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v.. i'r!1 V -"Vl-iM SET FOR THE DEFENCE OTHE QOSPElj." ' " ' - - ' - " r.. by oxiscm. s. Murray. 1 BRANDON, WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 1, 1838. VOJ.V ?Z NO: 45. i. m t-v , it MS. ggh Tbt Vrmokt Tblxokafh if publish ed weekly, at $2,00 year, payabU within four 6nth aftar four, month au4 within., eight f 2.25 rtcr Uhl montbft and within th. year, gi.W aiiar B Co w in year,, 10 rwe iu, gc-To compamea who recerra twelre or ipora copied tn ono bundle, and pay within tour month, tl,53 after four month,' to fiat at above, f l,7i withlu eight toaihi fce. - : '! ;f ? f-'AeenUi wh proce a'nd pay fot aix ub- r CO Ni ppr be dicontnoed until arreare- in are paia, xo4t i vmd uucwu w , miwjvui- All tetferar to aecure attchtlort, inuat corrie a -,: , 1 ' - 1 . it T- nfti3CDOV.SAftJRIJArT;LY3, 18SS. EDUCATION. v I will thank tUc ponon who kioJlj fumialted mo jta (uUuwinf article to forward tha wtijcr'a otlicr promised production, as th acrerall jr cppcar Nortl.ind Btrnngpyap.somo of friend 'Iloibrook'a positiona may appear to ioma people, piony of thin re worthy of candid consideration. The common naitliodtof teaching ia radically, defective,, and ouht to be refurmed, and a great part of it rjform ed out ot use. , rom tha Journ id of Commerce. .1 i?ifW pi'irrisai of education. Mes?M. EJllors:--.In numerous instan ce, I ! have 'known children, literally, to lora theinaelrcs to read. Their learning tAU5t of coursj have been a pleasure to thcft and but little ..trouble 10 their jki rnta. or, teachers.. It may be so with every, chijd. I have also known some instances of children going to school two Yr.iVj. befort. .bey . Icarn-d the alphabet. :t; such . instances, c hiJJreii most com- f nnly4 pvsjos superior u.'eats. 1 htir iniili are t-o aciive and too sensible, to submit to thd.uxrcijj of repeating over like so many parrots, the -names of cer taiq characters, (o theat without meaning tuid without s nse. 1 have a'.su. known numerous inJividu uls who bvComi goal writers or rxMiinrn, without using a shett of p.ipr for the purpose. of lcamintr to write. So it may be in any pase. S it always i?, with the pupils ol schools Lr deaf mute?. . It is n,lso well known that some, cl the best writers. in the English language never l.irnt a definition or a rule from a gnmrnar. Tha only instances in thich 1 hjve ever loond jny ifficuhv with r.hjUrea,ir jcomprehending the ofHces of word, (r tb parVs of speech, as they am callex or in, constructing. Sentences cor rict!yw was yviib .them who . had spent a lijQg time in several cases two or three years tn cornmuuug wwum nm 'uu, mars, in rwtsiog and, in. correcting falsu .1 haro seen miny case?, very maay, of children who h-vo : studied grammar for two or three yoars nuking mistakes- in determining. tnt pnrts of speech, which they , ought not. And need not have. made, aller one hpur instruction. The fact is, tliou-fh it is painful lo, state it, and still more nainful to -reflect ' upon, ii, bat the, t . . . i. r.i ' fact is., that tha pnnctpal rfesult ol me ttufiy.nf grammar in a v. ry large portion, of the schaoU in our country, is to close the, minds of cjiddrea- agains. knowing a ny thi n g on th o. s u tject. . T h cy a re pea rc e ly ablejo coiistruct the most simple scn t.mp.a eorrHctfv..ther makaos many and na bad "mistakes in conversation, as chil-: jrea who. never heard of a grammar, and . mark, which we commend to the serious most 'that ihey retain on the subject i, attention of our churches, and especially to thit.gTanimaj il something , which, they ! those persons who have the tores of Dea ha'el.rery.muoh at school. ,.. .. Icon upon them. The subject is one of great children, who seldom make a misUke m i t. . t' i i i. ... i-1 a spelliog lesson froni Jl book, perhaps Tn one who was 'always. at the head .ol nis class In spetling,' .numerous . and . gross mistakes,' when they attempted to use, their spellirig,in wiling ntences... It u also tvull . knnwn fact- that in many schools. In'oll the Khootj, l9r deaf4fnuteA-where thespening pook js seldom; ifvever nsed, nhd,a spelling lesson never com rpjiteu to mernorY. ihepupil n-rrer ufake a mutake in orthography. It' may. "be so with evry qhild; and canno: fail of,be,ing so, if the samo jplan is 'adopted in. spelling, as is pursued in every othei busine3 ainder heavn,' except . schoW.. ker ping aM hols by ihttr, .e:. learn watcn-mauin makmg watches Uhoe-making by nwUng ..shrrs,; not by t reading about wabthrs and shoes, . -. "r ; ' !Tho art of fentence making, imbracing as U-doea, sr.ellmg, penmanship.prammar rJtnne-in addition to a good supply. and a great variety of materials xr ideas, is certainly "mere difficult,, and 'must, re quire moro eipcrience and skill..than the art of making 'shoes o watches. And Jrtt the plan adopted, to a very great ex tent," for acming' this art, and for pr Caring tho materials too,' is to read. about miMatriK-tinif tpntencp. rather the con vo e t ttfncilnn nr tructnr of tentencft Of. to itady 'grammar -to pars; ' which,. would tVpm to im olr' In the minds of many, a knowledge of all the arts and.sclences. Br9 the way the best defTmlkm"! have ever heard of parsing is the irt df chaogT bad sentences. It these are facts, Messrs. Editors, and TiMnHhw will not be denied or doubted Wvm'nnr. the' defects faf el 11011100, - both rJ ihA aubiects and modes. of teaching km rndicah' The svstem is totteft at the. core.; The detect is, it bas no soul, and only a control pats of dry bo n xsiyi ith nntH 'tVn ; rrltpn it. the 'whole '''can be out muscles, veins,, ligamencr joints Vhen that ii given it, when motives and high motives of action, benevolent anJ christian motives, are placed before chil dren to elicit eflort, then, and not till then, jvilh their physical or intellectual ener gies be cajled.out but both be rendered, in a measure at least, dormant. " Iq a few.days, I, will again ask your indulgence, in permitting me to present, through yonr columns, a few subjects and modes of teaching, which ha ve been found by, experience, both -in this country and Europe, to produce results worthy of the human, mind, and calculated to train up good citizens true republicans and Chris tians, r Inthe mean time, as ever, I shall re- maun yours m high esteem. J- HoLBitOOK. r i RELIGIOUS MISCELLANY. A Inn ft minus flow p l f iUr. k. ' one curje more bitter than another to man, i i 1 1 v i V LC I i: isto Detneoii3pring oi an irreligious hnme of a home whfrre the voice of prayer and praise ascends not to God, rni where 'he ties of human affection are not purified and elevattd by the refining influence of religious feeling of a home, if the cares and borrows of life sh ill brin? religion to the heart in after days, that heart cannot turn 10 without bitterness of feeling; with out anguish and vexation of spirit. If there be n curse to any count rv where the truths of religion are known, the deepest and bitterest curse that can be inflicted on it, is a multitude of homes like that which I have supposed ! Such homes send forth their son3 unchecked in evil thoughts, un hallowed in their habits, an l untaught in love to God the name and cro-s of Jesus Christ stamped perhaps on their foreheads, but not written on their hearts -and they send them forth to prey upon the land, and to become its curse and its destruction. But on the other hand, there is a blessing to the religious hom, which no tongue can sneak, no language can describe ! The home where, in early years, the heart trained to a loveof God, and to take pleas ure in his worship and service, interweaves with the existence of man's holy afT'ciions, which die not with the circumstances which gave thm birth; which last long, even though they may be forgotten and neglected and which exercise at least some check on the evil of the human heart, and often, nay, commonly, recall it to hear again the voice of God; and to re turn to the paths of holiness and peace.. ' DBA' COWS. The Eastern Baptist has a good article on the subjct of the duties of Deacons.. Afiet speaumg ot the misunderstandings, or want of understanding, of word which have been transferred, without translation. Scriptures, such as Baptizo, Baptisma, &c ., he remarks "that it is certainly to be regretted that the word Deacon has been transferred into our English Bible, instead of. a corresponding English word. The consequence is, almost every body is ignor ant of the nature of the oftice, and the du ties which belong to it." Heproceedsto .!. iE II i I enumerate 1 he offices actually perlormed by those called deacons in the Romish and Protestant churches, showing how differ ently the nature ot tha office is regarded. He considers that a proper translation of l the word would make Deacons to be, sim ply, servants of the Churches; and con etudes, with the following judicious re . c . -i i i .Ua rmr.ii nrfianurii 17 111 1 r Mill 1 nnti i.n j 1 in 1 - al interest of the cross of Christ. Hundreds iiu-....i ... w . - . o ot the churches of our Connection, are suf fering deeply, and the cause of our Re deemer is suffering deeply, from want of a proper understanding of the duties of Dea cons, and from want of a proper discharge of those-duties. L-t us try to have some improvement' in this matter. Morning Star. ' : ' : MDnly let the church understand that a Deaeon is a' tertdnl, and there will lebut very little difficulty in determining what is his work. As a person employs a servant to do such kind ot work, as circumstances may make necessary, or occasion may re quire, soahechnrch has need of such ser vants. It is impossible that every thing which is necessary to be done in n church can be assigned to any one before hand, definitely; for new and unforeseen occur rences will create new and Unforeseen du ties, liut it there is a set or omcers, or persons who, in ths proper acceptation of the word, were servants of the church, then it would be.' understood that" the servants are the proper persons o do it. Christ has made tnis provision by appointing uea- cons. or servants of the church. Thus, while God has assigned to the Bishops, or Elders; the doty of administering in spirit- uai in in gs,. tie jjas proviaea mm mtry shall tiol be called off to serre in the secu lar crncerns 'and other- business 'which would, divert (heir attention.- and tender them unfit for their appropriate work. 1 nere IS no OOUU out toai sucu ierran5 existed in the church from the beginning; and the vonn? men. mentioned in Acts v ; 6w lO who carried oat the dead - bodies of Ananias and 8aphiray were, in our opin ion, of this number. In agreement with these viewSf we Jiare an account in Acts vi." that when thV number of the disciples were '-greatly multiplied, and Jhe ousmess - 'of ihc btuch; were chosen and set apart, tJ assist these, who already existed. And th apostle .re ferred to the office of servan's in Acts ti: 2, where it is said, "It is not reason that we should leave the word of G od 4.0 sir te tables." The office of Deacon then, is to be a servant of all work. exceDt what is ts- signed to the pastor. He should be ready to take hold of every thin which is ne cessary to pe attenaed to for the prosperi ty ot the church, and to promote union ! auu oruer in me oouy. He should see to . it, that all the temporal concerns are provi-j ded for; that proper discipline is maintain-; ed; that everything necessiry to be acted upon, should be brought before the church; and that each one fills his proper p!aee in, the church and contributes according to his abili'y to the general prosperity. "The only objection which ve antici pate is, that all these affairs dovolvin on tne Ueacons will occupy too much time, and prevent them from attending their own temporal anairs. I5ut there is no fjree in I . - i his objection; for the very example of the apostles, which we have cited, goes to show that when the labors b3co:ne too great for the present number, others should ie cnosen 10 assisi mem. Ana it is very obvious that it must not be neglected; nor must it be laid on the pastor. We have thrown out these few hints on the subject, hoping that it will receive extended notice from those who are more at leisure than ourself. x." The Decline of Life. There is an eventide in human life a season when the eye becomes dim, and when thestrength decays, and when the winter of age be gins to shed upon the human head its pro phftic snows. It is the season of life to which the autumn is most analogous, and which it becomes, and much it would profit you, my elder readers, to muk the instruc tion which it brings. The spring and sum mer of our days are gone, and with them not only the joys they knew, but many of the friends who gave them. You have entered upon the autumn of your being, and whatever may have been the profusion of your spring, or the warm temperament of your summer, there is yet a season of : csses COns;itute anhereditarv caste, ex stdlm ss and solitude which the beneficence ' ior,0 on,i si,vf(. nf morula Tho of heaven affords you, in which you may meditate upon the past, and prepare your self for the mighty change you may soon undergo. It is now you may understand the mag nificent language of Heaven it mingles its voice with that of Revelation , it sum-' mons vou in these hours when the leaves of the fall and winter are gathering, to the evening study which the mercy of heaven has provided in the book of salvation. And while' the shadowy valley opens, which leads to the abode of death, it speaks of that love which can comfort and save, and which can conduct to those green pastures, and those still waters, wherethere is an eternal Spring for the children of God. Allison. MISSIONARY. From the Bap. Miss. Magazine. Deputation to Kaitern 9Iissions NOTES ON BU.RMAII. Our readers have been furnished with Mr. Malcom's iournal un to his arrival in Madras, and tour in the southern pe - ninsala. The pressure of his official en- i the charge ol tnett. in tne morning it era gements since his return to America, j would be loudly proclaimed that this re having prevented him from filling up the jtainer of the great man had been robbed, outlines of his subsequent observations -in j A general search would ensue, and the south-eastern Asia, we present in this num-; goods being soon detected under the ric her an extract from his notes on Burmah, titn's house, the evidence would bedeclar :1 nrennrd for his intended hook. The ' ed complete. The wretched man, whose chapter from which it is taken, comprises also notices of the. agriculture, manufac- . tiirpc rnrrpnrv. Tpvpnnp. annv. rlimatp. 1 .u . 1 . w - . . . , li- r r a and natural history of Burmah. We se lect, for its bearing on the scope of the preceding article, the description of the Form, of Government, Administration, and Laics Orders of Nobility. The monarch is absolute. Custom and - . I " o 1 if convenience iiuuiic mm iu uon i-uunsei ui . Ji . . . ' u. . the nobles touching important matters, but ' . , j . j . T . . , US 13 IJOl ouunu u auup ii. iiiuceu, lie: often treats his courtly advisers with con tempt, and sometimes with violence even Cuasinz lueiu uutui mis yurscue wit t a . i .u . l , 8 i a . r the city, proclaiming that whoever drawn sword. On a late occasion, lor a.. i . . i .u .u : i ,; . r i I j r c i iiected to take them at their nominal very eligh; offence, he had forty of hisjJ . a public s.reet. before the palace wall, and kept for hours in a broiling sun with a , beam extended across their bodies. He, lily iJlOL VaU.,cl9 iaiu vas im.ii 1UV w 9 its i j v. is. however, seldona allowed to know much oi uadsin" evenly, aitu ua rue urn 1 1 v ui iuc ui psiu0 cct , v a- l ffflinnnpncips of particular officers, who of passing events, and particularly of the are ever ready to hush up accusations by -l l tn,, n o.rcMnn hr a hnbe to their. immediate superior. . No office, title, or rank, except ihat of the Icing, is hereditary. Promotion is open to all classes. Next in rank to tne royal family, are the woongyees, (from woooy gpvernor, find gyee, gieat,) or pub lie ministers of state. Of these there are commonly four, but sometimes five or six. torraing a court or council, wuiciuibu-u-Ir in the Ioi-dau. His majesty is some- timesi Uiough, rarely, present at the. delib erations. Royal acts are issued, net in the king's name, bat in that .of this coun cil. -Causes,of every kind may he brot here for decision. v Below.these are the woon douks, (from woon,' governor, and douk,rPi) or as sistant woons,,who attend at .the lot-dau, and express their opinions. , They ;have no. right to rote, but may record their dis sent -They co-operate.; ix?r carrying into " AlmildiBrm thepulace.Tar!, ao calk4 from V tba court that aita to it. , . . . execution great matters of state policy, and are often exceedingly influential,' Of about the same, grade, but rather in ferior, are the a-twen-vvoons, (from a-twen, inride, and woon, governor,) of whom there are generally from fourtosix. These constitute the cabinet, or rjrivv council and have access to his miiesty at all times They tlo not act publicly as kingr's offi cers, nor sign imperial documents, but are in daily session in a room near the palace. 1 heir influence with the king procures them great respect, and many bribes, There are six or eight government see retaries, called sa-re-dau-gyee, (great gov ernment writers,) whose business is simi lar to that of the state secretaries. It is not necessary to describe minute ly the other grades of officers. They de scend, in regular progression, down to the head-man of a himlet; each exercising arbitrary sway over those next beneath. From first to last, thev are With few ex- ceptions, harpies, who seek only their lown advantage, and neither love nor pity ' the people. The country labars under j the curse which Jehovah threatens to send 1 upon a wicked people 44 Governors who .1 . should be like fire among the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf ; who should devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left." -I Orders of nobility are marked by the tsa-lway, or golden necklace. The par ticular grade is indicated by the number of chains composing it, which are united ,of common chain-work indicate the low est rank. Three, of more curious con struction, the next above. Then come those of six, nine, and twelve, which last is the highest for a subject. Chief princ- es of the blood wear eighteen, and the j monarcn nimseu iweu-.y luur. I'he community is, by common estima tion, divided into eight classes the royal ! fa nily, great officers, priests, rich men, I laborers, slaves and outcasls. The latter consist of slaves to pagodas, lepers, grave diggers, executioners, f and perhaps some otheis. Even among these are different ilprrrrp; r.f rpmrtnhi I il v. IVone of the latter are the most respectable ot all out casts. The legislative, executive and judicial functions are not separated, but a meas ure of power in each is enjoyed by every officer. Hence arise innumerable and shameful abuses. Having no salary, eve ry government-man regards his district, or his office, 3 his field of gain ; and hes itates at no measures to make it profitable. j Most of the rulers keep spies and retain ers, who discover who has money, and j how it may be got. Accusations of all sorts are invented, and the accused has no way of escape, but by a present. Real criminals may almost invariably elude jus tice by a bribo, if it bear some proportion to the magnitude of the offence. Gangs of robbers frequently practise their trade bythe connivance of a ruler who shares their gains. One of the native christians, who had been in the employ of a ruler before his conversion, assured me, that of ten, on finding some one who had laid up a little wealth, his master would employ him, or some other retainer, toplacesome goods under the intended victim's house, j by night, in order to bring against him only fault was thrift and saving, would be condemned to some severe punishment, and escape oniy Dy paying a nne as great - ; . - - . as it was supposed he was able to bear, It would require greater space than can here be spared, to give any correct conception of the general misrule of men in power. We give one other instance. The late war having introduced into Ran "UOu auu vicinity me ueuai conif?, ine i ..:-.:. .k T3 i .u w j l i i ' woongyee engaged largely in maki r eJ i - u ' u four-anna pieces, which were really wo ing pieces, which were really worth but two. They were soon well known, and only passed for their real value. The incensed great man sent the herald about ob-val-im- J ete, hecked and at le th after sme seyer'e exam , m. ,,,,, ' .. prisonment. Business was for a while obliged to let the people go to weighing their money as before. . l c . An absolute monarch is, in fact, propri - l . . .. r . . . . , . . v K. ior m OI. nis aoma,ns PP- peoph lie cauuui dui see wiai me numoer oi ins 1 1 . .1 . ... l r l- I subjects, and their prosperity, form his true greatness and honor. Hence, though he may be a bad man, prudence and poli cy dictate a rule which shall minister to the general good. It seems ever to have been thus in Burmah. The king enacts salutary laws, and views bis people with kinduess; but sycophants and intriguers pervert his plans, and frustrate his inten tions. Around Ava, nis personal knowl edge 'and accessibleness to petition through many avenues, check the move ments of unprincipled nobles, and spread comparative peace and" security. Hence the astonishing popiilousness of that; vi cinity. k The written code, civil and penal, thb Zechariah, xii, ri. L t Executioners art repriered felons, dead ia ! law, ana marked by. a tattooed circle on the cheek, and often by the name of their crime tattooed in legible letters upon their breast. They are not allowed to ait down in anr-maq'a hou,aad all intimacy with them is forbidden. ..' . . . ., ,i . . severe, is, on the whole, wise and good but is little better than a dead letter. It is principally derived from the Institutes of Menu. fThis work, of great celebrity among the Hindoos, was translated into English by the late Sir William Jones. It seems to have been received by Burmans from Arracan, but at what the pe non is not certain, aneir translation is called Dam-a that. Eery monarch adds ito it, or alters, as may please him ; and under some reigns it bears little resem blance to the original. For all practical I purposes it is almost a nullity, being nev , , er produced or pleaded from in couns. Rulers, from highest to lowest, decide causes according to their own judgment,' or more frequency, according to their in terest. As a great part of their income is derived from law-suits, they generally promote litigation. They receive bribes j unreservedly, in open court, and do not i hesitate to aecepi the gifts of both parties I heir oppressions Ivtve scarcely any re straint but the fear of ruining their own interest by carrying matters too far. As to seeking the good of their country, or the promotion of iustice, there appears to be no such thing thought of, except per- lect of domestic duties, quarrelsomeness, haps by the king and a few of those im-l gadding about, meddling too much in the mediately about him. ! concerns of neighbors, or extravagance- The form of a judicial oath deserves He is first required, however, to admon insertion, as a curiositv. It is as follows: ish her repeatedly in the presence of wit- I wi;l speak the truth. If I speak 1 not the trutn, may u be tnrougn tne in fluence of the laws of demerit, viz., pas sion, anger, folly, pride, faUe opinion, im a i i.a modesty, hard hecnedness, and scepticism ; so that when I and my relations are on relations land, land animals, as tigers, elephants, j buffaloes, poisonous serpents, scorpions, I &c, shall seize, cruh, and bite us, so that I We shall certainly die. Let the calami- lies occasioned Dy lire, water, rulers, iiuieve?, auu enemies, oppieas unu uestiuy , us, till we perish and come to utter de- . I. ' . .1 A i struction. Let us be subject to all the ca- ! lamities that are wiihin the body, and all ! ! that are without the body. May we be seized with madness, dumbness, biindness, deafness, leprosy, and hydrophobia. May we be struck wiih thunderbolts and light ning, and coine to sudden death. In the midst of not speaking truth, may I be ta ken with vomiting clotted black blood, and suddenly die before the assembled people. When 1 am going by water, may the aquatic genii assault me, the boat be up- j iil arvl ll-i- rrrnrrl-r lnct nnrl mnvr nlli- I alii gators, porpoises, sharks, or other sea- monsters, seize and crush me to death ; and when I change worlds, may 1 not ar rive among men or nats, but suffer unmix ed punishment and regret, in the utmost wretchedness, among the four states of punishment, Hell, Prita, Beasts, and A thurakai. 41 If I speak truth, may I and my rela tions, through the influence of the ten laws of merit, and on account of the effi- cacy oi trum, De ireea trom an calamities i wno snau aenver mm up. 11 a stranger within and without the body, and may j harbor a runaway, knowing him to be evils wnich have not yet come, be warded; such, he is punishable as alhief; but -if far away. May the ten calamities and he be a near relation, there is no penalty. . the five enemies also be kept far away. ' If a man die insolvent, and charitable, May the thunderbolts and lightning, the i people choose to defray the expenses of genii of waters, and all sea animals lovej regular funeral, they ate not chargeable -me, that I may be safe from them. May j with any of his debts ; but if they be parv my prosperity increase like the rising ticular friends, or distant relations, they" sun and the waxing moon ; and may the must pay one quarter of his debts; and. if. seven possessions, tne seven laws, tue sev- en merits of the virtuous, be permanent j in my person; and when I change worlds may I not go to the four states of punish ment, but attain the hanninessof men and nats, and realize merit, reward and anni- hilation." Trial by ordeal is very seldom used, but is not wholly unknown. It is prac - tised in various ways. Sometimes the panics are maae 10 waiK into ine water, and whichever can hold out longest un- der the surface, gains the cause. Some- times it is bv trving which can hold the finger longest in hot water, or melted lead. The following notices of Burman laws are deemed important, as throwing light . t - i . t i riii ' r cause cannot be heard by the judge till the debt is first paid. Where several per sons are securities for a debt, each securi tv is rpsnonsihlp fnr the whole amount, so that the first one the creditor can lay hold v ...r ... ' , nf mut UntiirlntA thfHpht The nronprtv J ;niniVpnts mtist bdivided eouailv with- j rt, nrarBrnri.d nr rditnr Prnnfr- i- - -- -- - - - i . nrn" a tn u in., ;n nnv .own must be ty provea to oe iosi in any town, musi ue made rood bv a tax on the inhabitants, if the thief be not discovered. A man find ino- lost silver or sy d receives, on rtstor - - . - on tne character oi tne people, ine wneiOM" "v. muoi ivaj f r, and children of an absconding debtor are . The value of the bodies of, men arid an -responsible for his debts ; but'a woman is i ma Is is fixed. Thus a new-born male is: not required to pay debts contracted by four ticals, a female three, a boy ten,: al her husband during a former marriage". ! girl seven, a young man tbirty.U young. If a debtor wish to prosecute his creditor j woman thirty-five. Of . rich persons twice, for vexatious endeavors to get his pay, his J these prices are exacted ; and of. principal inq, one sixth ; if other property, one 3d. i an is connected with every cutchery, who The eldest son inherits all the arms, a p-1 explains provincial customs for the infor parel, bed. and jewels, of his father ; the 1 mation.of the magistrate.,. The only tax remainder of the property is divided equal- onjustice is a charge of 10 per, cent, on, ly into four parts, of which the widow the amount of a suit, paid by the plaintiff,, takes three, and the other children one be- but which is not exacted of the very poor. f tween them. If a father gives one of his ; Une ruPee ,s Pa,a ,or a Simons, and sons a sum of money for tne purposes of, half La TfJP ort ach bpcena io witness trade, that son returns the capital, without) es i but these also are remitted to the indi- interest, at the death of the father, to he ; f i .co,,,u, pyuria are not ai divided with the rest of ihe inheritance, 'owed, but each partj- manages his own but the gains are his own. Before a man's fause, or rets a fnend to do it for him. oropertv can be divided, the widow must f "e trial by jury has been partly intro- pay all his debts and give a portu nair all his debts and rive a portion in - alms. t ' . Theft is punished by puuing the offend er in the stocks, where he stays -till L his friends, can raise money . enough, atos ap pease the great man beside making resti tutio.. Forrepaied 6encev imprUon ment and Tetters are added.; , and .the n- V - corrigible, when no longer ablo to pay hnes, are tattooed vua a circle on the cheek, or the name of the offence on their breast. Persons thus marked, are depriv ed of civil jighis, that is, become dead in law, and are cogs igned to the class of ex ecutioners.' - Wt Capital pnn:shmei t Seldomf occur?, and almost exclusively for murder- and trea son. It is inflicted by beheading; drown ing, or-crucifixion. Killing a person of the laboring class, in the hent nt Tsfnmf . ls nunishpd hv a fi nf tor, la.a, -JU " - j v.. - n biuks,. aim proportionally up to 70 or 100 slaves, for a person of higher rank. 'If a man in-, suits another grievously, he must,. if ablei pay a proper fine.; but if very poor, hes to be led through the town with his face smeared with charcoal. A lihl is nnn. ished by inflTciins the same penaltv which would have been incurred by the fault mT justly charged upon another. But ifrthe truth of the charge be proved it-is not.-a. libel. Whoever refuses to annear hpfirr the judge, loses his cause. A husband may administer corporal I ! r- ' . punisnment to nis wile, lor encouraging ' too rrroat intimaev with nihr-mn- n- nesses. If she still remain incorrigible after a reasonable number of floggings, ho may divorce her. If a man accidentally set fire to a neigh bor's house, he is fined one third the'ral- ue of his body ; but if he was drunk. or in a violent passion at the time, he must pay the full valueof his body. A woman whose husband has gone as a soldier, mav marrv again if she hear not from him for six years : u ne went on Dusiness, seven years are required, and if on a religious object, ten. If a woman buy a man and marry him, and afterward divorce him. hd is no longer a-slave. If a father sell his child, and afterwards die possessed of- property, so much of it as is equal o -tbe.. price for which the child whs sold,n-inUKt be paid to that child in addition to Jhisf share of the inheritance. A slave sent to, ' war and captured, is free, if he esc a po and return. If a master violently beat his slave, his bond debt is reduced one third.; If death ensue, the parents of the slave may claim twice the value of his body nT1ff if thpTft bn Fin nnrf-nto that e.irn anu ii mere ue no parents, mat sum is paid to the judge.. If a slave abscond:.' from a master known to be cruel, there is no penalty for the person who receives V and harbors him. If the master has not been cruel, he may exa:t full valueof the slave's services for the time. If a man permit his runaway slave to be. maintain, ed by another during a time of scarcity, he cannot afterward claim him. A mas ter may not seize his runaway in another., village, but must notify the" head-man' near relations, one nail. Changing a landmark is.runished bva. heavy fine. Debts contracted by betting may be recovered from the loser, but .not Irom his lamily or heirs. A, man hurt in wrestling, or other athletic games, can-. j not recover damages but if he be killed. j the injurer must pay the price of his body, j A woman .-pr a child charging a man with i bodily injury, may adduce as evidence. . niarits ui vioieoce on tneir persons. ; out ii u. uiu.. Uais a Huiiittii or a cnun, the same manner, such marks are not re ceived as proof, but witnesses must be ad duced. An empty vehicle must give place, on the road, to one tliat is load-d,, and if loaded men meet, he who. has the t ufT nr hie ho n lr rv net vtrA .A ... i omcers still larger sums,, rapidly mcreas- ing in proportion to rank. in the provinces neld by the .East In- i d'a Company, a salutary change has tak i .1 i- ' . en uiuve in i.ue MUiiiiuisiraiion Ol . justice, though it is still susceptible of great im provement. .The criminaUcode is nearly like that of Bengal, and tbetivil is found ed on Burman practice, the Dam-a-that. and the Yesa-that or Raja -that, which. last is a collection of decisions, and Jaws made , . ,, . , . . ; D" successive kings. A qualified Ijurra- iduced and delights the natives. They deem thebmce of irjrymen honorable, and will' accept no pay for their services. Changes also have been made in the mode. ortaxatiOnwhich tend to 'alleviate the condition 'of the people ' though the en tire" amount assessed is about as before. " Thii will generally pay tor the house of a com" nion person. ' ; ' -I . I i v- I. I