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BAipre 5" o. TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM: ."..I AM SET FOIl THE DEFENCE OF THE GOSPEL." PAYABLE WITHIN FOUlt MONTHS, BV ORSON S. MURRAY. B R AN DON, WEDNESDAY, .MARCH 29, 1843. VOL. XV. NO. 2G. mrnrn CUT 1st i of mrdy"M li aa 1843. i For t h T I a t r a p h . jl Voluntary Political Government, VERMONT TELEGRAPH. Dear Sir .-The idea that tbe business J,cc;on of ,he murjefe(j an(j the reclamation d nil ion could be carried on if it were left u the free judgment in erery individual to .upport it or Dot as to him seemed best, must :0 doubt at first sight appear to the ordinary politician as most chimerical. But this is lie fortune of ill new ideas ; and happily reirr now-a days too much accustomed to jttr and progressive thoughts, lobe stopped suur efforts to carry them out by any such i;ourih charge. I bare no doubt if we ia succetd in attracting due attention to he subject we shall soon have the charita (c feelings and ound thought of the coun on our side. If it wete not that we are io accustomed to this present mode of life as to overlook its incongruities, disharmony iol injustice, we should be impulsed at cace to demand, " Why should we have all his complicated and costly, machinery of government ?" . The purposes and pretence, for which he representative system of government has i c:eJi', it wholly fails to secure." Nay, in nuny instances, it is the foremost actor iti taking the principles it declares it exists o maintain. It professes to be a defence Ijr person and properly. Whenever the questioned, the first prompt remark is that Ineitier p roi nor property would then be Secure. Cut how does it preserve person ? iWbose person is more secure under political 'Mui.nmpnf ihtin ti iviitil.l Ko . mil Imni 1 ' "whin. ...ni;u I Vboui does it guard ?. From whom dues warJ (iffthe consequences ofangtr, hatred, aluusy, revenge, or the many other pas sions which occasionally boil up in the hu- !)io heart and inijitl the hand to strike? jt even the very first executive tincer, .e royal or presidential head of government self is exempted from person a I assaults of Lis kind, by any govcrnme'niarpow-er. No ;wiii, g'ins, geusdarmerie, police, nor any (iih contrivance can protect a Louis Phil i;e cr a Victoria from an enemyVor a ..riijc'i hand. Still less can it accomplish trentively for the person of any private citizen. The notion or actual prevention ,iliea, quite ridiculou.. . ; But when the advocate of coercive gov ru merit is brought to this point, he admits it by actual umimte and kindly pre V jiioa the political government i alto- ,'ihfr powerless ; and that it is only by trror, by ihe force of example in the impo lon cf pain ou previous offender, that it an be of any tffecl wnaterer. Now let rational man answer the question '.eiher this U any personal protection. The head of the decapitated murderer will not fit the shoulders f my murdered brother. A man is not much benefitted by the knowl- Jge in his dying moments that his assas sin, if caught, will be hanged by the neck tntil he is dead. . No man strikes or kills another without a motive. Individual persons do not muider ur amusement, though governments and "3i ions do. And, the fact is, that terror of punishment ceases to have any effect just when it is most, needed; that is to say, !ien te passions are unduly excited. In sJ it has no. such result as prevention at iGlf time that personal safety is jeopardized. are not restrained from murder by the far of external punishment; but by the Vernal governor. Just to that degree in hich a consciousness of the Divine gov ernment is developed in the individual is he framed from destruction, violence, or rong to his neighbor. There is naotber ireventiqa of crime. We may go on, as wions have gone oo, to add capital offence ,0 capital offence, making so many crimes 1'inishable by death, that the whole code is t with human blood, and one would :"iuk the hangman had enacted the laws ; iu the way of prevention, all thisjs '.to. Nations nave done this, they have Dillon systems which" bv their spirit as e'l as by their results in the number of s r Victims, we might" suppose hid been die 'ateJ by Jack Ketch and his associates. W what has been the consequence 7 Sure I not an increased protection to person and property! No; but such an uttel repug nance to have any participation in so san CJinary a scheme that innocent victims have father been content to remain at the mercv the depraved 'than prosecate them' unto death. Coercive governments have bid high 'a blood tot popular support; but theyery "qess oi their offers has disgusted the peo ple. It is to be booed ihnt tliu I.tief will fce increased, by the growth of moral power ni perception in the nations; That it may l!ot only be applied to capital punishments, hi be extended also toecondary puoith fceots. Itevenge or retaliation is a princi J! which can not prevent crime, but must ri;ker increase it. Retaliation is itself a p'l:nf And a grosser crime than original uack. ; .; - : , U natjoas, that is to say the moral peo r ia thea, have djsccyersd, the trndency a governmental force with "respect to the prevention of personal offences. They .have discovered that an Increase of force, so far from affording an increased protection has led to a diminution of itj and that the pro- of the murderer, are alike futile by the hang insr of the- latter. A little more considera tion, will lead to the just conclusion that pain inflicted cjltr the committal of crime is altogether a failure in the prevention of pffeoces. What is true of the extremely heavy is aUo applicable to the middling and the. lighter crimes. This argument need scarcely be here fol lowed out to its further ramifications. Al though at first tight it may appear quite fanciful to assert that a force government does not, and can not, protect the subjects of its pretended solicitude, yet a moderate extent of thoughtful investigation soon opens the mind to the undeniable fact. Nay, we may go a step further, and from the recent case of Mr. Alcoit, as reported in your paper, assert that on some occasions the government itself is foremost in attack ing the sacred right of personal liberty. Because this citizen, as a man, a3 a Christ man, has conscientious scruples in doing ought in support of a government which spends the people's money on prisons, gun powder, halters and the like civilized gear, that very government lays violent hands upon him and imprisons him tor a term only shortened by its good will and pleasure. Vhy, Sir, the supposed wild and, lawless red man, whom ice have exiled from his native forests, could do nothing worse in principle thin this. He left the result of personal assault unavenged, even when it amounted to murder. So too perhaps would the untaught Irishman, and the Scotch Highlander. But nothing so bad as to at tack in a body the most meek, inoffensive, and well disposed of the community ever entered the mind3 of these 'great untaught.' But the iron-hearted system does cot limit its depressing despotism to the case of a total denial of its right divine. This is a son of high treason which might be expect ed to arouse its ire. But it also takes into its vengeance any partial denial of its puri ty, and on smaller occasions thunders forth its unrelenting anger.. When any young man,, happily conscious of the wickedness of learning to shoot Lis fellow creatures refuses to be drilled and bear deadly arm against the innocent, the guns of the-wil ling are 'pointed at his head, and long im piUonroent as the lightest expiation, follows. Such a mode, of protecting the persons of its citizen;of respecting their native feel ing?, their purest sentiments, seems abund antly curious, and difficult ef reconciliation with our intuitive moral precepts. Many. years have not elapsed since we were in a like predicament regarding the church. It is still thought in some countries that a legislative enactment, a procedure of collective man, is necessary to the due up holding of Divine Laws. Some people still think, or pretend to think, that communities and nations can be" made religious by act of parliament. We have, however, beneficial ly escaped from this unworthy predicament, and it is not a very profound foresight to prophecy that we shall soon be rid of the one In question. We prefer a" voluntary church as the only 4 rue church. We shall shortly devfse a voluntary political organiz ation as the only true slate. Humn beings, we are now convinced, can not be rendered more fit for heaven by human coercion; Neither can they, by such a contrivance, be better qualified for a true life on earth.- In fact the goodness and qualification for one are the 6ame as for the other. They both spring from one sentiment from one, state of being. They both originate in the relig ious nature in the human soul. This nature, above all others, is out of the reach of ex ternal power. Government n.ay lay hold of men's bodies; their carcasses they may imprison ; and even their minas tney may, . , , ... etu. 1 ' . ' - "'lohrtro-nhnsr whn Afr .1 rfi kiiK.serAhe . a . by education,, do something towards im pressing with particular doctrines ; and thro' public opinion some influence U occasionally produced on the sympathies and moral sen timent. But for these latter the contrivances most be very delicate, and their appliance very quiet and subtle, or they will fail of their end; And for man's reHgious being, for the inmost nature, the deepest good within, coercive government ever 4ias and tver must fail. The sensitive plant coils up not more quickly at humau touch, than does the rejigious elemenfon the application of the smallest particle of violence. Not only political government, but social force, the power of a sect, shall in vairv assault the "saeredness of soul. No; not even a parent's care ovef bis child may by force extend to this sphere. It is boly ground, and no one may stand thereon with rough shod feet. If it were safe to abandon force with respect to the maintenance oC religious be litft surely it it no less salutary lo give ft up in reference to religious conduct. All conduct Is either religious, or should be so. IT It be not, i happens becaqse force has - - r - profaned it. - If, in respect to the church, we can leave it to man's free will to sup port it by word or money, as they deem proper; most certainly we shall be right, as men are now constituted, in leaving polit ical and social economy to their good sense. Worldly minded as men are now admitted to be, it can not be probable that they would fail in supporting a system which they, tho't protected their worldly goods. Religious opinion is a thing which by "no external means men and women are compelled to declare; yet, so strong is the spontaneity ip this direction, that upon most occasions a public feeling is manifested which in cludes every one. If it be saij that maay are compelled by force of public opinion to subscribe in money and submit ia behavior, we can prove on the other hand that many are carried by a pure zeal mach beyond the point which the public voice demands ; and it is in fact that perpetually fresh ze'al which is ever creating and keeping alive the public opinion which is said to draw in the lukewarm. May we not then boldly ask whether it is probable that men who aie so ready to main tain the things which are unseen, would sponianeate less in behalf of, the things which are visible? If the love of peace, of oar fellow citizens' good opinion, compels men to pay so handsomely for churches and spiritual protectors, why should such mo- tives fail of-a similar result when their persons and worldly property, which are open to all menu's eyes are concerned? It is not possible that men of properly would neglect an institution which protected their propertyraoy more than they now neglect to insure against loss by Hie without an external force to compel them. It is clear, ihen, that this argument entirely fails. No one believes in its validity. At all event? if the government itself had any faith in ibis imaginary axiom that it the govern ment is necessary, for the protection of person and property, its members would at once give up all coercion employed for its maintenance, .and rely on the self-interest of persons and of property-holders for sup port. . This low motive of ielf fnterest would singly be sufficient to bring in all needful supplies, if there were any veracity in.it. But, there 13 not. And, however axiomatical, or self evidently true, this sen timent may once have beenir is now worn oo and should be discarded. It has no more now a legitimate place amongst us than our great-grand father' three-cornered b.3ts and tye-wigs which kept iheir heads so warm. , ' , Much more may beaid, and I apprehend, from the deep-seated position of this delus ion, must be said, in order to awaken man kind to a due sense of their degradation and loss; but possibly for this occasion I have said enough, in shall succeed ia calling the attention of thinkers to the subject, some of them, will perhaps find leisure either to confirm or disprove the position I am en deavoring to establish. In tha mean time I remain, dear sir, r . Yours, very respectfully, c. l. . Concord, Mass., Feb. 21, IS 13. For the Telegraphy Extracts from a better from a Friend In regard to God's will being the stand ard of right, I fully sympathize with thee; Man cannot rationally conceive of any thing as existing, before God his Creator and the Creator of all things. How then can he conceive of any other righteous ness than obedience to his. will? That God has made our duty to Him consistent ith our highest happiness, ihere can W no doubt. It is strange thereforethat man does not love purity, that it should "not be his ruling motive, but so it is ; we ha e strayed widely from our best path, and are so bewildered in general by self ishness that we do not know the way ; hnt top ran L-nnw'it hv tnrniii'" inward w ' w - w l3- way, is Ao be fonnd. He is the Word also, -which is declared to be with'in us; for the Word is pig h thee, even in thy liearl and in thv mouth." So that as far as morality is concerned we can never be at a loss, tv hen we are honest. Yet there are circumstances at times occurring, with J regard to which the various judgments of mankind would lead to different modes of operation to effect tho same -objects ; .but even bere, a ready attention to the Light vithirt,--a quick perception of the inspeak- f !.. jr ' . mg v oru i uucii a yery greai ueip, v much so that 1 believe there would rare U'j if everjbe any distressing mistake made in business, or any cause, of grea't suffer-i ingwere we thoroughly acquainted with tho Volte which is to be heard among the trees in the garden. the propensities which God formed in Man, and commanded him to dress and to keep (in order.). " -Priestcraft, ibigotryi sectarianism" and dogmatism' are thceffects of a non.ac quaintance with this inward yofce. They - r t ' . " .''- - are all for urging people along in the darkness which they themselves dwell in. ",.;. . v ' ' ; Vy ," v; .: Is it cot on the Rock of Revelation that the-ChuTcb of Christ. is built? "Blessed art thou Simon Barjona, for flesh and blood hath not revealed this unto thee, but my Faiher which is in Heaven, And I say also unto thee that thou art Peter, and upon this Rock will I "build- my Church." It is a pity we havd not a more clear translation ' of -this passage A3 it i?, it only tends to confuse the mind,' baring inconsistent with his other doctrines. Consistency would place it thus. This has been made known to thee ,by inward revetationt and thou art Peter, which sig nifies a rock, but upon this Rock of Reve lation will I build my church, and the gates of hell shall not be able to prevail against it. : - The 19:h verse I understand to mean nothing more than a few words of such encouragement, as Pecers loving yet un stable heart seemed to need and deserve, to go forward in the strength of the Lord, trusting that whatever' passion he sub dued, the Holy Spirit would assist him m keeping it under foot; and whatever jhands he broke God would help him to destroy utterly. This He says to all the faithful, and we -all have the same lesson to leirn ; that obedience to the revelation of God's will is tho only thing that en sures to us that power against which the gates of hell are not able to prevail. I am filly persuaded that the King dom of Christ -within man . is .the Uttle j stone cut out without .hands, which is to become a great mountain and fill the whole earth. It is also to break in pieces and consume all ether kingdoms and it shall stand forever. -". ' N. G. After-Scenes of Battle. Treatment of soldiers after their capture. . A Fanch army in Spain had no soon er grounded their arms, than multitudes were murdered in cold blood. Some were burnt alive, "v.jii all the survivors subjected to a series cf such5d&ferivations and sufferings as thinned theTrWnks with fear ful, rapidity. 'Fatigue and insufficient provision says one of the victims, ' ren dered many incapable of rising after a night's -halt, to renew their march, and dawn exhibited to us the . btiffened limbs of numbers whom death had released from their troubles. The survivors were so gaunt and emaciated, that a poor fellow would drop to the earth - in the extremity of weariness and despair. No effort was made to assist these sufferers; but they ! were either left behind to perish, or bay oneted on the spot. On our arrival at St. Lucariwe were -thrown, some of us into prison-ships, and others into stinking case ments. H ere the extremity of our anguish exceeded all power of description. With scarce strength enough to crawl to our detestable dungeons, many of us reached them only to lie down, and die broken hearted : and ihe fire was so wretched as I ...... x -. . f .. to be refused in many cases by men faint ing Avith weariness, and famished with hunger. We were not only crowded to gether like cattle, amidst vermin and pes tilential effluvia, but treated with such un relenting severity, that many of my com panions sought refuge from their misery by plunging into the sea When landed on the desolate island of Cabrera, we were exposed lo every species of privation." . Without shelter, or suffi cient clothing, or a regular supply of food, we sometimes resorted to grass and dust to answer the wants of nature. A great many died; and we buried them immedi ately in the sea, under the horrible appre hension that, should their bodies, remain before us, the savage loniniis of the can- .... w w - O nital would rise in out hearts. A cuir assier was in fact killed for food by a Pole, who was discovered and shot. He con fessed he had before done the same by two other comrades. Treatment of citizens. -A the French arroy on their march' to Moscow approach ed Rouza we met,'' says one of them, "a TPnn I m tin. f n V. wn i. V , lot V TT f t O cavalry, loaded with children, the aged, and the infirm. In Dur advance, to the centre of the town, we found soldiers pil lagiog lhelioase5, regardless of the cries of those to whom they belonged, or the tears of mothers, who, to softer! their hearts, showed them their children on their knees. Those innocen's, with their hands clasped' and bathed in tears, asked onlyhat their lives might be spared. In another instance we saw, on one side, a son carrying a sick faiher, and on the other, women pouring the torrent of their tears upon the infants whom they clasped to their bosoms. They were followed by most of their children, who, fearful of be ing lost, ran crying after their mothers. Old men, "seldom ablo tcr follow their fam ilies, laid themselves down la die near the houses where, they were bo nr. On our return from Moscow, we overtook crowds carrying off their infirm parents. Thtirr norses having been taken from them by the troops, men, and even women, were harnessed to the carts which contained the wrecks of their property, and the dearest objects of their affection. The children were nearly naked, and as the soldiers ap proached them, ran cryinglo throw them selves into their brothers' arms." . Erasmus. v Calais, March 7, 1813. . Left hoir.e on Saturday, the 4th, at a lit tle past 9, A. M., on runners. Had pre viously fjltsome hesitation about trusting the snow, my tour being laid out for two weeks, extending to past the-middle 'of the month. But when the time came to start, the weather was so verymuch like mid winter, and the snow path so good, and promised so much permanence, I ventur ed with the sleigh, taking in saddle, bridle and other horse back fixtures, in prepara tion for a thaw. But the cold is as yet lit tle or nothing abated. The sun has shone almost constantly,, during the day time, since ! lef. home -but with very little im pression on the snow. The .wind has continued from the north with much se verity.. The sleighing was excellent from Brandon to Williston with little exception. It was the most worn in and about the village of Bristol, for a mile or two. There has been arr animal excitement there for several weeks past, that has very much used up the sleighing, as well as the com mon sense of the people. " From Williston to Bolton,' the wind has blown the snow, so that the ground is bare in many places. Tho stajre runs on wheels from one of these places to the other. Sleighs run cn the south side of the River ; but some of the hills are bare, which makes it severe Iravelling. iThe snow is thin, and much worn iojhe road, through Waterbury and Middlesex to Montpelier. From Montpe lier to this place, the snow is abundant. . At Williston, ' . I lectured to good audiences, intbe Town House a new' and convenient building, and a neat, plain and beautiful piece of architecture on Sabbath, during the day and efening. There are numerous free spirits in this place, who cannot be shack led with sectarianism, or led captive by a crafty priesthood. Blight spots they are in the midst of surrounding, darkness health in the midst of spreading contagion order in the midst of turmoil and confus ion love in the midst of enmity and ha tred pence surrounded by fighting and war plenty and fulness in the midst of dearth and starvation enjoyment of the true riches surrounded by feeding on husks and wind contentment and happiness in the midst of surrounding ' agony and wretchedness calmness and quietness in the midst of tossing billows and tumultu ous elements light and life in th midst of darkness and death. V From Williston I came to Calais, yes terday. Am to lecture here this evening. Am now under the iidspitable roof of Na thaniel Eaton, a man of great liberality and independence of mind -a sweet and biessed spirit-- a standing rebuke to vio lent, angry materialists. The Second Ad vent rage and wbiilwind has swept," like .... . a blighting tornado, over the northern part of Vermont, generally. - The "region in which I am now situated has been madej to feel its effrcts severely. I intend to take length, soon. - Allow me now, far the balance of this communication, to step aside and call at tention to an article which I had not time to review, as I wished to do, before leav ing home. I fcave only time barely to glance at Us main features. The princi pal object is to place it on record, as a part of the history of the tfmes. The. same subject has already been introduced into the Telegraph, from the same quarter. Readtbe followiogthen.ifyou please.from the N. Y. Baptist Register of February 10th. I append to it a few brief remarks : ' A UlSTROSPECT OP 1SJU2, 'The commencement of a new volumo very naturally prompts to the - retrospect of the great events which have transpired during Ihe year that has passed, With some of its peculiar charactertic. Tho -year opened with great anxtttj' "on the part of the peace-loving inhabitants both of England and the United States. The accumulation of obstacles to the pacific arrangement of difficulties between the. two countries had become fearful. Testy spirits were fanning the embers- of strife with an alarming zeaf. Although Mc- Leod had been disposed of by our judicial tribunal, the English prints were but illy satisfied with the assumntion cf State sov ereignty. The Caroline and Creole.with the invasions of our commercial vessels on the coast of Africa, furnished, exciting topics at the capitol, and the feverish con- anion ot unngs online nortneastern pouti dary "gave a mighty addition to the hear. I he entire horizon seemed to be lighting up with the bfazj of. the war-fires. It appeared impossible, to be sure, that" two) such intelligent nations, hound together by the ties of kiudrea ana interest, could -be guihy of such lunacy as to dash into the madness of war ; and yet the difficul- ties had become so entangledand unrTiani''t ageable, tne ultimaratio regun -the ast resort cf kings appeared almost inevita- ble. :;V';..:'':"V y - V;'.:.-:-;:: ... In this peculiar juncture the announce-' ment was heard from the other side of,the Atlantic, that an Envoy Extraordinary had been appointed by the British Cabi net, to negotiate, if possible, .a? settlement of difficulties. In a few Vceekshhecon- firinaiion of the fact was realized in ths ' arrival of Lord Ashburton -one of the most acceptable men who could hare been selected for.he high trust. The confi dence reposed in him a3 to bis friendly feelings, and in the high qualifications of Mr. Webster, the Secretary cf State, fof the management cf so complicated a mat ter, was not disappointed. The frankness arid kind feelings of the former, with the masterly powers of the latter properly di rected, soon dispelled the embarrassments, and brought all difficulties to an amicable and honorable termination ; imposing a lasting debt of gratitude on both nations to ihese two wise diploiTialists- and pre senliag an example for all future states men to follow. The. facilities afforded by the President for this blessed consum mation, entitled him likewise to ho small share of praise, and will secure to his adv ministration a brillnnt page iu the his-, lory of our country. Nu transaction of equal importance is to be found ou our national records during the preset.t cen tury. Its importance can only be proper ly i estimated by a consideration of tho frightful consequences of a" rupture be tween the countries. . "Who could estimate the blood and car nage that would have followed ; the des truction of public and private property'; ihe national and individual embarrass ment; the multiplication of widows and -orphans," and the utter subversion of pub- . lie morals ? Who could estimate the dis aster to all benevolent enterprises- our foreign mission and Bible operations; the obstruction to Christian intercourse; and the impediment to the cause of Christ generally. The one competent to this can form some tolerable conception of the1 blessed results of this pacific arrange ment. Among the memorable events on which Christians should look back with peculiar feeling?, and for which their de vout thanksgiving- should ascend" to. the Father . of mercies, is the Washington , treaty, cf 1842. Besides England "and America, no other natio'n except the Dutch, and cf them a mere handful, are doing anything to evangelizs the millions in the depth of moral nigh Had war ensued between these two great nations," it, would seem as if the great lamps of the world had gone out. Another wonderful event, for which the past year will - be memorable, is tbe t reaiy of peace between England a nd China a nation the most ancient. and populous on the globe, esteemingherself invincible, and indulging contempt for all , others ; proudly shutting herself up against all ordinary intercourse,' and of fering insult to all with perfect impunity-. That such a nation within tho ahort space of two years should have had her pride and self-importance so humbled as to sue for a cessation of hostilities, and ratify a tieaty of peace dictated bynn adversary ; consenting to pay millions out of her cof fers to reimburse her foe; opening her most important ports ta his commerce; and surrendering to him the 'perpetual possession and sovereignty of one of her most commanding and valuable" islands ! is an epoch in the history of the world. it or centuries she bad enclosed fcer3elf within a frownins barrier, which made it curiosity to transgress, and by"6peci3lf, yor only naa sne permitted commercial intercourse with foreigners without tbrf walls of Canton. By her singular ex clusiveness, her perplexing literature,' mighty popu Utioa and great antiquity i she had long been the topic of grave and curious speculation. Various plans had been devised fir securing, access to the secrets of her interior ; and Christian philanthropists had been on the lookout nor some safe avenue of free intercourse with the people; but the vast multitude seemed to be placed beyond their reach. Missionaries had commenced their efforts on her borders, or here and titers in some little contracted spots which a temporarv and uncertain arrangement of merchant 1 1