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r THE PALLAS EXPRESS, DALLAS, TEXAS, SATURDAY, OCTOBKB 1. 1921, PA POt R 'jf' vV THE DALLAS EXPRESS, MtMTBER fipst w MfcMBER NATIONAL NEGRO PRES8 ASSOCIATION. Published every Saturday morntn. In tha year at 2(00 Swiss Avenue bv THE DALLAS KXI'ltKSS rUUMSIll NCI CIIXI'AltV. (Incorporated) Dallas. Texas. ' New Yerk OMee. Krel mm4 Krel 13 N. S6lk Mrrcl. ChlrK OWre, Fml d Fro. I, lley Hullrilae. Allantn olUee, F'reet a ad Frost, Caav ' dlrr llulldliiic lfasfcvllle offlre Frast aad Frat, lav VpeaMit-nt Life IlulldlaaV SnJSCRIPTIOSS Df ADTA5CE. One Tear... ........ Sis Months Three Months.. ....... ..13.00 1.(0 1.00 .10 Single Copy .... NOT ILK TO TUB I'l'ULIC. Any erroneous reflection upon the character, rtnnilinK "r reputation o any person, tlrin or corporation which may appear in the columns of Tht Dallas Rxpress will be Kindly cor rected iipou Ms bcmtr brotiKbt to the attention "f the publishers. Entnred at Pout Office at Dulles, Texas, as st-oonU-clnss mailer, undei Act i.' Conarresa. March 1879. IMPOHTANT. No eiibcnptions mailed for a period less then three months. Payment for same must fee Li. ' THE DALLAS EXPRESS has never hoisted the white feather, neither has It been disgraced by the yellow, streak. It Is not afflicted with the flannel mouth. It la plain, every day, sen sible, conservative newspa per, which trlma no sail ' to cttch the passing breeie; files no doubtful flag: It professes A patriotism as broad as our' country. Its love of even handed Justice ' . covers all the territory so-. cupled by the human race. This Is pretty high ground, but we live on It and are prospering. . Boys of the . press come up and stand with us. This ground Is holy, W. E. KINO. V IGNORANCE IS COSTLY. A woman a few nights ago was found crying and moaning In the' rear of hur home by neighbors who ruHhed in to see If they could ren. der any assistance to her. Upon being asked by them what ber trouble was she said that her husband, a gambler, had left her, presumably for another paramour, and had taken more than $200 which she had been saving through four or five years. When asked why she had kept so much money in her home in stead of In the bank' she replied that she could not write ber name and that the banks would not ac cept her account becaui-e of that fact. It was a pathetic case Indeed, but after all only one of a number sim ilar to it which are constantly hap pening. And, while our sympathies are with this woman In the loss of her savlngB, we may draw from her loss a profitable lesson. She la not an old woman in her dotage. She should know bow to write her name. The fact is that her husband was able to steal her money only because of the fact that she had never ben Interested enough In her pwn Improvement to learn the fundamentals of wrlt'ng and rending" and thus protect her. elf. We know that this woman has, ior the past four years be"n within sevt-n-mljutos walk of a school at which a free night school has been regularly conducted. , ' She could have attended it aa well as she could have sat supinely upon her porch and rocked and gos. slped. ' ilad ahe been able to write her name, doubtless she would have bad her money in a bank, safe from her faithless husband and every other designing person. , Her case Is only another of those countless Instances In proof of the faci that Ignorance la costly and 'that education pays. To refuse to learn as much as la possible is to willfully cast away op portunities for advancement Fad economic protection. Such occurrences aa this, always pathetic, should be stimulus enough to cause our people to be more willing to sacrifice a little time for their educational Improvement. Investment of hours In study pays large dividends and then- la no longer any real excuse for Ignor. ranee In any person. Tie greatest thing that tongue or pen can tell; Whatever his job, he always did it well. Parasites live by the labor of others. They are bniJens. Hu manity now Is cursed by too many. Don't be one. Took for rooo" instead of evil. Vor. will be happier. Work, not words will gei our Job dona. - REASON FOR BEING HOPEFUL - Those who scrutinize the happenings of this part of the United States for signs of a growing desire of its citizens for justice and fair dealing have doubtless been much encouraged by several happenings of the past few weeks. Only two or three weeks ago a mob in Knoxville, Tennessee bent on lynching a black man arrested on suspicion was repulsed only after officers of the law made known their determination to maintain the custody of their prisoner by a rain of lead which took heavy toll of its members. The suspect was freed last week after an investigation had proven him absolutely innocent. The press of the South almost unanimously has commended the action of those officers of the law. In South Carolina, week before last a Negro was lynched. In commenting upon the occurrence the Columbia State, most widely re,ad publication of that section made the following state ment: . "Civilized society existts for the prevention of the kind of civil war in communities that must soon or late follow when laws that regulate and restrain passion are ignored. When the mob forms, liberty expires. The best and the bravest may be its prey. There is no man, no matter how high his station or great the respect and affection m which he is held, who may not meet his death if he raise his hand or voice in pro test. Thousands of the wisest and best men have been murdered by mobs. When the mob is ascendent no man is safe. The evil-doer may be in the greater danger but on the scene of the mob's rule there is danger to all men. Had St. Paul not consented to St. Stephen's death, he, too, perhaps would have been stoned. If the people of South Carolina have come to that point that they can no longer Bolve their grave problems in the orderly ways that they have themselves prescribed by law, they move swiftly toward the rocks and the miseries of anarchy is the fate reserved for them." Following close upon this pronouncement comes the declara tion of a State Committee of Georgia women which states its po sition thus: "We are convinced that if there is any one crime more dan gerous than another, it is that crime which strikes at the root of, and undermines constituted authority, breaks all laws and re straints of civilization, substitutes mob violence and masked ir responsibility for established justice and deprives society of a sense of protection against barbarism. , "Therefore, we believe that no falser appeal can be made to Southern manhood than that mob violence is necessary for the protection of womanhood, or that the brutal practice of lynching and burning of human beings is an expression of chivalry. We believe that these methods are no protection to anything or any body, but that they jeopardize every right and every security that we possess. "The double standard of morals which society passively per mits is rapidly producing results that imperil the future integrity of our national life and we are persuaded that this problem can never be solved as long as there is a double standard for men and women of any race. We appeal for the creation of a public sen timent which will no longer submit to this condition, and declare ourselves for the protection of womanhood of whatever race. "We are convinced that if there is ever to be a solution of the race problem there must be an intensive and sustained cam paign to instruct whites and Negroes to respect both moral and civil law. Therefore, we recommend that all people give them selves to a definite study of these vital matters relating to jus tice and righteousness and that the press, pulpit, platform and school endeavor to lead public thought in bringing about a state of public opinion that will compel the protection of the purity of both races." Declarations such as these day for law and constituted authority on the part of those who have seemed unconcerned about the welfare of their own insti tutions. They seem to prove that slowly but surely it is coming to pass that criminality and mob violence are not sanctioned even passively by authorities and best thinkers as formerly, but that there is a growing public, opinion against them. It is good that this is so. : And, while we do not foresee the speedy end of lynching in America we realize that there can be no real move in that direc tion except at the direction of It is irom the crystallizing of ing number of quarters that we FACTS ABOUT OUR CITY DWELLERS. The Governor of Missouri recently received the report of a committee sent out to obtain facts relative to the industrial status of the Negro home life of St. Louis. The committee headed by N. C. Bruce of the School at Dal ton made a survey of 200 families picked at random. Ihe report shows the following facts: Average years lived in State, 13; regular married couples, 188; common law marriage, 12; divorces account of non-support, 7 ; male wage earners, 200, of whom 20 per cent are unemployed ; men's average wages, $23.50 a week; women wage earners, 108, earning an average of $4.25 a week, church members, 288 ; non members, 228; children of school age in schools, 128; 48 deaths in the last year under 5 years of age, 75 per cent of them being from pneumonia; among the men, 200 used tobacco in some form and 188 had used intoxicating liquor in some degree; 12 had money in bank during this depression ; 10 per cent were home owners or buying homes, and 80 males were skilled mechanics. The figures indicate," the report says, "that in St. Louis there are at present around, 10,000 Colored men out of work, through no fault of their own. It is also found that pauperisn. is relatively uncommon. As tha result of a recent survey of St. Louis as to . its Negro population, it is stated that for the Negro population, estimated at 70,000, there is one of the finest high schools in the country. There are 50 Negro physicians, 10 dentists and 10 lawyers. Oth er figures given are: "A public grammar school for everv 5,833 persons ; a church for every 2,222 people; a barber shop to every 1,400 people; a public teacher to every 280 people ; one steam laundry ; a restau rant for every 1,200; a hotel for every 23,222; two Negro-controlled life insurance companies, with a number of other Colored men in the life insurance business; three hat manufacturers; 11 real estate dealers combined in a Negro real estate exchange; a ladies' and gents', furnishing house. . These facts taken en-masse are indicative of the fact that we, even as others, fill the formula set for the average American of the laboring mass who lives in cities. And whiles it is now impossible to compare the figures fur nished in this report with those of f armer years we believe that this one will show, as nearly every other statistical report on Ne groes in the past twenty years has shown, that we are steadily making progress. Facts such as these are unseful in attempting to 'decide whether or not city life is advantageous or dangeroes for our masses who have flocked there from Southern farms. LET US KEEP THEM IN SCHOOL What effect the "Go to School" movement has had upon our people is not exactly determinable. But it is a fact that the en rollment in Negro school i at the opening was approximately 50 per cert greater than at any other time in a thirty year period. Whether the "Go to School" movement, inaugurated by the Junior Chamber of Commeir.e helped by our own agencies affect ed our people with this result or whether the shortage of the cotton crop and unemployment conditions have rendered many children ordinarily at work at this time of year free to enter school caiiot be definately stated. We do know that they ire in school. And we also realize that much advantge to the children especially is to be gained from consistently attending until It is to be hoped that parents, teachers -and all who contri bute to their control may encourage them in this in every wuy possible. -Let us keep them in school. seem proof of a desire for a better. public opinion. this opinion in an ever increas receive our added hope. the end of the school year. "BETTER THAN LYNCHING." The esteemed Atlanta Constitution, under the foregoing editorial head line, calls attention to "the case of two Negroes who have been legally tried, convicted and are awaiting sentences of death and execution for a heinous crime committed in Wayne county," and says that it "affords ad ditional Impressive proof that .recourse to the orderly process . of law is always better and more effective than lynching." There Is nothing at all the matter with the position of the Constitu tion in the foregoing. It 4s a correct one. No law-respecting and law abiding person would, for a moment, think of occupying any other. We quote further from the Constitution: "This crime was committed last Friday morning, and by 7 o'clock the following Wednesday morning the criminals had been caught, indicted by grand Jury, tried In open court at Jesup, the county seat, found guilty and returned to Jail pending execution of their sentences, which, under the law, necessarily will be death by hanging." The Tvhole proceedings passed off with dignity, order ana precision. The culprits were given a fair trial by Jury, and. society has every assur ance that this punishment will be swift and certain. Nothing less than that would satisfy the public or meet the ends of justice;, nothing more should be asked As matters stand, every citizen In- his fellow-citizens In the face with with a feeling of pride In the manner through the process of law and order. Whereas, had recourse been taken by the mob spirit, and the community disgraced by a lynching, shame and humiliation would to day be In evidence in Jesup and throughout Wayne county. The civilized, constitutional, legal That sounds fine, too, but there which the Constitution falls to refer should not be overlooked, because the conditions will become When the two Negroes referred to wero arrested, a mob gathered at Jesup, threatening violence. The sheriff of the county, instead of standing his ground and defying the mob, "took to the woods," as It were. With bis prisoners, he or his deputies fled to Savannah, where he placed them in the Chatham county Jail to escape the mob. The law "ran" from the mob; It "hid out." And that isn't all. When the mob assembled a the jail for the purpose of taking the Negroes out and lynching them the sheriffs, or his officers, permitted mem bers of It to go through the prison and see for themselves that the men they sought were not In it. And that isn't all, either. After the indictments had been returned against the Negroes they were taken from Savannah to Jesup In Just as Becret a manner as they were taken from Jesup to Savannah, for trial. The trip was made during the night. Perhaps few persons In Wayne county knew of the matter. The trial began at "sun-up," according to Associated Press dispatches, and by 8 o'clock the two men had been found guilty by the jury sitting in the case. And again that Isn't all. After the trial and conviction of the two Negroes, the sheriff or his deputies again "ran" from the mob. The Negroes were again hurriedly taken to Savannah for safe-keeping. The court didn't even take the time necessary to pronounce the sentence of death upon them, before they were hurried from the courtroom and away from town. And yet the Constitution tells us that "the whole proceedings passed off with dignity, order and precision." The proceeding may have been dig nified, but, doubtless, there Is some difference of opinion as to this state ment. It may be possible for a trial as hurried as that, and under such conditions as prevailed, to be dignified, but there is at least a good deal of doubt that It can be so. But that there were "order and precision" prob ably is true. It is possible that the trial was so orderly that only a few persons knew anything about it, and the "precision" but we'll let that pass. But here is an expression from the Constitution that we cannot quite reconcile with the situation. It says: "As matters stand every citizen in Wayne county may stand erect, look his fellow citizens in the face with a clear conscience and hold up his head with a feeling of pride, in the man ner in which Justice has been done through the processes of law and order." We can but wonder If those who composed the mob that assembled the night the Negroes -were arrested, feel that way about it. Wonder if they don't feel more or less chagrined or outdone that the law has "sneaked in" and got ahead of them. If they are the right sort of citizens they wouldn't have been in the mob In Uie first place, and the law would not hnve had to "run"' from them. This mob business Is too serious to be trilled with any longer. It is too serious for the law, or those who have been elected and are under oath before God and man to enforce it, to be running and hiding in order to avoid trouble. Such trouble, of course, would be most regrettable, be cause it might mean death of some good man, as good men go, but the longer the delay in bringing the thing to a head the worse it will be when It Is brought to a head. Every time the law "runs away" and "hides out" the greater the con tempt people have for it, and particularly those people who have little or no respect for It to begin with. The time is here for the law to stand up and fight for the supremacy If it becomes necessary for. It to do so. If this isn't done It isn't going to be very long before we shall be In a state of chaos, and no man's life will be safe Columbus (Ga.) Sun. WHAT BUSINESS IS ITS AIM. "Business" Is a term applied rather vaguely to trading and manufac turing occupations as distinguished from the arts and professions- For a definition of business we would say that any occupation In which men, at the risk of loss, seek to make money by producing commodities for sale, or by buying and selling commodities, or by hiring the services of others for utilization at a profit; is business. This is a broad tern and takes In the farmer as well as the manufacturer; the bookkeeper, the cashier, the salesman as well as the department managers and proprietors. Profits are the goal of a'.l business. The struggle for profit which we call business has been a tremendous force In the development of human capacity for the advancement of civilization. Therefore, money and prices have become Important factors in the commercial world. Since business men must, figure their prohts in money and cannot make a profit unless they sell at a price higher than they bought, it is evident that the force, which control the purchasing power of money must not be Ignored by the wide awake business man. The wants of all the lower animals are limited in number, and when they are gratified the animal is ready for rest and sleep- But man is in satiable. As his power over nature grows or as his wealth increases his wants multiply. A poor farmer was asked what he was working for. "Salt pork and sundown" was his reply. He wanted the day to end that he might get something to eat and go to bed. If that farmer should inherit a fortune and move to New York it does not require a prophet to tell what would happen to his taste for salt lork and his desire for sundown. There are three, great classes of business: the production and sale of goods; the purchase and sale of commodities; and the purchase and sale of service. Money Is the tangible reward of successful business but money is not everything that Is worthwhile In business. There are thov lands of poten tial merchants as capable as the brilliant Marshall Field or A. T. Stewart, conducting successful business in the small towns and cities of this coun try. To Judge wisely therefore of a man's success In buslhfs, we must be able to answer the questions- First, has he accomplished what he him self set out to do? Second, has the volumn of his business been as large as warranted by its location"? -Third, has' its management been so sound that profits have been as large as could reasonably be expected? The correct answer to these questions determines the successful business man. There are numberless opportunities various lines in every city .n this country. We have not begun to measure up to the many openings that are ours for the effort of establishing a place. Make a little survey In your own neighborhood, and you will noon find there are several lines of commerce that are really inviting your attention. More than a mlllic x dollars will be spent by our group for fuel here this winter. How muca are we selling? Washington Trlbtine. THE; MIRROR or could reasonably be desired. Wayne county may stand erect, look clear conscience and hold up his head in which justice has been done to violence, the law been overridden way Is always best! is something more to the story, to to our minds, It is something that longer we dodge the Issue the worse for our men to enter business of METHODISTS PLAN PEON FARM SCHOOL. BiHhop Thlrkield of Mexico City Says Scheme Has Obregon's Ap proval. TO EDUCATE 10.000,000. To Make Them Land Owners and Capable . of Thinking for Them selves. Abingdon, 111., Sept 29. Establish ment of a farm school for the peons of Mexico, the first of its kind in that enuntrv. in nlanned by the Meth odist Episcopal Church, Bishop Wil bur F. Thirkleld of Mexico u:ty an nounced at the Central Illinois Con ference. The short way to civiliza tion In Mexico, he declared, is through the training of farmers in practical agriculture, and he reported that in two personal conferences President Obergon had given him strong endorsement of the plan. Land for a demonstration farm at a stragetic point at Queritaro has already been acquired ana p:ans ioi the school building have been drawn. "The fundamental Droblem of Mex ico is that of the peons,'" BlBhop Tbirkield said- "Until tnese ten mil lion can bo reached and lifted into a broader and stronger life the re public is not safe. For a century the peon has been used as lie tool of revolutionary leaders. A new peon, conscious of liberty, with some glim mering conception of' human rlgnts, has come to the front "Thn oiipntinn now is into what channels this fresh, surging, tumultu ous, undisciplined life shall be turneu. As a new social and political force the peon must be reckoned with. ' "The seat , of unrest and peril is in the poverty of the landless peon. Th nnlv stable basis for a democ racy is Mexico is the ceration of a large group of small land , owners. "President Obregon's new program me for Mexico has in view the pur chase of some of the vast tracts of land and their sole on long terms to tho nenn rlnss. dulv protecting them in their holdings. To mike this a per manent success the peon needs piac tlcal training as a farmer. Ho has to-rtav neither the initiative nor the knowledge and skill to win perma nent success. The State s neglect oi training in agriculture is to bo de plored. "President Obregpn sees that there is a relation between improved crops and social betterment These solid- enduring conditions of life must spring from the soil. Ana agriciu ture as an industry is basic in Mex !.... Ponllv trip nrlnclnle Industry in Mexico is agricutlure, and it has vast unrealized possibilities. Of the aims of the school, Bishop Thibinirl onM- "The entire work will be practical. No college of agricul ture is plannea. siuaenis win uc e-lvan tollmen In the elements of practical farming. Teachers of farm ing will also ne laugni. "First of all, the development of nnrtirht. stable character in the stu dents will be kept in view. Indus try, patience, thrift, cooperation, nnei ity and honesty will be taught "It Is also proposed to have short courses for farmers to teach them better methods. Institutes and farm- fnnfnrcnrm will be held, and through extension work as wide a range of territory will he coverca as Is practical. Courses In the preser vation of fruits and other foods, can ning etc., will be given. "The Tuskegee Idea in training young men to self-support through practical labor as a part of their school work will be emphasized. Students will be trained in the fun damental branches In a neighboring academy now doing efficient work under a successful Mexican educator. "Such a farm school with adequate equipment would soon make Its in fluence felt in every State of Mexico It is the quickest way to counteract tho -movement toward the city. In the long run it would have a strong Influence on tne education or we masses through the common schools." The peon, even now, Is more suc cessful as an Independent farmer than many realize, Bishop Thlrkield added. TEACH AGIUCnTFLE TO JiE CKOESj ALSO HOME ECONOMICS. Gainesville, Fla., Sept- 29. Exten sion schools for Negroes will be con ducted, hy Negro agents of the agri cultural extension division of the unl vmltv In twentv-one communities of thirte-n counties of the state, begin- ninf Sept. 20 and ending Oct. zi, under the personal direction of A. A. Turner, B- U Perry, Cora J. Har rison and B. B. Hawes. Programs hnve been arranged for men and boys and women and girls, and for Joint session of both sexes and all ages. " The men and boys will be taught selecting and testing seed corn; care of purebred pigs; saving the sweet potato crop; methods of fertilization and cultivation; and record keeping Women and girls will be given in struction In home made household conveniences; nine needle work, shuck work, rug making, and plain sewing, home sanitation and good health, canning, pickling and pre serving and record keeping. Joint sessions will be held at which hA fn.inwino- sub lerts will be dis cussed: preparation and marketing of far-n produce tnrougn iormers- un ions, how to- grow a year round o-orn- the farm dairy and how managed; the family: the proper care of Infants; the nome memcine cabinet; good food; and the' saving account. DRKENDRR rW5BS INDEPENDENCE (By A. N. P.) In a recent editorial. The Chleasro IWender pavs as the solution of the present political muddle, the organisa tion of Colored voters Independently, and voting for Inlvlduals rather than Speaking later on the possibility of Attorrev Oeneral Dougherty belnar a candidate for U. S. Senator'from Ohio, to hark thn Administration, the De fender t : IN FACT, this administration seems to have come to the conclusion that the seirrrjratlon, excommunlcatlin and elimination of the Colored American as a political tactor must be made accomr'hod facts In order to build up a republican party In the South. If the votes of Colored men alone would be lost to the party as a re sult of this action, perhaps the ad ministration would not seriously suf fer as a result thereof: but It will find, when it Is too late, perhaps, that there are many thoupsnds of whl'e people, especially at tti" north, who will become alienated and driven out of the party as a result of this befayat and abandonment of th. principles and doctrines that have heretofore Influenced then In acting with the Rcrib)lcan party. MR POUGHERTV In his candidacy PEBBT HOWARD MOVES OFFICE AS D GETS DOW TO REAL WORK. Special Assistant Has Claims Against Government Totaling Hugs w Sum. Washington, D. C, Sept. 29. When -the Hon. Perry W. Howard, of Jack son Miss., was appointed Special Assistant to the Attorney General and given an office in the building of the Department of Justice, informa tion was given out that he was to look after fraudulent claims of Col ored people against the Government. To ascertain just the nature of Mr. Howard's work, a reporter of The Washington Tribune called at his office on the 8th floor of the De partment of Justie Building- He found that Mr. Howard's office was a small, dingy place with very' lit tle furniture in It. Mr- Howard, ,J&, however, was not in, so another vis It was made later in an effort to see Mr. Howard at work but again he was out. After waiting a month or more, the reporter again returned to Mr. Howard's office and found that the v former quarters had been vacated and that the office of the Special A ,. I ..1 i n t wflfl nOW in a large airy nooioviu - - - mom on the 8th floor with plenty of space and office help. Upon asking Mr. Howard the na-i,.- r hla work, he reDlied: "This whole floor is given over to the claim department with about thirty law yers busy all the time with the knnnHa nt claims, that have grown l U U 11 .H' ...... ... ' j out of the war. Our office is hand ling only railroad claims, we have fivR claims here for a uu u v rv- "j ---- the coming term of the U. S. Court of Claims. This court Is a higher court than the District courts ana -ar III nnvpnA October 1st and run ten months- These claims range In amounts from $300 to Jl.000.uou ooi lars I don't think any Colored peo ple own railroads do they?" Mr. Howard asked The Tribune repre sentative. Tho Tribune wan informed by Mr. Howard, that the total value of the claims already in his omce wouia reach a billion dollars. This mens an enormous amount of work to brief nil of these claims, which will run Into dozens and even hundreds of pages. "Mr. Howard has as his stenogra pher and assistant, Capt Mellcnger, i Scott at Howard University and a graduote of the Howard Law School this year. Mr. Howara spoite in a complimentary mannar of Capt. Mcl lcnger's efficiency and said that he was Indeed proud to have his as sociated with him In the woric. By way of comparison, it is pointed out that the Hon. William H. Lewis, when he was Assistant Attorney General, handled about six claims during his entire term of office. Unlike many other men who are working in the Government service afj, hem Mr. Howard has enough worK . to keep him busy. He says he is un alterably opposed to tne sprena oi segregation In the government de partments. MINIMUM WAGE LAWS OF THE I KITED STATES. Washington, D. C, Sept- 29. The fixing of kage rates by act of law is a practice that is quite general in a number of countries where men as well as women come within the scope of the laws. In the United States, minimum wage lawo are found in twelve States, the District of Columbia and Porto Rico, but they are applicable only to women and minors. The U. S. Department of Labor through its Bureau of Ijihor Statistics hns just issued as Bul letin No. 285 an account of the min imum wage legislation of the United States, including Its legal construc tion and its operation In the differ ent jurisdictions. Rates are usually fixed by a board ' of commission, though in Arizona and Utah the law itself names the rate. The industries covered may be few or many, according to the terms of the law. Wisconsin covers all employments with a Blngle order, ft-hile California has nine and Mass achusetts fifteen orders applicable to as many industries or classifica tions. The entire history of this legis lation has been marked by attacks on. its constitutionality, but the su preme courts of five States have upheld their laws as valid, with no adverse .decision by such a court There still is evident a disposition to regard the laws as interfering with U e "freedom of contract," which of Course they do, as docs practically every "labor law," notably those fly ing the hours of labor, compensa tion of workmen for Injuries, etc., which have been fully vindicated In the courts- Moreover, the survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and reports of administrative commissions indicate a very general acceptance of the law by eiiiiioyers, many of them giving it a hearty approval, as to both principles and results. The economic effect of these laws Is said to be a general increase in favor of the persons affected by them, though without any apparent tendency for the minimum fixed ty legal piTcess to become the max imum or even the standard wage, although the laws have largely done away with wide variations in wa0-es paid for Identical services. The em ployment of younger children is stld to have been restricted in some casus, a result that is regarded as benefi cial; In view of the desirability of deferring employment in favor of school attendance. The first law of this type enacted in the United States was in Mass achusetts In 1912, eight other States following in U13. Qucstlonaires of constitutionality caused a check In legislation, from which the movement has hardly recovered, though three laws were enacted in 1919. The fact of the current reorganization of in dlstry Is an aigumcnt both for and against, action, employers feeling that there is need of free and rapid ad justment to meet changing condi tions; while the proponents of this form of regulation regard it as nec essary In an unusual degree in order to steady conditions that are In danger of working undue injury to the group of workers for wh03e benefit such laws are enacted. for United States -nator will find this the chief stumbilng block in hli way. If a vote from him will mean a vote of endorsement of the attitude of the administration upon these vital and important mesMire he will doubt less find many thoussnd Rupubllcans, even In Ohio, who will reruse to srlve vote that can be thus construed f