago, that Virginia would cultivate and send into market nearlv 40,000 bales in 1826, should have laughed at the proposition ; and if it had been suggested, that a crop of cotton should be made in Maryland in the last vear, manv would have smiled at the " notion. north the cultivation will go—no one can venture to assert : but Maryland. Delaware, New Jersey, 1 Illinois and Missouri, and perhaps other states, we How much further >5 an* # # . mav, vervpossibly, furnish ro"siderable supplies ot cotton : and Arkansas and Florida will certainly cultivate the plant as extensively as it is ruUivated anv where, if profitable. The cotton producing re gion of the United States thus embraces a large tract of land—capable, in itself, if cultivated as it easily be. sufficient to supply the whole world with Of this, and of the pro mav that valuable commodity. of its cultivation, the planters should take most Egypt is pouring out new and large supplies for the European market, and that country and Greece, and the Greek islands, are capable, in themselves, of »implying all Europe—and probably will do it, should the latter be emancipated and have peace. Labour is much cheaper ip those couo tries than in our southern states. A freeman may be hired for q little more than the annual interest nn the mnnev vested in-the person of a slave in this country; and it is the cost of labour and subsis'ence, gross serious notice. reift! letter fmm Lima, dated October 1,1826, c savs—" Our unbleached 3-4 and 7-8 domestics are gaming t daily, all cases preferred to English or geno-lly command a living profit at s-implesrof them sent to England *e not ground h* India cottons. lr>ast There have bee for imitation, but whe'her they have succeeded we able to sav." Many like letters might be 4110 'ed from other parts. But what a volume of instruction is obtained in the few lines we have given ? fl witli tlie requisitions of government, that must for ever establish the comparative prices of corn modi-1 tles ' not conhned to the production of peculiar ch- ; 1 y e immense island or continent ot New SWtÄföM SrEïÂtsS iana on mis gioue nxtea to tne growtn oi cotton, is competent to furnish a thousand times more than its people can consume ; and besides,, the cotton of ma nycountnes except as to the small ipiantity ol-'sea-1 island which we raise.) is better than our own. It ** impossible. c ?' that we can have and preserve a monopoly m the production or sale of this stable. Our cultivation has already passed beyond the profit able demand. I he crops of 1826,.compared with Iliat of 182 j, shews an increase of 150,000 bales, or more than one-fourth of the whole quantity produc ed in * 825. I an this increase continue : No no ns—indeed, no . ... , „ n „ ( Cotton fust began to be raised in 1/89 or 1790, ■"ft"? e . x P, 0 ^îÿ 189,31 is. 1,601,000 m 1794,20,911,000 in 1801, a wni lonî'aî was ot foreign growth, lor it was not till 0~, thatdiscrimination was made as to its ougin. Andoutofthescsmallbegmnings wchave F lse " "P * he production of 250 millions of pounds m 1826. The quantity and value of cotton exported lias exceedingly fluctuated, and the; remarks which are applied above to tobacco are also applicable to I'emXlnfereS^ PPJ - * " ^ COTTON EXPORTED. Pounds. 189,000 6 , 100,000 17.789,000 Years. 1791 1796 1800 1802 1807 1810 I 1815 I 1816 Value — g 27.501.000 66.212.000 93.874.000 82.998.000 81.747.000 87.997.000 127.860.000 173,723,00« 142.369.000 The years connected with a brace ( [ai other pairs of years that, might be offered from that quantity and value have no ccr ; with the other: 87 millions of |un 1819, were nearly as valuable f and 173 millions in 1823, ss than 142 millions ^g^ftakthat the fo d^^^icr, that an at reduced 5,250,000 14.332.000 15.108.000 17.529.000 24.106.000 21.031.000 22.308.000 20.445.000 21.947.000 ) and se 1819 I 1820 1823 182* as ced Ja in 1824.« reign denraf __ excess quantify ciudtW prices. ' • The whole crop of 1826, is esti bales. lollar pro soldi at 720,027 |y>60,243 1825 Increase in one year,ÆMmsB3f Of the 720,000 hales, we 175,000 will be consumed in the vnM^K that 185 millions of pounds may be left3Bjgj tion, if the foreign market will receive the annual commercial tables are published! treasury department, we shall be able tospe fully on this interesting point. Itiswellkno our own manufacturers were the chief purchasers in the early part of last season. We may expect that they will require 400,000 bales, in from six to ten years, unless destroyed by some suicided policy. When they shall reach that quantity, about 150,000 bales will be made in gouds for the foreign market ; for it is just as certain to our mind as any almost every other future event can be, that the British manufacture of cotton must decline, and many peo ple will depend upon this, instead of that country, for their supplies of cotton goods. Some of the rea sons for this belief we set forth in the article pub lished in the Register of the 27th January, ult* Let us, however, look to the present only. Can any one fail to suppose that the domestic demand for one-fourth of the whole quantity produced, has no effect on the price f We think that every reflecting calculating merchant or dealer, every one who has thought of what belongs to scarcity and supply, production and demand, would estimate this de mand as equal to it), 15 or 20 percent, advance. In deed, thç price of cotton exported in 1822, 1823 and 1824 shew this—for in these years our manu factures were exceedingly depressed, and many of them absolutely ruined. Stop their mills and looms now, and cotton, if worth eight cents, would tumble down to six ; and the price of cotton goods would as suddenly rise, at the same or a greater ratio, and thus make a double loss to the American people, and a double gain to foreigners. No business-man will contest the principle of this proposition—it rests upon the natural and unavoidable rules of trade, and is applicable to all sorts of commodities. But admit that the present domestic demand has effect to raise the price of cotton only half a cent per lb. or five per cent, on its value, and this we think that the most obstinate and resolutely blind opponent of the tariff will be compelled to allow as being very reasonable: then, ifthecropbe 250 millions of pounds, the gain to the planters, because of this demand is g 1,250,000. This item we wish especially recollected—for it will be referred to below. 159,778 t about Les, and rta These results, simple as thev are, will not fail to excite surprise in many persons. " Who would have * We have since met with the following from a London paper, which is not less applicable to the relation in which England stands to our country than to France. Mr. Macchmnell, in his " Treatise on Free Trade," gives a comparative statement of the expenditure of a Lon don mechanic, with a wife and four children, and that of a Parisian mechanic, wifrh the same family. That of the one he estimates at 78/. per annum, and of the latter at 45/ 10 . 9 . Of the excess of expenditure in the case of the English la bourer, (viz : 3-U 189 .) he attributes one-eighth, (or 4/ lit. 3U.) t the greater amount of taxation which is paid, direct^" ly or indirectly, by the English mechanic, as compared with the taxation borné by the French artisan. thought it ?" But such is the resultof almostevery investigation, or comparison, of things at home with ; things abroad. Let us usefully shew this, in a case that is exactly in point. If the importations of the ïitwhSma^ tT unt tü about 7 ' 5 ^ 8 r i, , liü " s r , (which may be taken as an average official value of ; them,) the woollen, cotton, flaxen and Aetneengoods, j including all manufactured articles of these, used for the clothing of persons, and for all family or other \ purposes in which such goods are required, will • make up 21 or 22 millions of the amount. Now, if I these cloths and cassimeres, worsted and stuffs, blankets and rugs, cotton piece goods, printed, co j loured or white, nankeens, woollen and cotton hose, i flaxen and hempen goods—worth in the whole 22 millions of dollars, be divided among the people of the United States, each person might receive almost two dollars worth of such goods a year —some of which, however, are not consumed, being exported, W * 10 cannot "draw an inference" from this e —that our people would be " clothed with nakedness if they depended on the foreign supply ? The probe- blc value of such goods consumed cannot be less in the whole than 120 millions, which is about ten dol lars only lor every person, including what is requir ed for family and other purposes, never excepting cotton bagging !!! But such is the effect of scarcf tv and supply, as before several times alluded to, T.*" "T«"', with the whole quantity consumed and ten millions worth thiown into the market over the amount of the needful supply, will effect that supply more than ten millions, extra, are worth m themselves, ami paralize y> e whole business. '•'Every good rule works both ways "—if this foreign excess in articles manufactured produces such imposing effects ourselves, what would be the state of the European market for our cotton, if we exported one-fourth more than we now do ? Let cotton planters calc late it! Again, and further to demonstrate this operation, and shew the importance of activity in the market—when the late news arrived as to the transportation of British troops to Portugal, flour momentarily advanced one dollar per barrel. Now, we could not expect to send to Portugal more than 2 or 300,000 barrels, in the present year, under any probable circumstances The dift'erence of value would have been only 8300,000 ; but that difference might have affected the whole value of all the bread con mi u stuffs in all the United States—the annual sumption of which, we are morally certain, is equal to 30,300,000 barrels of flour ; so there would have been a generally increased value on every barrel of flour or bushel of grain, which yet remained in the United States for consumption, had the rise caused by the expected demand in Portugal been maintain ed, which was only in the sum of *300,000! " He that runs may read" and understand this ; no pro position in Euclid is more capable of unerring solu tion. And who would regret this advance in price to the farmers ? Supposing they consume one half of all which they produce, it would have added se veral millions ÿfcdollars to the active circulating me lL[am ot the country, and every man, because of the mightobtain money, v .''.■„"'î'—'x'i ' 'pJMkifcAHJl ad'.nu e nil a ban el ___ | c among ourselves cFurour own part, HttfejlH allinii to ■fS^Kbcing lli«' lilt V nota we are perfectly utMnW : pay ten dollars for ft barre common selling price,) bet lb. for the cotton used t cents per we purchase better than ten, unless the^ppriijètated prices shall grow out of actual scarcity in the do mestic production. Either would make money plen ty, and in the general stir of it, we should pick up extra sums, and receive extra subscribers, the extra profits on which would pay our own advances on the articles named an hundred times over. And thus it is with every person engaged in business. Our draymen would be glad of it, and make a large profit out of such a state of things. But further—we assert, and appeal to the documents,* that the whole value of all the woollen, cotton, flaxen, or hempen goods imported, and of all the mixtures of them, of all sorts, sizes, shapes, co lors—from the dimensions of the finest thread to carpets many yards wide, has an average annual value of about twenty-two millions a year. Well— by the census of 1820 there were, say 8,000,000 of the people, and 10,000,000 persons in the U. States. VVe shall, however, use the latter number to avoid the shadow of offence on any account whatever.— The whole population of the cotton growing states and districts, (without reference to the amout of persons employed in the cultivation of the plant,) may be thus shewn : One-eighth of Virginia, One-fourth North Carolina, All South Carolina, All Georgia, All Alabama, All Louisiana, . All Mississippi, Half Tennessee, iic 133.000 . 160,000 490.000 . 340,000 127.000 . 153,000 75,000 . 221,000 1,699,000 "All told," 1,700,000 persons, or 1,000,000 of the people of the United States. Now let us sup pose that the duties levied on tile goods above de scribed are really [yes, realty ] paid to the amount of thirty per cent, on the reported cost, an,d it will appear that the whole revenue divided from them may be 6,600,000 dollars; and then, if we admit the 1,700,000 persons to pay their full and equitable share of the whole, (which is admitted only for the sake of argument, tor slaves are not made to con tribute through their masters as freemen do,) we have 1,122,000 dollars paid by the cotton grow * Referring to those of 1823—the year preceding the adoption of the present tariff - . | ing states and districts, on all the' goods above de cribed ! and if we allow that one fourth of the du ties collected is more for the p-ofeefjon of our ma nufactures than the general revenue of government, î*rr ts te2 T, do,lars vt* one - lourth only of the increased value on cotton because of the tariff, at the exceedingly moderate rate sup posed above, and one-filth only of what Louisiana directly and certainly obtains in her sugar through the tariff-*-"the accursed tariff"—or an eightji part of the duties paid on that article imported and eon sumed by the people of the United States, which is about the sum of 2.280,000 dollars, and would be 3,600,000 dollars, were not the state dutyfree! Who is not surprised at these results f The subject might be further pursued, and we shall probably hereafter publish a statement to shew the opera! ii ; of the new tarir', and (he extra amount apparently paid underit on all sorts of articles. It will amount to a small sum, indeed ; but the reality is, taku ■* all the articles together, that those which have been protected are cheaper because of that protection. Mo much fur the law which an " honourable gentle man" in his place in congress swore, " by Heaven, Qcorsia would never submit to it \Ve ^hal? now Lite,! to brin* this essay to a con elusion n J The cultivation of cotton is not now at all a pro «table ÏÏness ", he! «Æ vested iX^aÄ product in money comparatively small. A Hunts ville paper of the 26th January savs, " the planters (1 f North Alabama will readily agree that the pre i sent price 0 t' cotton will not defray the expense, of cultivation rent free." Another paper of the same place, of the 29th, speaking of the prospects of the cotton planters, says— " These are gloomy beyond all former example, and the price is depressed below the wishes or ex pectations of our worst enemies. * No sensible mail would have ventured five years ago, to predict, that upland cotton of fair quality, would ever fall below six cents per pound ; but this sad reverse we have witnessed and felt to our astonishment and mortifi cation. It is well understood, in cotton growing countries, that the article cannot be grown and yield a reasonable interest on the capita! employed, at less than eight cents per pound, and that the actual disbursements, independent of the interest on the capital employed, nearly equal the present price of cotton. "t Then follow some excellent remarks on the flne tuations in tbo price of cotton, and the. excess of quantity raised, which, if much more augmented, it is stated, will cause plantations and slaves to be a tax on the proprietors, for that " the proceeds will not defray the disbursements." all which is very probable or very true, and we, indeed, exceedingly regret it: but "bad as the business of growing cot ton may be at the present time, it would he murh worse" except for the home manufacture of it—it would not vield so much by one per cent, per pound, though we have only supposed half a rent in the pre ceding speculations on this point of our subject. We feel confident of this, and so the di fference to the cotton growers wouU Apiount year! Examine i;-*-*0 is so. The home mart! is extending. - SMUdh boat arrived at Pitt* few days since jKivIlàstiTille, laden with si di ed and thirteen Dale* ! The home consumj about 175,000 bales—or one-lourth of the product. The whole amount of domestic i sold .in Philadelphia, in the years 1804, '5 and V were valued « Wily ®17,670 : those sold the las year were worth four millions —we as sincere^ sympathise with our brethren, the cotton growers, as with the grain growers and wool growers. Whate ver depresses either, injures the whole country, There is no incompatibility jin the prosperity of all these interests, and of the manufacturing and com mercial, for all operate to a comqion object. But I repeat it—except the sugar plant ingVit^jest there is no other interest in the country more beWnf the tariff' than the cotton planting. The i three cents per lb. which several times has, future will be a. protection, notwithstanding the ex port of that article, because of the very inferior qualities that might be imported and interfere with those grown by us. And, to terminate this long essay, with observing, that the time is close at hand when the cotton planters of the United States will be no less the open and avowed friends of the " American system" than are the manufacturers of cotton, of wool, or iron : and expressing a hope, that the three hundred subscribers in the south which was lost, within a few years past, because of perseverance in respect to that system, (though list is still respectable and now on the increase in that part of our country,) will produce the gain of six hundred, because of the good that we honestly [he to> r, a [hun Lnn is ole ed by |y is Ski in mu our * Who are those ''enemies ?" They who predicted the present state of things, and warned the planters against it 7 who exhorted a consumption at home, to prevent so grpat aglut of the market abroad ? f The following is from the same paper : 'fhe leading agriculturalists of South Carolina are awake to the importance and necessity of adopting some new cul ture in that state. The different agricultural societies have formed a United Agricultural Society for the state, com posed of delegates from the local societies At a recent meeting the following resolutions were adopted : " Resolved, That it be recommended to evt'iWThember of this society, to use his best efforts for promoting, in his respective district, the culture of some staple, suited to our climate, and which may divert theattention of planters from the culture of cotton, now produced in excess. Resolved, That a premium of forty dollars be awarded to any experimentalist who shall succeed in introducing such new cultuie, on a space of ground not less than one acre." The Iasi resolution is evidently intended to encourage experiments with the vine and mulberry. ft is stated, that superior specimens of domestic wine« and of homespun usnabui gs, were presented to ttie society. The planters of Alabama should follow this example, for surely in no part of the union is cotton such a drug as in this state*. Dd. Rlg.