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It is highly important that your selected from the best, samples which can be ob tained, as the offspring whether vegetable or amnia will in a great dvgrefc partake ol the good or bad qualities of the pm eut. The following directions on s suoject are from »scientific and practical agri culturist. , , , ,, •• When first ears are ripe enough for seed, gather a sufficient quatitity"(or early corn or replanting; and at he time you would wish your corn to he ripe, generally gather n sufficient quantity for planting the next year, having particular care to take it from stalks tna' are large at bottom, of a regular taper, not over tall, the ears set low, and containing the seed corn should be tin greatest number of good sizeable ears of best quality; let it dry speedily ; anil from the cntyi gather as last de-erti tl, plant vuur main crop, and il any lulls should be missing, replant Irotn that first gathered, which will cause the crop to ripen more reguarly than is com mill, which is a great benefit. I be above mentioned, I hüve. practised many years, ami am satisfied it lias increased the quantify, of my crops beyond wlmt any person would imagine, who has not tried the experiment." Dr. Dean ob-erved that "some recommend ga theriii" seed corn before the time of harvest, being the ears that first ripen. Hut 1 diink it would be better to mark them and let them remain on the stalks, till tlu*y become sapless. Whenever they are taken in they should be hung upby the husks, in a dry place, secure from early Irost ; and they will be so hardened as to be in no danger of injury from the frost in winter. Importance of Knowledge to Farmers. 1st. The farmer ought to rise early, to see that Others do so, ami that both his example be followed, and his ord -isobeyed. 2d. The whole farm should be regularly inspected,and not only every field ex «mined, but every beast at least once a day. 3d. 5"a considerable farm, it is ol the utmost conse quence to have hands specially appropriated foreach of the most important departments of labor, for there is often a great loss of time, where persons are fre quenttv changing their employments ; and the work I is not execute'll so well. 4th.' Every means should be thou'dit of to diminish labor, or to increase power For instance, bv proper arrangement five horses may do as much labor as six perform ac. nrding to the usual mode of cmployingthem. 5ih. A farmer ought never to en"«"e in a work, whether of ordinary prac tice, intended improvement, except after the most careful inquiries,- hut when begun, he ought to pro ceeil io willi much attention and pe. severance until lie has given a l..ir trial, fill», li is a main object in manaütMn*»î)t, not to attempt too touch and never to b—in a work, without probability of being able to fiiiTsh it in du e season. 7th. Every Farmer should I have a book ior ioserfing all tlmseuseful hints, which i frequently occuringin conversation, in books and gathered in the course of his reading, or ill a practical management ol his farm —Sinclair. ... r, , . , , flic Potato It is mentioned in an English pa per that the I nato is a most acceptable legacy left by Englishmen in countries which thev visit. It was carried to J Inbet bv Mr. lîo^le, and there they called them * lîogle s. i he Hindoos repaid them as the best boon bestowed on them by Englishmen. Sir John Mjilcom introduced it m Persia, where it is call ed 'Mal com s p.uin. are SI ed 'Mal com s p.uin. Poisonous Cider. —The eldest son of a respectable farmer near Iloniton lately fell a victim to the drink mg of cider, which had been made from a press with a leaden bed or dish ; the necessary effect of which is that the malic acid contained in the cider exerts a pnwei fu! chemical action upon the metal—forming the mahlte of lead, a destructive poison. Persons should not buy any cider until they have seen the press from which it Inis been made, and ascertained tlie bed is of wood.— North 11 ales Chronicle. Substitute for Indigo. —M. Chevreul, at a late sit ting of the French Academy of Sciences, read a re port upon dyeing of wool with Prussian blue instead of indigo, by which a saving of one half is effected, and an article of equal excellence produced. The wool is prepared to receive the dye by means of ferru ginous solution, to which M. Chevreul has given the name of tartarized sulphate of protoxyde of iron. This solution isobtaiued bv mixing water, sulphuric, and nitric acids, sulphate pawxyde of iron, in such proportions that the last of tl.e-.e shall always pre dominate, and further adding sulphuric acid and tartrate of potass. Sugar from IVater Jldons .— \ Charleston paper mention-that it issuspeeted that sugar can very easi ly be produced in that state, from the water melon, which grows their in great perfection. A landlord of a public house in the interior, is said to have made all the sugar he used, from water melons of Ins own raising. PÖS.ZTXCAE.. Prom the Newbern (N. C.) Spectator. SOUTHERN POLITICS. YVhen the^ Hurtfuld Convention and die conduct of the New England leaders, during the war, were so loudly anti bitterly denounced, especially in the South, we little thought that the political drama would so soon he reversed, and the Southern leaders become the enactors of the part which had so recent ly belonged to the lluitford Convention, it come to this, that for every grievance, real or im aginary, which one party or section of the country suffers from congressional legislation, that must he had to threats of a separation of the Union ? Is our Union indeed not worth a per-centage on the woollen goods we consume ? What would be the reply to this question of those who laboured to comptish the Union? Would not a doubt on the subject be an insult to their labours ? Some of our southern leaders, defeated on the floor ot Congress, in the great measure of the Tariff, by the combined forces of the North and VV e st. seem to us in their resentment to have thrown awav all the suggestions of prudence and patriotism, anil to have given loose to wild and pernicious déclara tions, if they be not idle and braggadocia threats. Instead of the expanded patrioitis.n, the avoidance of sectional jealousies so earnestly deprecated by Washington, the reverse has been proclaimed in the new doctrines, and the people uf the South Anil has resort AC are con jured not to receive in any manner the products of the Fast and West. Flamin" speeches and high-winded resolutions have de cl area the worthlessness of the Union : but it is consolatory to find that, so far, their mountain la bors have produced their appropriate issue. As yet we have only learned that in our proud and noble sis t,,.-m-ite of Carolina, a ooor wagoner, with bacon froin Kentucky, has been rendered bankrupt by their refusal to purchase of him at any price—a Yankee caotain lias been compelled ts carry hack his onions; a ,d a Kentucky drover has been refused a-comm.P dation insome of her taverns ; Noble Srutherans ! these are your trophies! There was a time when you would have " plucked bright honour from the pale faced moon ;" but now, forsooth, wagoners, drovers, j onion dealers, are your game! What glorious deeds | to tell on "strands afar !" Oh tell it not in Gath! j t\l *Duftie, overthrown by Burgess as rudely as the knit. ht of La Mancha bv the windmill,like him found his victims, bv mistaking a flock ot sheep tor a host ot adversaries, and the pewter basin of the barber for ' the burnished shield of the Eastern Knights.—Such are the trophies the Hotspur of the South must carry bark to the Hall of Congress. Light be the laurels on his brow ? And vet these abused Yankees spin our cotton, eat our rice, chew our tobacco, use our sugar, and some times consume our corn.—Suppose they should de termine to take all these articles from abroad, would they not balance their onions, patatoes, and home spun From the Lynchburgh Virginian. THE HARTFORD CONVENTION and the SOU THERN DISL NIONISTS. A dispute has taken place between two of the most talented and notable Editors in (lie city ofNew Y " rk > J lr. Dwight anJ '!"j n' n ^ whom was Secretary to the Celebrated Ha.tford Convention, ami the latter its zealous friend and a sort o half way member. I hey disagreed on the I residential question, Mr. Duigjit preferimgMr. Adams, and Mr. Coleman prefer, mg Gen. Jackson. I The latter of necessity, was instantly cleansed of the impurity of hu heresy ; and sheltered under the broad cloak of Jack on Ihpnbhcanmn. lie fell furiously on his former friends and co-laborers, re prouching them with nets which it had once been his pride to defend, and censuring conduct in which he <>nce sought to he a participant. Our object m in traducing this controversy to the notice ol our read ers, is to refer to a letter which it has drawn forth bom -Mr. H- G Otis, who was one ot the most con spicuous members of the Hartford Convention. It should make some of the »Southern Hotspurs hesitate in their mad course to be reproached by a member I "f « hotly which lias always been viewed with feel i '"gs bordering on contempt by almost every man South of New York, Mr. Otis says, " A ou well know that nothing was there ajgifat tnl requiring even temporary secrecy, for any other reason than the expediency of imparing the interest of ,he final report by daily anticipation. Nothing ccr , a j n |y ,,f a higher temperature than the general , one iff ,he Evening Post. Nothing which might n()t p ruc | a imed foin the house top by the voice ■ f , t j ie p a triot, and proudly contrasted with senti »i« al) j resolutions, now constantly fulminated in no olhel . rt ,, r bv tUe rcvilers ,,f the Hartford Con-, vention. We did not attempt " to calculate th ■ j value of the Union," but merely to suggest and re- 1 eomtnend the ways and means fir its del 'his is evident on your record of the private and pub lie proceedings. YVe hope that this cutting reproach, coming such a quarter, will not fail to produce a clttiij i the views and feelings of the people of S. Carolina, j and Georgia, while at the same time, it may tend to j remove from the members of the Hartford Couven ! fion some portion of the odium which has been cast ! upon them.from a misrepresentation ot the nature of their deliberations. •nee. Mill 111 From the Philadelphia (Jackson) Mercury. "In what respect dn the seditionists of S. Caroli na differ from those of Massachusetts?—Simply in the fact of not having yet committed the overt act of treason, which was contained in the resolu tions of the Hartford Convention. Thus far South Carolina only menaces the treason that Massachus setts perpetrated. Purily of Elections. —I was reading Governor Vint Buren's message to my Uncle Toby, and when I had got through that part where he speaks of the evil effects of employing money at our elections, the old gentleman smiled and related the foi lowing ; dole :—" It puts me in mind," said he, " of a young clergyman I once knew, many years since, who preached an eloquent sermon, in the course of which he took occasion to remark on the impropriety of spending the evenings of the Sabbath in social visits —a custom, as lie said, very common among young men—You remember the sermon. Trim ?"— " () yes. your honor, perfectly well," said the corporal. " and the clergyman too, he was a sedate looking man, and wore spectacles." " Well, as I was say ing, (continued my uncle,) he had been preaching against the evil of going to see the girls on Sunday evening—when after service, he took tne by the arm —come, says lie. let us go to the Deacon's and spend the evening with his daughters. How, cried I, with inucii surprise, is it possible you can make such a proposal to me, alter the sermon you have just con cluded ?—Pshaw/ says he, I only made those re marks in order that we might have the better chance ourselves." When my uncle 'Toby hail concluded, Corporal Trim and myself indulged in a hearty laugh.— Nat. July. Extract of a letter to the N. Y. Commercial da anec ted. \Y r AsiiiNGToN, January 4. A fashionable marriage took place here on Thurs day night ; which, from certain circumstances con nected with it, has become the subject, of much con versation. One of die parties is a Seoator from Ten nessee, who served during the war under Gen. Jack soil, has since been his biographer, and, being much in his confidence, will exert a decisive influence over him, on all subjects of policy. The other party is the widow of an officer of the navy, a lady of great personal attractions, and not deficient in tact and taste for political intrigue. This lady, now rises, star-like and will take her position in the very zenith of fashion. Her society, favor and influence, will be sought bv the Jacksonians, and by all others who aspire io the favor and confidence of the new admin istration. In the palace, this lady, it is thought.will he supreme controuling the etiquette of the Jackson court, and influencing the distribution of its patron age. , „ On Saturday, a party oftthe members o »Congress assisted by a select number ol savans Ir m the pub lie offices, spent an hour or two in digging up , „„t Greek, but White Oak Roots. An ingenious citizen of your state (Mr. Pratt, of Washington co.) exhibited, near Georgetown, the operatmn of 1. » grand grubbing machine—He applied the machi ne j to some noble White Oaks, nine feet in circmn e | cnee, and they were in vfew minutes, and with case, j pulled down, and their rfwts pulled vjy er used was the hands of some five or six me 1 . machine will, it is though* prove vary useful to rail road ami turnpike companies, ' reason The pow Col. Johnson's friends are sore on account of his defeat. Some say lie was chisseled out of his election by the administration men; and others infer that he is contemplated as the successor of Mr. M'Lane in in the Post office. This last can hardly be, lor the , if there were no other, that the Uolonel is not in the good graces of Senator Eaton. These two gentlemen Imd, only the other day, a very rough and angry encounter in the Senate—growing altogether out of a very trivial circumstance? New candidates for the next 'cabinet are daily presented. General Van Ness, of this city, and General Cadwallader, of Phladelphia are now talk ed of for the War Department. Mr. Calhoun, the Vice President, is here in good health, and mixes much in general society- His brilliant ami fascinating manners and conversation calculated to make a deep and favorable impres all who approach him—particularly young It is evident to all that his hopes and aspira lions are revived, and again fixed upon the Présidai From the silence of the South Carolina mem bers on the subject of the Tariff since they ed their last instructions, I conjecture that they have for the present, abandoned their projects, lest they should injure Mr. Calhoun's prospects. are sion on men. cv. receiv Garnam« j 1 The following is the Report made by the Judicia ry Committee, in the House of Representatives, on Friday last, of which owing to the importance of the subject, three thousand extra copies were order nd to be printed :— Nat. hit. The Committee on the Judiciary, to whom was re ferred the resolution of the House, instructing them to inquire into the expediency of providing, by law, that a greater number than a majority of the Supreme Court should concur, in pronouncing any part of a State Constitution, or act of a State Legislature to be invalid, and that, without such concurrence, no part of a constitution of a State, or act of a State Legislature, shall be holden in valid, beg leave to submit the following re port : The committee, considering the subject matter of tl. i< solution to be one of great importance, nave a- • d upon it that grave consideration which it so •muiiatic.diy deserved. At an early period of our ; ml history, the principle was decided in the Su ; renie Federal Court, that it was within their com petency to decide any law to be void, which was in contravention of the constitution. This decision was placed by them upon the ground that the con stitution, and laws of the United States made in pur suance thereof, anil treaties made under the author ity of the United States, were declared to be the supreme law of the land ; they therefore held, that when any Slate constitution or law came,, in their opinion, into conflict with what was declared to be the supreme law, that which was not supreme must yield to that which was ; and that consequently any State constitution or law, thus coming into conflict; must lie held null and vuid. It will be seen that this is a principle derived by our judiciary from the lure of our written constitution, imposing manv lim itations anil restrictions, as well upon the. Federal as State Governments, and at the same time, upon its face, declaring its own supremacy. The com mittee do not propose at all to explore the founda tions of this great principle ; but, taking it as which has long been decided and acted upon, they cannot forbear to remark, that the power which it implies is one of great magnitude and most extensive operation ; embracing within its comprehensive grasp the authority to nullity the legislative acts of the Union, and of the States, individually, and the most solemn of nil acts, the expression of the will of the sovereign l'eople of the States, in the form ot their written Constitution. That a power so tremendous should be fenced around with guards, is a proposition which, the committee na one even proper sup pose, scarcely requires the aid of argument to chal lenge the assent of all. They are aware that it is a question about which there is much more difference of opinion to what extent this caution shall he ct ried. As the Supreme Court of the United Stales is at present organized, it consists of seven hers of whom four constitute a quorum, and three being a majority of that quorum, it results, that the concurrence of three of the Judges is competent to the nullification of a State law, or even constitution it may then happen, in the actual posture of our Ju diciary, that a minority of the Court might nulify the most solemn acts of the States, whilst the major ity of the Court might possibly entertain a different opinion. The committee presume that there are but few who would not at once acquiesce in the justice and propriety of the proposition,that m making so solemn and important a decision, there should he a concur rence of at leasta majority of the whole Court. They however, think that it would be. „Jviseable to quire the concurrence of five members of the Court. This is. indeed, a question of more or less, and upon which it is admitted that it cannot he predicated with absolute certainty, that any particular number is the proper one ; but they will oiler to the House some of the prominent considerations which have induced them to decide in favor of the number five. ir< tncm re If spill he recollected, that, in controversies origi noting in the State Courts, « question conetMmigUit validity of a State law, or Constitution, cannot W. brought before the Supreme Court of the Un tod States until it shall have been adjudicated by ||, e highest State tribunal, nor unless the decision of that tribunal shall have been in favor of its validity, pi, tore, then, the Supreme Court cun pass upon such a question, in any case, the validity of the law, or Constitution, as the case may be, must bave rec'eiv ed the most authoritative stump of approbation i n the State in which it arose. If it rblute to the vali dity of a law, it must have been approved of by both the branches ol the Legislature ; if it relate to that of a Constitution, it must have been approved of by the People of ibe State, in the exercise of their sovereign power, in their primary assembly, a , a Convention ; and it must, in controversies otjjrinn. ting in State Courts, also have been decided in tj Vot of, by the Court of dernier resort in the Stale. | n this posture of the subject, if a bare majority of t|| C Supreme Court of the United Slates should decide against the validity, the State, whose Constitution, or law, was thus nullified, canscarcely acquiesce niih. out a murmur, especially when it is considered, that besides the concuring approbation of its Convention or Legislature, and its Judiciary, it might be sustain ed by that also of the three remaining members of the Court ; and when it is remembered, loo, that the question must always be, whether the State has or has not, transcended the limits of its reserved riohis growing out of its compact with another party, wit: the Federal Government, and that the Suprt Court of the United States are the tribunal of that other party. The concurrence, then, of a greater number than a bare majority of that tribunal, will tend to produce a greater spirit of acquiescence, to quiet heart-burnings, and thus add a strong cement to that Union which we all desire to be indissoluble and perpetual. Nor is the selection of the number five at all an arbitrary one, as might possibly at the first view be supposed. The Constitution of the United State» in several instances, where the subject is important, requires the concurrence of two-thirds of the body called upon to act in relation to it. Thus, an amendment to itself cannot even be originated with out the concurrent vote of two-thirds of both Hou ses of Congress, or the application of two-thirds of the several States. Thus, too, a treaty cannot be ratified without the concurring vote of two-thirdsof the Senators present. Hut there is another provis ion of that instrument which bears a much closer alogy to the present question, because it has refer ence to a judicial tribunal ; it is that which declares, that, in case of impeachment, no person shall be con victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of the Senate present. It will at once be seen by the House, that the number five is as near ts may be to that proportion of the whole Court. Nor can the Committee perceive any well-found ed objection to the requisition of more than a bare majority ; because they hold it to be a sound princi ple, that the successive approbation of the Conven tion or Legislature of a State, and then of its high est judicial tribunal, ought, at least, to prevent , » ta me of of in Kl est judicial tribunal, ought, at least, to prevent the nullification of a constitution or law in every case of doubtful character, and indeed in every case in which its incompatibility with the supreme la» was not clear, beyond any rational doubt ; and inca s ex uf this latter class, it can scarcely he doubted, but that five of the Judges would perceive that in compatibility, and, perceiving it, declare it by their decision. Upon (lie whole view of the subject, tin Committee are of opinion that it is but a reasonable 'e-guard to the reserved rights of the States.tn pro vide that they shall not be declared to have passed beyond them, without the concurrence of five Judja ol that Government, whose own tribunal is deciding upon its own powers ; and in conformity with these views, they herewith report a hill. For the Delaware Journal. WEIGHTS & MEASURES, & c . &e. The Legislature of this State being met hut a few dtp, it is perhaps nut amiss, respectfully, to cull their attentera to s uni- ot the more important concerns upon which their care and controul may be extended, with great benefit to the community at large. Among these concerns the weights and measures nft State ave believed to be of die highest importance, both in a pecuniary ami moral sense. 'This State ts now ivitluift any law or regulation in regard to weights and measures: paitieularly that of grain, an evil which is sensibly felt by the Farmers generally. Some of .he towns or villages (Wilmington for instance) have it is believed endeavored to enforce some regulations upon this point, and the good effects are easily seen in the neighbourhood, but the country at large sutlers greatly— particularly in the lower parts of the county. A load of is sent to market and you know not by wlmt rule of measure it is to be judged ; there being no one to inspect or regulate the bushels, and it is believed they vary veiy much in uicHsureiu different parts of the State Take for in stance the barrel of corn in the ear.it i contai '■rain understood to n a certain quantity of shelled corn ; but some p'T ill have the barrel made very narrow at bottom and greatly increase the breadth at top sons greatly increase the breadth at top, so that when it is mud etately heaped, it must contain much more than bought; and in this way Farmers sutler much cry one, who sells corn in this way, complain of the orer measure, taken ; but as there is rio inspector of meafiiurs to regulate these things, they have to submit; for many per sons, troin the want of conveniences to keep grain, are obliged to dispose of it early in the ear—The most needy and poorest farmers are the greatest sufferers in this res pect. You hear almost tv. The evil In regard to shelled grain is believed to be equally great, for how can any one otherwise account tof the difference that occurs in shelled g'-aio, measured in Wilmington nr Philadelphia—sealed half bushels not hold ing out its measure, when remeasured,by one of the bushel» ot this State. It s neither just, nor right that the person who buys gram, should he the sole judge of the measure, there certainly ought to be some regulation ;—when yen contract to deliver a bushel, that measure ought for the advantage of the public, to be exactly known, amibe the same throughout the State. Pennsylvania 1ms taken great pains upon this point, and the good effects among her men of business are easily stcr; justice is done, both to the buyer and the seller. Mary • ly and it is believed has also turned her attention in this way, and why should not our Legislators profit by their ct' perience. Inspectors whose duty it is regularly to inspect and stamp the weights and measures, go about through Pennsylva nia ; and it the same rules were adopted by our Legisla ture. and tile weights and mea-ures of that State, enforced throughout this, the public would be greatly benefited t and no small advantage would also accrue in extendingtl* e law, so as to embrace the measuring of batk ami firewood, defining what a cord should be, and appointing to every village a measurer or corder. Take « load of hark, wood, or graip to Philad and y ,nl '