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. V 133 ..V iiisc::ll :i jcous. T.-i;xtrt Con WL;;i Mr. GUid was, interrupted it i-t , .;tion to a ve proceeded, id . ?zixt: jet me now call "your . . . i r.zt of the continental con Vcf October,-1774. . It r t :sc?J with the ordinary i ; lut it was. jn'the form of a r.cicnl and declaration, signed j J !:.:atcs ofu?cr colonies, in ufthcmiot res and their consrituenU: in which, ia the name of t'vittue, honor. anl love of country , they, among other tlin?', declared v W e will neither import, nor purchase any slave imported after the first dayo " . Pccemb r next ; a!er which.we will whol ly discontinue the slave-trade,' and. wil neither be coacrned,in it ourselves, nor will wi hire our ves3els, nor sell our com rr -' ' ics or manufactures to those who arc Cv crned in it." - 1 have, Mr. Speaker, referred to this sol cm act, fortho double purpose of showing owners. . cut tnese promises, vtnougn morally: binding, are not legal contracts of matrimony. t With , slaves,', the .mar riage relation has no eai4existence.rr There are no parties capable t)f contract- mi ing. i ne law recognizes no such rela tion gires it ro lanctioD. connects with it no rights, and throws around it no pro tection. - Ravt and adulierv. when ar pliedto this subject, are words without meaning; and there is no sense in which the husband has a right to his wife the wile to Her husband, or either ot them to their children "In short, the whole do mestic relation is cut up root and branch - - .... i 7-destroyed, annihilated ! la reference to the wrongs to which the slave-laws of the United Statesmen erally leave the slave; exposed, there are A .1 t " I iwo or mree points wnicn require a mo menta distinct attention. , -. 1 The slate has: no remedy in his own right for any injury. :. He caa be a party to no suit. He can hare no action against any body, for injuries either to himself, his ; wife or his children..-He is, in this respect, a complete ovllatc without reins-1 dyja his own Tight, for wrong of any 1 th dffr Bhhnrrrnfa in which I.iverw was f w r . - --- --- r t; j - i Kioa or degree whatever. hflLiPn at a. tim when lha tn.tivlts oil mi - . . . . - . . ;tV...r.. " ... .;'. .ur ' .me crying-injustice of l derstood and felt, and of exhibiting the L- VA - , .f. eavinaf s rongcontrast which it presents to the fP" th soon, after he entered the atby with which this n.ition now, in the the so deep an JeffTaon, lrginia pride of ns independence and power, re- nor cJ,. whih r have read he rards s Uvery and tho are-raae-in the 5; tnJtti r i 'i d ' J n;f.Vth; i-oru:- tu i77i drew t it the attention of colonel Bland, capital of the republic. - Th year 1774 an 0ld. and irepuUble member of that was a gloomy .period in ,oar history. We M wbo ,.ndertook t0 m0Te certain fcllhf? !?K 0?T,0PPT,Oa; extension, of Me pr.W wo felt, too the inconsistency of appealing t these -ople" But. instead of ii ma woriJ, an-a aoove an, 10 neayea, lai mntoaAnr ;n ki- r countenance and aid while our hands "?S?5Jn ra defiled with the aboumations oflhe.A . n. j'. j .,.t- TA.i . - 4.:k. r BWU oaJ ,Taa "wuaiiy -ucnouncea as an inut. aiw iu a, l IK"' IH.HU4.. I .. I.:. . I . I . L , .i ,tti ai i v ! cuouiy iw uis vuumry, anu ireaiea wuu .ruas uucu . U.I.MTO guo the greatest indecorum." And so the slav r t tha vow. pre mode irf that day of troub- is aS outlaw still ! v . . Id? Let the unrestrained prosecution of ..'f'i.- aW -j . .f,. m;. ;arr. .,.1. i... ah? next general consideration con ' , ? T r 7i , V -7 aecl wi,h lhis subject which deserves - atrocious than the African, stare trade it- i nnt:-a , . . I special .notice, is, that no black man. iu.,auser. .j AAer tond can testify in any . ft LA. VERY SISSECTKn. ., I , . - C - I have thus far, Mr. Speaker, answered SSJ.?, n ?n'ft? a . - i . ... i I Ihts is 9 rule of law of universal ann 1- ruesuon wnai is aiavrr f ma niy LaM., .i.- . , , 4 r it jj j J cation wherever' slavery exists. Now .1 - reference to its legal definition, ..r,, K ' , , . . L u, . i,i .iVi 'Pi . , . who cannot see how complete v thii rue . ar.1 tha total subversion of.hnman nghts j-n-;...',!,. ct,, nr v., ' . f which.it involves Bul l am. told.that it te w ; .6- P1"01'?0 : i3 unfair to judge slavery by such a stand- .TilF ard; for, though, the general definition fci n, -girea of it, throws the . fa ve into the hands fevlh fubJe.cll0Qf of lhe -Sf an absolute owner'and seems to leave . hira" there, helpless and -unprotected, yet Znmmnn of Wkl V fi " , .k . .t: 7 rii t . i.u common jaw. Who, in the first place, that this Is not a full and fair view of the i. u.ma .-.. . oVL - r . u w . l i t ' . i ls 10 oecome the informer? The miured i caso! lor, though the suve Jaws speak of j.. ... ' i . i . J"; the slave as property yet they real y treat in the wc? of lh P un hira as a-human being, and yield him a daf e fce fc d 1V r.,vMj .., " "j Tjrosecution. hft cannot La . . TV 1-1 . """V . v as little , purpose irould any other black man move in such a matter, since no prosecution against a white man can be sustained by his testimony. It is in vain that the laws forbid the spect, they seem to coma .short of it, the . deficiency is made up by the interest or " the huraanity.of the slave holder. Well ; . let us, then, look at . the 'matter in this .. t li'ht t-for if there is any protection to the e.ave, I am anxious to find it. Tha shve laws, in the first place, leare morde,r of ,raairning of a, slave, or that tho slave exposed to tha unlimited exac- master is suqeciea to a prosecution al tions of the master as. to the degree and common, law a for cruelty to an animal, duration of his labor. cannot learn that hf Jaws cannot be executed; jndjiow the shve laves of the United States in. ca without witnesses? They i- 1 are Dui a mere. mocKery, accompaniea as There are, in some of the. slave states, laws .thftMivo to- Uhor on the Sabhath. and rnunxtyt twoald be likely to know the which limit the hours of daily labor.- T.Kfff7o f " .t! , 1. .r .u-i..4,-.-i:. r x all this. the consideration that from the n c-a;nuio wi iuo loner uiuj wo luuuu 111 1 , . .f kj. .l 1 .11 fr .'1 c -whrery nature of his relation to the slave. 1 t. .r.w., the master has the power of so disposing as in 1 i district, the law. are. on these f J11 Prep.ar?.7 ioie PcrP..on of roinls. entirely silent ' " riuience, as 10 renaer u impossiDie to d . F In the next nlsce. the noantitv and oual- tcct and .brIn? to justice, by any testi ky of food. and clothing, are entirely at the .direction of the master. There are some 1 f :w of the states where there are regala tions on thil s abject, which, if they were injorced, would be but a aorty provision for the comfort of-the slave j but which, from their nature, and the general obsta cles in the way Of enforcing iiny laws in his fa rorwhich I shall presently notice can seldom bo carried inlo execution. i But it is said, that, though the, laws 'urnish, in 'iheir ;. enactments, little pro ectionV and , in their execution Jess, yet the slave has a sufficient protection in the interest and humanity of his; master. - interest ana numamtyi , ; vvnat a pro tection to be talked of for human rights, in a land whose glory it is that the. laws are. suprtmc; and;that to them not to interest or humanity all the humblest and thd highest the richest and the poor. est, may look for protection. Interest and humanity!3- Who otus.are willing to place our rights ,jonder such a guardian ship? We want for ourselves, our wives and our children, the protection of law; and of law that can be made to reach and ounish the violators of. our Ttghts. And shall we, can we, withhold this pro tection from the slaye, and yet talk of respect for the constitution . which bears upon its front the noble inscription, mto establish justice. Can we oo. it, and make pretensions of regard for that great law'of Christian love, which enjoins THE DOING TO OTHERS AS WE WOULD THAT THEY SHOULD DQ UNTO US 1 But Mr. Speaker, I place this question on higher ground than the-want of legal protection from outrage. . Liet the slave be ever so well treated: let his rights to immunity from violence and cruelty be ever so much respected, yet, the great RIGHT his RIGHT TO HIMSELF, I tram pled in the dust,. The wrong thus inflict ed, no kindness of treatment can make right. Wrong flagrant wrong -deeply and, indelibly stains the whole. The "SPOT" is there, and ocean's waters cannot wash it out. Another stronsr feature in the slave system which I have thus glanced atyis the liability of the slave to be disposed of under .legal process. It is one of the most odious features in the whole system, because there are, in such casenohe of the restraints upon the cruel separation of husbands and wives, and parents and children.'which roasters may sometimes feel in disposing of their slaves. This feature of the system :is justly stigmatized by IvJ wards, in his history of the West Indies, as a cnevance remorseless and tyranical in its principles and dreadful in its enects " If, in any respect, the slave laws of the United States are less odious than those of some of the States, they are, in this respect, decidedly more ao than those of Louisiana. Thre, slaves are made part of the real estate of their masters ; and their sale is, of course, subjected to all he restraints unon alienation to which that kind of estate is subjected. Here, here is no such restraint: and under the laws ofvthe United States, the disgraceful spectacle is frequently exhibited of the exposure of staves upon the auction stand in this city, for sale 10 the highest bidder; . . - - r - l . nner at tne instance 01 me owner, or f . - 1 upon process 01 execution, or unaer an order of the court having charge of the settlement of estates.' While the laws of the United States are thus1 more odious than those of the slave States, and, I may add, more so than another, (Maryland) which has repealed her law subjecting a tree blacfc to be ap prehended and imprisoned as a runaway slave, and sold into slavery to pay nis iail fees, while here it remains in full force: whi e Our laws are thus distm ' mony whaterer. In what a helpless, unprotected, deplor able condition is the slave thus left. . What an inconceivableamount of suffering may. either through delect of the laws, or fail- ure of their execution, be inflicted on him 1 i-i . ft oy. citcaaiFo lauor, wanx 01 Jooa and clothing, and cruel punishments by whin- ping, cnainmg, ana imprisoning at pleas ure to say nothini? of the sufftirinfra jcution. 1 . . . - t . 1 P , 0 Tho slave is left, as in thecase of the da- "ZLZU& a:L 'j! V' V.T ruo itvui uu 11 icuus. nuw completely . . . .. . I nowPf emOSPd IO thp rrnnMin fTDT.inhnn. trmblance ot protection, -to the aosoiut r;- r. -;e..."6 vu.u, w wwa m x m rf www Ul 4 nil "1 really irresponsible discretion d' his may be, of a passionate, unfeeling master it , .-rr - . . 1 j ' . . . r ; ' ...iwivi, "' - .1 .1.1.1. J ir .1 . . 1 The power of the master, in the next rftuA7tr.M, h 0lvery; p!ice, to inflict punishment or perpctratO yi- add to alibis he may be, and ,ofteu elenco on ih fcfave, is unlimited,with three Pla tundteKr be "penntendencr, and exceptions: These.re. murder', maiming, injected to the proverbial cruelties of and such cruelty as ivould, if inflict on one ofho ubord,nataespots cal ed . . . , . rL ..... overseers of whom Mr.'. Wirt, in hU. r a Oeasf. suDjccuneporptxraiur in an muici-i - . , T1 V,,, meat at common law, for a misdemeanor iiS,11 "J"" e the Fct the first, the master may bd punished "3, 'ua Pcl?la: e r .7 Jtallys and lor the two last, oy nne. . .mirt.,t,:"r:"j r . . . , Tho tlare is liable to bs beateh by any fPPM? f?mnmS macr,al8 to I ,y and everybody, without any respon. t;?e86m0.f-lSel,I?rfIe 'olence, and -liity throng a civil prosecution, but to W ?l dom.natioa f - - ;:; - .; t t'.i owner. The slave has no remedy. 4 .Icoofess it would hot "have occurred" to me Inthenoxtplace,thes!aveis,invirtueofhis c"8n J?Lh7 V M rw.l :1UKU aJ a.onSthelelprotMtfcn.atheIave; liauijr r . , t oui lor a rcmarK woich l nng ja k sold, mortgaged, or lelseO, as the caprice 1 treat we on the lawt of ilavery by cr necessities of tho master may dictate.- . . . 4 practical v Jacob D' Wheeler,' Esq., lecently published. In reference T I mi v. mnrpover. be taken and soW bv ?S ,u-, UI """ O,ouo " "cica. 01 process of Uw at the suit of his master's 9ewWt Inflict tny spedea of punbhment on the creditor, or Dy an executor or annimsira-1 pcraoo or.hu iare" Mr.wheeler $v ia tor, in satisfaction of the debts of bequests no1 P 20: Ihose Statet wherp there are, .r. J....,i m. . , -. -l . ' 1 ao enactraenlt iipon the- subject the common c-1 T ",aoic" ' n . ' w would be .ufficienr to jotect .lareT.-Our . Slaves, however cruelly treated, may not 5 m m of crimin,i prosecuUont for cruelty , rdeem themsoltes. Or obtain a change of to horaet and other animaU And the common r-.-isters, however necessary, to their per 'w remeJy is considered effectire, without soy . ,T .r,,.. . ... stataary enactment!M : ' " -'.. " ""J"J' ... Mr' Waaler'. worV, which embraces a com- o..rcscan make no contract . A they p,uuon of judicial decisions under the slave can hold no property in things; and have j laws, is. I observe. recommeoJedbyjufleeHitch- non? m themsolves.-or in anv of their I eoc, of Alabama, as valuable work." I coa if iV. rr-A.-.m f tk.Jt. " ik.r. m I curin the opinion that it ' is valuable, if for no r . .1 1 1 other rea-on, for the evidVnce it thus furnishes of ... - , . 1 - --o ...w., tra cwutujuu laetn, bu the Subject Of a-i law prosecution for cruelty . to horses ta3 o'her ct. . ! "J nimals,-(says Mr- XV.) a considered effective. ' .-rrift nnn nV wi mTDry,.nt wiuioci any statuary enactment." , hat a eon- ..... . - . I fe4on! The Protection en ioved hv knrp imA em 1 -y nnt contract mainmonyj i hey s. : r" T. - , . .-I ...... v-0-..v. ucn, tur mens ":th tne I rr.iy n i'.0 to one .inotner what promises To the white man is accorded the protection of a Consent Of their Prime action of ajwaultand r.atterv: while the poor slave is left to the protection of an. indict- mail a: common law for cruelty to a beast; and even that h cannot. orinnate to sustain bv bis own rvidcDc, or the evidence of any man whe in Alil'ar blood ftmmnif in hi wtm ' 1. ! . . 1 . i.. .... . . i . . . . I i r: i if i v i j f i , c t. ' rf r. a'irs Ijws of the United f r- ursff, tha a' ive-laws of Vjr- I !. a a ! rt, ,l ty the act of :: h rf t: .ruary. 1 501. Thty tcs ai lairt cf tbe Uoiud States I guished fsr cruelty and oppression, it is bat justice to say that there is one respect, in which they are distinguished for at least a negative humanity. They do not actually prohibit the instruction of the slaves in rending. If they can hnd any one who will be willing to instruct them, and if their owners will allow them to be instructed there i3 no law -wbtcn wlu j either fine or imprison the instructor! And if they can build school houses, and hire -instructors. and contrive to collect themselves' tdgelher for instruction, at the same time' lhat they are toiling in the service ,of'thir owners, there is no Jaw in force . here, "which will authorize an officer to enter the school-house, and dis perse them as an "unlawful assembly." In these respects, the government of the United States may boast that its slave laws are superior to those of most of the slave States ! The reference I have made to the mat ter ol-instruction, suggests anotner iea- ture in the slave-laws which .deserves special notice. .While the instruction of slaves is prohibited by law, as in most ot the slave States, or prevented or neglected bv most o; the slave owners, as in this district, they are, nevertheless, subjected to punishment for crimes, far severer than those inuictea on tne. wen instmctea an the free. Judge Stroud, in his "sketches of the laws relating to slavery," enumer ates nineteen classes of, offences (some of them embracing seyerar distinct offences) in V irginia, lorwoicn me wmie man is only" punishable by imprisonment; while, ior,ine same ouences, ine siave is punisn- able with death. Hemakes similar spe cifications witV regard to several other States. . I-refer, particularly to . .Virginia,: because' jier;la w? have been adopted by Congress for,a part of th s district-There are also numerous acts which are not prohibited to freemen by the Jaws govern ing the districtjbut whichare made crimes when committed by 'slaves, 'arid for which they are subjected to severe punishments. A'morecTuel absurdity injeriminai legis lation lean "hardly ';'be .conceived, ' than is exhibited in . these distinctions between the slave and "thV Treeinaar-.istinctions which, if crimes and punishments are lo hold any, relation to each other,' enhance guilt just in proportion as .the means of lormmg,, just conceptions oi moral ana leal obligations are vviihheld from the ofiender..- '-;';.', ''' "'.;-':''' 'Such are the slave-laws of this nation. whose declaration of independence asserts that Mall men are created. equal," 'fcnJ whose constitolionwas ordained to "e tablish justice and secure the blessi ;; i ,' liberty to ourtelvet and our posterity '.' lt'; i-', , Erorc the N. Y. Observer, -T : WROSGS OP THE C11KKOKEES. A week or two since we feceived a co py of the documents respecting our rela tions with the Cherolcees, printed in 1830 by order of the House of representativies. FrOm a memorial presented to Congress by John Ross, and seven other Cherokees reoresenlativea of their nation, in June that vear.' we copy the following account oi the measures aaoptea oy in e agems oi Georgia and the United States to make the Indians willing to emigrate. It is right that tho Cherokees should be per muted to tell the story ot tneir wrongs. If it had sooner met our eye, we should not have delayed the publication to this late period. We trust that still it may not be too late to be ot some -oenent. it will at least procure for them the pray ers of Christians. The narrative needs no comment from us. We we will only say that to do such -deeds as are here re corded, in the name of humanity, is to cap the climax of insult and oppression. In the preamble of an act of the Gen eral Assembly of Georgia, in reference to the Cherokees passed the 2d of Decem ber, 1835, it is said, from a knowledge of the Indian character, and from the pres ent feelings of these Indian?, it is confi dently believed, that the right of occupan cy of the lands in their posseession should be withdrawn, that tt would be a strong inducement to them to treat with the Gen eral Government, and consent to a remov al to the west : and whereas, the present Legislature openly avow that their prima ry object in the measures intended to be pursued, are founded on real humanity to these Indians, and with a view, in a dis tant region, to perpetuate them with their old identity of character, under the pater nal care of the Government of the ( Unit ed States ; at the same time frankly disa vowing any selfish or sinister motives to wards them in their present legislation, dpc. This is the profession. Let us now turn to the practice. In violation of the treaties between the United Stales and the Cherokee natron, Georgia passed a law requiring all white men, residing in that part ol tne inero kee country, in her limits, to take an oath of allegiance to the State of Georgia.' For a violation of this law, some of the ministers of Christ, missionaries among the Cherokees, were tried, convicted, and sentenced to hard labor in the penitentia ry. Their case may be seen by reference to the records of the Supreme Court of the United States. Valuable gold mines were discovered upon Cherokee lands, within the charter ed limits of Georgia, and the Cherokees commenced working them, and the Le gislature of that State interfered by pass ing an act, making it penal for an Indian to digjbr .frold within Georgia, no doubt. jrankly disavowing any selfish or stni ter motives towards themV Under this law many Cherokees were arreted tried, imprisoned and otherwise abucd. some were even shot in attempting to avoid an arrest yet the Cherokee people used no violence, but humbly petitioned the Gov ernment of the UnitVd States for a fulfil ment of treaty engagements, to protect them, which was not done, and the an swer given that the United States could not interfere. Whep Georgia discovered she was not to be obstructed'in carrying out her meas uresV' founded on real humanity to these Indians she passed an act directing the Indianou'ntry to -be "surveyed into districts,-jTh is excited some alarm, but the Cherokees wer'fuieted ? with V the assur ance it would ;dotrio harm;id survey the country. Another act wasshortly after passed, to lay off the coantry into lots. As yet there was no authority to take pos session, but it was not long before a law was made, authorizing a lottery for the lands laid off into lots. In fhis act the Indians were secured in possession of all the lots touched by their improvements and the balance of the country allowed to be occupied hy white men. This was a direct violation of the 5th article of the treaty of the 27th of February, 1819. The Cherokees made no resistance, still petitioned the United States for protection and received the same answer that the President could not interpose. After the country was parcelled out by lottery, a horde of speculators made their appearance, and purchased of the ' fortun ate drawers, lots touched by Indian im provements at reduced prices, declaring it was uncertain when the Cherokees 'would surrender their rights, and that the lots were encumbered by their claims. Tire consequence of this speculation was that, at the next session of the Legislature, an act was passed limiting the Indian Tight of occupancy to the, lot upon which he re sided, and his actual improvements ad joining. Many of the Cherokees filed bills, and obtained injunctions against dis possession, and. would hate found - relief in the courts ot the country, it, the judici ary had not been prostrated at the feet of legislative power., t or the opinion of a .. .. . mage, on tbrs subject, there, was an at tempt to impeacn mm, men to inn it n is circuit to one county, and when all this failed, equity jurisdiction was taken from thecourts, in Cherokee , case?, by acts passed m the years lbdj and 1834. The Cherokees were then left at the mercy of an interested agent. -,. This agent under.lhe act of 1834, was the notorious William N. Bishop,, the captain of. the Georgia guard, aid to.the Governor, clerk of a court, postma6ter,.&c, and his mode of trying Indian rights is here submitted. "Murray Co. Georgia,. Jan. 20, 1835. . tMR. John Maxtin: Sir the legal representative of lots of land, . . No 95 25 district; 2d section. , . - .86 , 25- ." 2 .93 25 " 2 57,-25-X fSr 2. him possession of ;the above described lot of land; and;infoTms,me that you are the occupant upon them. Under the laws of the State of Georgia, passed ia the . years 1833 and 1834, it. is made my duty to comply with his request, you will,j there fore, prepare yourself to give entire pos session of said, premises, on or before the 20th day. pf February next, fail" not un der the penalty of the law. ,Wm. N. Bishop, State's Agent." Mr. Martin, a Cherokee, was a man of wealth, had an extensive farm : large fields of wheat growing ;, and was turned out of house and home, and compelled. in the month of February, to seek a new resi dence within the limits of Tennessee. Thus Mr. Bishop settled his righis ac cording to the notice he had given. The same summary process was used towards Mr. John Ross, the principalchief of the Cherokee nation. He wis at Washington City on the business of his j hi nation. When he returned, he travelled till about ten o'clock at night, to reach his family ; rode up to the gate ; saw a ser vant, believed to be his own,, dismounted, ordered his horse taken; went in, and to his utter astonishment, found himself a stranger in his own house, his family! having been, some days before, driven out to seek a new home. A thought then flitted across his mind, that lie could not, under all the circumstances of his situa tion, reconcile it to himself to tarry all night tinder the roof of his own house as a stranger, the now host ot that house be ing the tenant ot that mercenary band of Georgia speculators, at whose instance his. helpless family had been turned out and made homeless. Upon reflecting, however, that man is born unto trouble,' Mr. Ross at once concluded to take up lodgings there for the night, and to con sole himsell under the conviction -of hav ing met his afflictions and trials in a man ner consistent with every principle of moral obligation, towards himself and family, his country and his God. On the next morning he arose early, and went out into the yard ar.d saw some straggling herds of his cattle and sheep brousing about the place. His crop of corn dis posed of. In casting a loot up into the wide-spread branches of a majestic oak, standing within rise enclosure of the gar den, and which overshadows the spot where lies the remains of his dear babe and most beloved and affectionate father, he there saw, perched upon its boughs, that flock of beautiful pea fowls, once the matrons care and delight, but now leit to destruction and never more to be seen He ordered his horse, paid his bill, and departed in search of his family. After traveling amid heavy rains, had the hap piness of overtaking them on the road, bound for some place of refuge within the limits of Tennessee. I hus have his hou ses, farm, public ferries and other proper ty, been seized and wrested from him. Mr. Richard Tavlor was, a?sp, atWash iirgttni, ami in nrs aosence," nis family was" threatenrd with expulsion, and compelled to give two hundred dollars for leave to remain at home for a few months only. This is the 44 real humanity''1 the Chero kees were shown by the real or pretended autnnruies or ureorgia, - disavowing any selfish or sinister motives towards them." Mr. Joseph Vann, also a native Chero kee, was a man of great wealth, had about eisdit hundred acres of land in cul tivation, had made extensive improve ments consisting, in part of a brick house, costing about ten thousand dollars, mills, kitchen, negro houses, and other build- ings. tie naa une gardens, ana exten sive apple and peach orchards. His bu siness was so extensive he was compelled tain the value of? improvements; taken by wuue iiieu, auu aiau uio amount oi ail claims against the" United States for spoli ations upon the Cherokees. I It- was be lieved full justice could, hot'.be done in a treaty, otherwise than by ascertaining the injuries they had sustained.: This reso lution looked to a treaty with "the United States, so soon as arrangements therefora could be made. Numbers of Cherokers had been forced from their houses and farms, particularly by the authorities of Georgia, and the citizens of the United States being in possession of the improve ments, jf they were not valued in ax short lime, daily undergoing alterations and ad ditions, they could not be identified as Cherokee improvements. These agents were required to register nil claims for improvements and spoliations, in books to be kept for 'that purpose und to pro ceed forthwith and to report to the princi pal chief, to - be submitted to the next gen eral council of the oation, which was to commence in October following when the commissioner of the United States waste appear for the purpose-of making a trea ty. Messrs. J. J. Trott, Robert Rogers, Elijah Hicks, Walter S. Adair, and Thom as F. Taylor, were appointed as agents, and in the latter part of July proceeded ti the duties assigned them. After, having made; some progress Messrs. Trott and Hicks were arrested by a part of the Georgia guard. The officer command ing deprived them of all their books and papers, marched them off sixty miles, ti ed with ropes, to Spring Plnce, the sta tion of the guard, and there kept them, with Messrs. Taylor and Adair who had also been arrested, in close confinement in a guard house, built to keep Indians in, or nine or ten days. A writ of habeas corpus was obtained to bring the prisoners before a judge, but the guard evaded the service of the writ, by running the pris oners from place to place. The prisoners were finally required by Bishop, the can- tain of the guard, to give bonds and secu rity to the State of Georgia, in the sum of one thousand dollars each, to appear at court, and to desist from valuing Chero kee improvements. They appeared at court, but no further &teps were taken against them. Their books and papers have never been returned. This arrest was staled to be at the instance of Messrs. Schermerhom and Currey, agents for the United States, who, it is said, Correspond ed with the Governor of Georgia and tha Secretary of War on the subject, andthst a part of this correspondence may be seen in the War Department. Joseph M. Lynch, an officer of th? Cherokee nation, for executing the la' s of the nation, was arrested by the Gee r gia guard, lodged in jail, and bail for h -appearance at a court of justice refuse). His negroes were also seized and commit ted to jail, and there continued until tin v i i i ik. Drokejan ano maue tn ir escape. erokees, b iot less aarh'trUja towaras tne onerokees, dv j mi . . r . 1 XT I r - . vuuv, iuo ageui oi me ijnuea otau-3 i. Benjamin F to employ an overseer and other agents. In the fall M 1836, he was called from home, but before leaving, made a condi tional contract with a Mr. Howell, a white man, to oveTaee for him in th?. year 1834, to commence on the 1st of Janua ry of that year. He returned about the 28th or 29th of December, 1833, and learning Georgia had prohibited any Cher okee fro n hiring a white man, told Mr. Howell he did not want his services. Yet Mr. Bishop the State's agent, represented to the authorities .of Georgia, that Mr. Vann had violated the laws of the State by hiring a white man, had forfeited his right of occupancy, and that a grant ought to issue tor his lands, there were con flicting claims under Georgia for his pos sessions. A Mr. Riley pretended a claim, and took possession of the upper part of the dwelling house armed for battle. Mr. Bishop, the State's agent, and his party, came to take possession,-and between them and Riley a fight commenced, and from twenty to fifty guns were fired in the house. While thi3 was going .on, Mr. Vann gathered his trembling wife and children into a room for safety; Riley could not be dislodged from his; position up stairs, even after being wounded, and Bishops party finally set fire to the house. Riley surrendered and the fire was ex tinguished. Mr. Vann and Jris family were then driven out, unprepared, in' the dead of winter, and snow upon i trie ground through which they were compelled- to- wade, and to take shelter Wjthin the limits of Tennessee, in an open tog cabin, upon, a dirt floor, and Bishop put his" brother Absalom in possession of Mr. ' Vann's house. This Mr. Vann is the same, who wnen a hoy, volunteered as a private sol- dier in the Cherokee regiment, in the ser- vice of the United States," in the Creek war, periled bis life jii crossing the river ai me oauie pi ine tiorse shoe. What has been his reward -. : v Hundreds of other cases might be add ed. In fact, near 11-the Cherokees in Georgia, who had improvements of any :3 called oo'rae, as 'State's agent, to give value, except the favorites of the: United States agents, under.one pretext or other, hate been driven from their" homes. C In the month of Slay 1835 the gener al, council of. the Cherokee nation' nasd a resolution, appbintihg agents i to ascer J atner tne vintage of his vineyard vr Cherokee emigration, openlyVallegiritr i to be the policy of the United States to make the situation of tha Indians so mis erable as to drive them into a treaty, or an abandonment of their country, as rrm be seen by his letter to Messrs. Iir3z!ei 'i and Kennedy, of 14th of September 183). A few instances will be given as ii Lust a lion of his mode of operation and gener al conduct.- Altaian Anosia was prevailed upon to enrol when drunk, contrary to the wish and will of his wife and children ; wheo the time arrived for hira to leave for Ar kansas, he-absconded. A guard was sent after him by B. F. Currey, which arrest ed the woman and children, and brou?. them to the agency about dark, in a coi rain, shivering and hungry. They were detained under guard all night, and pan of tho next day, until the woman agreed to enrol her name as an emigrant. The husband then came in, and he and his wife and their children were put on board a boat and taken to Arkansas. There they soon lost two or three of their clu -dren, and then returned on foot - to che Cherokee nation east of the Mississfipi. Sconatachee, when drunk was enrolled V.. T3 T-l r t uy Deujannn j? . murrey; When the emi grants Were collecting, he did not annear, and Currey, and John xMiller, the i'.ite - preter, went after him. Currey drew a pistor, and attempted to drive the old mm to the agency, who presented his gun and refused to go. Currey ; and Miller return ed without hirn. He made the fors known to Huge Montgomery, the Cl.en- Kee agent, wno gave hrm a certificate nit he should not be forced- away ng mst his will. So the matter rested till Cthe emi grants were collected next year, and then Currey sent a wagon and guard for him He was arrested, tied and hauled to the agencV, lea vingsorhe of his children be hind in the voods, where they had flod crn the approacbof the guard. Richard Cheek enrolled for emigration, but before the'time of departure he hired to work oa the Tuscumbitf railroad, in Alabama When the emigrants started, Currey had Cheek's wife taken, put on board a" boat and sent to. Arkansas. - She was even de hied the privilege of visiting her husband as she descended the river. He was left hehindf and never saw her more. She di ed on the way. Such outrages, and violations of treaty tipulations, have been the subject of com plaint to the government of the United States, on the pa rt of the Cherokees for years past; .and the -delegation are not surprised that "the American people are not now startled at those wrongs, so Ion? continued, for by habit men -are brought to look wnth indifference upon death itself. If the Government of th.e United States have determined to take the Cheroke lands without their, consent, the power i with them ; and the American people csn " reap the field that is not their own, how . " - -, .