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' - V.
VOL. XV. NO. 2G.
i of
mrdy"M li aa 1843.
For t h T I a t r a p h .
jl Voluntary Political Government,
Dear Sir .-The idea that tbe business J,cc;on of ,he murjefe(j an(j the reclamation
d nil ion could be carried on if it were left
u the free judgment in erery individual to
.upport it or Dot as to him seemed best, must
:0 doubt at first sight appear to the ordinary
politician as most chimerical. But this is
lie fortune of ill new ideas ; and happily
reirr now-a days too much accustomed to
jttr and progressive thoughts, lobe stopped
suur efforts to carry them out by any such
i;ourih charge. I bare no doubt if we
ia succetd in attracting due attention to
he subject we shall soon have the charita
(c feelings and ound thought of the coun
on our side. If it wete not that we are
io accustomed to this present mode of life
as to overlook its incongruities, disharmony
iol injustice, we should be impulsed at
cace to demand, " Why should we have all
his complicated and costly, machinery of
government ?" .
The purposes and pretence, for which
he representative system of government has
c:eJi', it wholly fails to secure." Nay, in
nuny instances, it is the foremost actor iti
taking the principles it declares it exists
o maintain. It professes to be a defence
Ijr person and properly. Whenever the
questioned, the first prompt remark is that
Ineitier p roi nor property would then be
Secure. Cut how does it preserve person ?
iWbose person is more secure under political
'Mui.nmpnf ihtin ti iviitil.l Ko . mil Imni 1
' "whin. ...ni;u I
Vboui does it guard ?. From whom dues
warJ (iffthe consequences ofangtr, hatred,
aluusy, revenge, or the many other pas
sions which occasionally boil up in the hu-
!)io heart and inijitl the hand to strike?
jt even the very first executive tincer,
.e royal or presidential head of government
self is exempted from person a I assaults of
Lis kind, by any govcrnme'niarpow-er. No
;wiii, g'ins, geusdarmerie, police, nor any
(iih contrivance can protect a Louis Phil
i;e cr a Victoria from an enemyVor a
..riijc'i hand. Still less can it accomplish
trentively for the person of any private
citizen. The notion or actual prevention
,iliea, quite ridiculou.. . ;
But when the advocate of coercive gov
ru merit is brought to this point, he admits
it by actual umimte and kindly pre
jiioa the political government i alto-
,'ihfr powerless ; and that it is only by
trror, by ihe force of example in the impo
lon cf pain ou previous offender, that it
an be of any tffecl wnaterer. Now let
rational man answer the question
'.eiher this U any personal protection.
The head of the decapitated murderer will
not fit the shoulders f my murdered brother.
A man is not much benefitted by the knowl-
Jge in his dying moments that his assas
sin, if caught, will be hanged by the neck
tntil he is dead. .
No man strikes or kills another without a
motive. Individual persons do not muider
ur amusement, though governments and
"3i ions do. And, the fact is, that terror of
punishment ceases to have any effect just
when it is most, needed; that is to say,
!ien te passions are unduly excited. In
sJ it has no. such result as prevention at
iGlf time that personal safety is jeopardized.
are not restrained from murder by the
far of external punishment; but by the
Vernal governor. Just to that degree in
hich a consciousness of the Divine gov
ernment is developed in the individual is he
framed from destruction, violence, or
rong to his neighbor. There is naotber
ireventiqa of crime. We may go on, as
wions have gone oo, to add capital offence
,0 capital offence, making so many crimes
1'inishable by death, that the whole code is
t with human blood, and one would
:"iuk the hangman had enacted the laws ;
iu the way of prevention, all thisjs
'.to. Nations nave done this, they have
Dillon systems which" bv their spirit as
e'l as by their results in the number of
s r
Victims, we might" suppose hid been die
'ateJ by Jack Ketch and his associates.
W what has been the consequence 7 Sure
I not an increased protection to person and
property! No; but such an uttel repug
nance to have any participation in so san
CJinary a scheme that innocent victims have
father been content to remain at the mercv
the depraved 'than prosecate them' unto
death. Coercive governments have bid high
'a blood tot popular support; but theyery
"qess oi their offers has disgusted the peo
ple. It is to be booed ihnt tliu I.tief will
fce increased, by the growth of moral power
ni perception in the nations; That it may
l!ot only be applied to capital punishments,
hi be extended also toecondary puoith
fceots. Itevenge or retaliation is a princi
J! which can not prevent crime, but must
ri;ker increase it. Retaliation is itself a
p'l:nf And a grosser crime than original
uack. ; .; - : ,
U natjoas, that is to say the moral peo
r ia thea, have djsccyersd, the trndency
a governmental force with "respect to the
prevention of personal offences. They .have
discovered that an Increase of force, so far
from affording an increased protection has
led to a diminution of itj and that the pro-
of the murderer, are alike futile by the hang
insr of the- latter. A little more considera
tion, will lead to the just conclusion that
pain inflicted cjltr the committal of crime
is altogether a failure in the prevention of
pffeoces. What is true of the extremely
heavy is aUo applicable to the middling and
the. lighter crimes.
This argument need scarcely be here fol
lowed out to its further ramifications. Al
though at first tight it may appear quite
fanciful to assert that a force government
does not, and can not, protect the subjects
of its pretended solicitude, yet a moderate
extent of thoughtful investigation soon opens
the mind to the undeniable fact.
Nay, we may go a step further, and from
the recent case of Mr. Alcoit, as reported
in your paper, assert that on some occasions
the government itself is foremost in attack
ing the sacred right of personal liberty.
Because this citizen, as a man, a3 a Christ
man, has conscientious scruples in doing
ought in support of a government which
spends the people's money on prisons, gun
powder, halters and the like civilized gear,
that very government lays violent hands
upon him and imprisons him tor a term only
shortened by its good will and pleasure.
Vhy, Sir, the supposed wild and, lawless
red man, whom ice have exiled from his
native forests, could do nothing worse in
principle thin this. He left the result of
personal assault unavenged, even when it
amounted to murder. So too perhaps would
the untaught Irishman, and the Scotch
Highlander. But nothing so bad as to at
tack in a body the most meek, inoffensive,
and well disposed of the community ever
entered the mind3 of these 'great untaught.'
But the iron-hearted system does cot
limit its depressing despotism to the case of
a total denial of its right divine. This is a
son of high treason which might be expect
ed to arouse its ire. But it also takes into
its vengeance any partial denial of its puri
ty, and on smaller occasions thunders forth
its unrelenting anger.. When any young
man,, happily conscious of the wickedness
of learning to shoot Lis fellow creatures
refuses to be drilled and bear deadly arm
against the innocent, the guns of the-wil
ling are 'pointed at his head, and long im
piUonroent as the lightest expiation, follows.
Such a mode, of protecting the persons of
its citizen;of respecting their native feel
ing?, their purest sentiments, seems abund
antly curious, and difficult ef reconciliation
with our intuitive moral precepts.
Many. years have not elapsed since we
were in a like predicament regarding the
church. It is still thought in some countries
that a legislative enactment, a procedure of
collective man, is necessary to the due up
holding of Divine Laws. Some people still
think, or pretend to think, that communities
and nations can be" made religious by act of
parliament. We have, however, beneficial
ly escaped from this unworthy predicament,
and it is not a very profound foresight to
prophecy that we shall soon be rid of the
one In question. We prefer a" voluntary
church as the only 4 rue church. We shall
shortly devfse a voluntary political organiz
ation as the only true slate. Humn beings,
we are now convinced, can not be rendered
more fit for heaven by human coercion;
Neither can they, by such a contrivance, be
better qualified for a true life on earth.- In
fact the goodness and qualification for one
are the 6ame as for the other. They both
spring from one sentiment from one, state
of being. They both originate in the relig
ious nature in the human soul. This nature,
above all others, is out of the reach of ex
ternal power. Government n.ay lay hold
of men's bodies; their carcasses they may
imprison ; and even their minas tney may, . , , ... etu.
1 ' . ' - "'lohrtro-nhnsr whn Afr .1 rfi kiiK.serAhe
. a .
by education,, do something towards im
pressing with particular doctrines ; and thro'
public opinion some influence U occasionally
produced on the sympathies and moral sen
timent. But for these latter the contrivances
most be very delicate, and their appliance
very quiet and subtle, or they will fail of
their end; And for man's reHgious being,
for the inmost nature, the deepest good
within, coercive government ever 4ias and
tver must fail. The sensitive plant coils
up not more quickly at humau touch, than
does the rejigious elemenfon the application
of the smallest particle of violence. Not
only political government, but social force,
the power of a sect, shall in vairv assault
the "saeredness of soul. No; not even a
parent's care ovef bis child may by force
extend to this sphere. It is boly ground,
and no one may stand thereon with rough
shod feet.
If it were safe to abandon force with
respect to the maintenance oC religious be
litft surely it it no less salutary lo give ft
up in reference to religious conduct. All
conduct Is either religious, or should be so.
IT It be not, i happens becaqse force has
- - r -
profaned it. - If, in respect to the church,
we can leave it to man's free will to sup
port it by word or money, as they deem
proper; most certainly we shall be right, as
men are now constituted, in leaving polit
ical and social economy to their good sense.
Worldly minded as men are now admitted
to be, it can not be probable that they would
fail in supporting a system which they, tho't
protected their worldly goods. Religious
opinion is a thing which by "no external
means men and women are compelled to
declare; yet, so strong is the spontaneity
ip this direction, that upon most occasions
a public feeling is manifested which in
cludes every one. If it be saij that maay
are compelled by force of public opinion to
subscribe in money and submit ia behavior,
we can prove on the other hand that many
are carried by a pure zeal mach beyond the
point which the public voice demands ; and
it is in fact that perpetually fresh ze'al
which is ever creating and keeping alive
the public opinion which is said to draw in
the lukewarm.
May we not then boldly ask whether it is
probable that men who aie so ready to main
tain the things which are unseen, would
sponianeate less in behalf of, the things
which are visible? If the love of peace, of
oar fellow citizens' good opinion, compels
men to pay so handsomely for churches and
spiritual protectors, why should such mo-
tives fail of-a similar result when their
persons and worldly property, which are
open to all menu's eyes are concerned? It
is not possible that men of properly would
neglect an institution which protected their
propertyraoy more than they now neglect
to insure against loss by Hie without an
external force to compel them. It is clear,
ihen, that this argument entirely fails. No
one believes in its validity. At all event?
if the government itself had any faith in
ibis imaginary axiom that it the govern
ment is necessary, for the protection of
person and property, its members would at
once give up all coercion employed for its
maintenance, .and rely on the self-interest
of persons and of property-holders for sup
port. . This low motive of ielf fnterest
would singly be sufficient to bring in all
needful supplies, if there were any veracity
in.it. But, there 13 not. And, however
axiomatical, or self evidently true, this sen
timent may once have beenir is now worn
oo and should be discarded. It has no
more now a legitimate place amongst us
than our great-grand father' three-cornered
b.3ts and tye-wigs which kept iheir heads
so warm. , ' ,
Much more may beaid, and I apprehend,
from the deep-seated position of this delus
ion, must be said, in order to awaken man
kind to a due sense of their degradation and
loss; but possibly for this occasion I have
said enough, in shall succeed ia calling
the attention of thinkers to the subject, some
of them, will perhaps find leisure either to
confirm or disprove the position I am en
deavoring to establish. In tha mean time I
remain, dear sir, r .
Yours, very respectfully, c. l.
. Concord, Mass., Feb. 21, IS 13.
For the Telegraphy
Extracts from a better from a Friend
In regard to God's will being the stand
ard of right, I fully sympathize with thee;
Man cannot rationally conceive of any
thing as existing, before God his Creator
and the Creator of all things. How then
can he conceive of any other righteous
ness than obedience to his. will? That
God has made our duty to Him consistent
ith our highest happiness, ihere can W
no doubt. It is strange thereforethat
man does not love purity, that it should
"not be his ruling motive, but so it is ; we
ha e strayed widely from our best path,
and are so bewildered in general by self
ishness that we do not know the way ;
hnt top ran L-nnw'it hv tnrniii'" inward
w ' w - w l3-
way, is Ao be fonnd. He is the Word
also, -which is declared to be with'in us;
for the Word is pig h thee, even in thy
liearl and in thv mouth." So that as far
as morality is concerned we can never be
at a loss, tv hen we are honest. Yet there
are circumstances at times occurring, with J
regard to which the various judgments of
mankind would lead to different modes of
operation to effect tho same -objects ; .but
even bere, a ready attention to the Light
vithirt,--a quick perception of the inspeak-
f !.. jr ' .
mg v oru i uucii a yery greai ueip, v
much so that 1 believe there would rare
U'j if everjbe any distressing mistake made
in business, or any cause, of grea't suffer-i
ingwere we thoroughly acquainted with
tho Volte which is to be heard among the
trees in the garden. the propensities which
God formed in Man, and commanded him
to dress and to keep (in order.). " -Priestcraft,
ibigotryi sectarianism" and
dogmatism' are thceffects of a non.ac
quaintance with this inward yofce. They
- r t ' . " .''- -
are all for urging people along in the
darkness which they themselves dwell
in. ",.;. . v ' ' ; Vy ," v; .:
Is it cot on the Rock of Revelation that
the-ChuTcb of Christ. is built? "Blessed
art thou Simon Barjona, for flesh and
blood hath not revealed this unto thee, but
my Faiher which is in Heaven, And I
say also unto thee that thou art Peter,
and upon this Rock will I "build- my
Church." It is a pity we havd not a
more clear translation ' of -this passage
A3 it i?, it only tends to confuse the mind,'
baring inconsistent with his other doctrines.
Consistency would place it thus. This
has been made known to thee ,by inward
revetationt and thou art Peter, which sig
nifies a rock, but upon this Rock of Reve
lation will I build my church, and the
gates of hell shall not be able to prevail
against it. : -
The 19:h verse I understand to mean
nothing more than a few words of such
encouragement, as Pecers loving yet un
stable heart seemed to need and deserve,
to go forward in the strength of the Lord,
trusting that whatever' passion he sub
dued, the Holy Spirit would assist him
m keeping it under foot; and whatever
jhands he broke God would help him to
destroy utterly. This He says to all the
faithful, and we -all have the same lesson
to leirn ; that obedience to the revelation
of God's will is tho only thing that en
sures to us that power against which the
gates of hell are not able to prevail.
I am filly persuaded that the King
dom of Christ -within man . is .the Uttle j
stone cut out without .hands, which is to
become a great mountain and fill the
whole earth. It is also to break in pieces
and consume all ether kingdoms and it
shall stand forever. -". ' N. G.
After-Scenes of Battle.
Treatment of soldiers after their capture.
. A Fanch army in Spain had no soon
er grounded their arms, than multitudes
were murdered in cold blood. Some were
burnt alive, "v.jii all the survivors subjected
to a series cf such5d&ferivations and
sufferings as thinned theTrWnks with fear
ful, rapidity. 'Fatigue and insufficient
provision says one of the victims, ' ren
dered many incapable of rising after a
night's -halt, to renew their march, and
dawn exhibited to us the . btiffened limbs
of numbers whom death had released from
their troubles. The survivors were so
gaunt and emaciated, that a poor fellow
would drop to the earth - in the extremity
of weariness and despair. No effort was
made to assist these sufferers; but they !
were either left behind to perish, or bay
oneted on the spot. On our arrival at St.
Lucariwe were -thrown, some of us into
prison-ships, and others into stinking case
ments. H ere the extremity of our anguish
exceeded all power of description. With
scarce strength enough to crawl to our
detestable dungeons, many of us reached
them only to lie down, and die broken
hearted : and ihe fire was so wretched as
I ...... x -. . f ..
to be refused in many cases by men faint
ing Avith weariness, and famished with
hunger. We were not only crowded to
gether like cattle, amidst vermin and pes
tilential effluvia, but treated with such un
relenting severity, that many of my com
panions sought refuge from their misery
by plunging into the sea
When landed on the desolate island of
Cabrera, we were exposed lo every species
of privation." . Without shelter, or suffi
cient clothing, or a regular supply of food,
we sometimes resorted to grass and dust
to answer the wants of nature. A great
many died; and we buried them immedi
ately in the sea, under the horrible appre
hension that, should their bodies, remain
before us, the savage loniniis of the can-
.... w w - O
nital would rise in out hearts. A cuir
assier was in fact killed for food by a Pole,
who was discovered and shot. He con
fessed he had before done the same by
two other comrades.
Treatment of citizens. -A the French
arroy on their march' to Moscow approach
ed Rouza we met,'' says one of them, "a
TPnn I m tin. f n V. wn i. V , lot V TT f t O
cavalry, loaded with children, the aged,
and the infirm. In Dur advance, to the
centre of the town, we found soldiers pil
lagiog lhelioase5, regardless of the cries
of those to whom they belonged, or the
tears of mothers, who, to softer! their
hearts, showed them their children on
their knees. Those innocen's, with their
hands clasped' and bathed in tears, asked
onlyhat their lives might be spared. In
another instance we saw, on one side, a
son carrying a sick faiher, and on the
other, women pouring the torrent of their
tears upon the infants whom they clasped
to their bosoms. They were followed by
most of their children, who, fearful of be
ing lost, ran crying after their mothers.
Old men, "seldom ablo tcr follow their fam
ilies, laid themselves down la die near the
houses where, they were bo nr. On our
return from Moscow, we overtook crowds
carrying off their infirm parents. Thtirr
norses having been taken from them by
the troops, men, and even women, were
harnessed to the carts which contained the
wrecks of their property, and the dearest
objects of their affection. The children
were nearly naked, and as the soldiers ap
proached them, ran cryinglo throw them
selves into their brothers' arms."
. Erasmus.
v Calais, March 7, 1813. .
Left hoir.e on Saturday, the 4th, at a lit
tle past 9, A. M., on runners. Had pre
viously fjltsome hesitation about trusting
the snow, my tour being laid out for two
weeks, extending to past the-middle 'of the
month. But when the time came to start,
the weather was so verymuch like mid
winter, and the snow path so good, and
promised so much permanence, I ventur
ed with the sleigh, taking in saddle, bridle
and other horse back fixtures, in prepara
tion for a thaw. But the cold is as yet lit
tle or nothing abated. The sun has shone
almost constantly,, during the day time,
since ! lef. home -but with very little im
pression on the snow. The .wind has
continued from the north with much se
verity.. The sleighing was excellent from
Brandon to Williston with little exception.
It was the most worn in and about the
village of Bristol, for a mile or two.
There has been arr animal excitement there
for several weeks past, that has very much
used up the sleighing, as well as the com
mon sense of the people. " From Williston
to Bolton,' the wind has blown the snow,
so that the ground is bare in many places.
Tho stajre runs on wheels from one of
these places to the other. Sleighs run cn
the south side of the River ; but some of
the hills are bare, which makes it severe
Iravelling. iThe snow is thin, and much
worn iojhe road, through Waterbury and
Middlesex to Montpelier. From Montpe
lier to this place, the snow is abundant.
. At Williston, '
. I lectured to good audiences, intbe Town
House a new' and convenient building,
and a neat, plain and beautiful piece of
architecture on Sabbath, during the day
and efening. There are numerous free
spirits in this place, who cannot be shack
led with sectarianism, or led captive by a
crafty priesthood. Blight spots they are
in the midst of surrounding, darkness
health in the midst of spreading contagion
order in the midst of turmoil and confus
ion love in the midst of enmity and ha
tred pence surrounded by fighting and
war plenty and fulness in the midst of
dearth and starvation enjoyment of the
true riches surrounded by feeding on husks
and wind contentment and happiness in
the midst of surrounding ' agony and
wretchedness calmness and quietness in
the midst of tossing billows and tumultu
ous elements light and life in th midst
of darkness and death. V
From Williston I came to Calais, yes
terday. Am to lecture here this evening.
Am now under the iidspitable roof of Na
thaniel Eaton, a man of great liberality
and independence of mind -a sweet and
biessed spirit-- a standing rebuke to vio
lent, angry materialists. The Second Ad
vent rage and wbiilwind has swept," like
.... .
a blighting tornado, over the northern part
of Vermont, generally. - The "region in
which I am now situated has been madej
to feel its effrcts severely. I intend to take
length, soon. -
Allow me now, far the balance of this
communication, to step aside and call at
tention to an article which I had not time
to review, as I wished to do, before leav
ing home. I fcave only time barely to
glance at Us main features. The princi
pal object is to place it on record, as a part
of the history of the tfmes. The. same
subject has already been introduced into
the Telegraph, from the same quarter.
Readtbe followiogthen.ifyou please.from
the N. Y. Baptist Register of February
10th. I append to it a few brief remarks :
'The commencement of a new volumo
very naturally prompts to the - retrospect
of the great events which have transpired
during Ihe year that has passed, With
some of its peculiar charactertic. Tho -year
opened with great anxtttj' "on the
part of the peace-loving inhabitants both
of England and the United States. The
accumulation of obstacles to the pacific
arrangement of difficulties between the.
two countries had become fearful. Testy
spirits were fanning the embers- of strife
with an alarming zeaf. Although Mc-
Leod had been disposed of by our judicial
tribunal, the English prints were but illy
satisfied with the assumntion cf State sov
ereignty. The Caroline and Creole.with
the invasions of our commercial vessels
on the coast of Africa, furnished, exciting
topics at the capitol, and the feverish con-
anion ot unngs online nortneastern pouti
dary "gave a mighty addition to the hear.
I he entire horizon seemed to be lighting
up with the bfazj of. the war-fires. It
appeared impossible, to be sure, that" two)
such intelligent nations, hound together
by the ties of kiudrea ana interest, could -be
guihy of such lunacy as to dash into
the madness of war ; and yet the difficul-
ties had become so entangledand unrTiani''t
ageable, tne ultimaratio regun -the ast
resort cf kings appeared almost inevita-
ble. :;V';..:'':"V y - V;'.:.-:-;:: ...
In this peculiar juncture the announce-'
ment was heard from the other side of,the
Atlantic, that an Envoy Extraordinary
had been appointed by the British Cabi
net, to negotiate, if possible, .a? settlement
of difficulties. In a few Vceekshhecon-
firinaiion of the fact was realized in ths '
arrival of Lord Ashburton -one of the
most acceptable men who could hare been
selected for.he high trust. The confi
dence reposed in him a3 to bis friendly
feelings, and in the high qualifications of
Mr. Webster, the Secretary cf State, fof
the management cf so complicated a mat
ter, was not disappointed. The frankness
arid kind feelings of the former, with the
masterly powers of the latter properly di
rected, soon dispelled the embarrassments,
and brought all difficulties to an amicable
and honorable termination ; imposing a
lasting debt of gratitude on both nations
to ihese two wise diploiTialists- and pre
senliag an example for all future states
men to follow. The. facilities afforded
by the President for this blessed consum
mation, entitled him likewise to ho small
share of praise, and will secure to his adv
ministration a brillnnt page iu the his-,
lory of our country. Nu transaction of
equal importance is to be found ou our
national records during the preset.t cen
tury. Its importance can only be proper
ly i estimated by a consideration of tho
frightful consequences of a" rupture be
tween the countries. .
"Who could estimate the blood and car
nage that would have followed ; the des
truction of public and private property';
ihe national and individual embarrass
ment; the multiplication of widows and -orphans,"
and the utter subversion of pub- .
lie morals ? Who could estimate the dis
aster to all benevolent enterprises- our
foreign mission and Bible operations;
the obstruction to Christian intercourse;
and the impediment to the cause of Christ
generally. The one competent to this
can form some tolerable conception of the1
blessed results of this pacific arrange
ment. Among the memorable events on
which Christians should look back with
peculiar feeling?, and for which their de
vout thanksgiving- should ascend" to. the
Father . of mercies, is the Washington ,
treaty, cf 1842. Besides England "and
America, no other natio'n except the Dutch,
and cf them a mere handful, are doing
anything to evangelizs the millions in the
depth of moral nigh Had war ensued
between these two great nations," it, would
seem as if the great lamps of the world
had gone out.
Another wonderful event, for which
the past year will - be memorable, is tbe
t reaiy of peace between England a nd
China a nation the most ancient. and
populous on the globe, esteemingherself
invincible, and indulging contempt for all ,
others ; proudly shutting herself up
against all ordinary intercourse,' and of
fering insult to all with perfect impunity-.
That such a nation within tho ahort space
of two years should have had her pride
and self-importance so humbled as to sue
for a cessation of hostilities, and ratify a
tieaty of peace dictated bynn adversary ;
consenting to pay millions out of her cof
fers to reimburse her foe; opening her
most important ports ta his commerce;
and surrendering to him the 'perpetual
possession and sovereignty of one of her
most commanding and valuable" islands !
is an epoch in the history of the world.
it or centuries she bad enclosed fcer3elf
within a frownins barrier, which made it
curiosity to transgress, and by"6peci3lf,
yor only naa sne permitted commercial
intercourse with foreigners without tbrf
walls of Canton. By her singular ex
clusiveness, her perplexing literature,'
mighty popu Utioa and great antiquity i
she had long been the topic of grave and
curious speculation. Various plans had
been devised fir securing, access to the
secrets of her interior ; and Christian
philanthropists had been on the lookout
nor some safe avenue of free intercourse
with the people; but the vast multitude
seemed to be placed beyond their reach.
Missionaries had commenced their efforts
on her borders, or here and titers in some
little contracted spots which a temporarv
and uncertain arrangement of merchant
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