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The Carolina Spartan. [volume] (Spartanburg, S.C.) 1852-1896, March 20, 1856, Image 2

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BY GAVIS & trimmier. DnroRlr to Sout\)tx)\ liigljts, politics, Sericulture, nm* iHisceUom). $2 PER ANEUM.
A*XJCi WUfcU.Lil.Nil OlrAxvlillM. j
T- 0. P. VERNON, Associate Editor.
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Among tiic prominent volunteer chiefs ;
nod lenders who rendered themselves conspicuous
at tho battle of Now Orleans, for i
thoir conduct and gallantry, was Geceral !
Humbert, the victor of Casllebar, and lend- i
er of that desperate and chivnlric expedition
from Frnoco to Ireland in 1798 lie !
was often detached by Gen. Jackson on
acouling' and reconnoitoring service, at.d j
rendered himself highly useful in many of
the more important arrangements that lectured
a know ledge of n.ilitaiy service and
art. The following sketch of this eccentric i
gentleman is from Wall Iter's "Jackson and :
New Orleans:"
He was si stern soldier, familiar with the
routine, as practised in the heat disciplined
armies, a linn believer in the potency of
science, as applied to the conduct of war,
an exacting martinet in all the ru'es and
punctilios of the profession. He was a
tout, squarely, and compactly built man,
of the most rectangular upiightness of carriage
and rigid exactitude of movement. |
His air was thoroughly mililaiy, ami Indies*
neat and well-tilling. To the day of
his last sickness, he never abandoned the
old uniform of a genera! of the French re- |
public. It is within the recollection of
many, now in the bloom of life, what a
great sensation the veteran general was
wont to excite among the icsidciits of the
old square of New Oilcan*, as eveiy day'
nt noon, clad in the same old, well preserved
military frock, with the ihapeau of the ,
French revolution on his head, and the
wool of a general under his arm, he would
march with nil the port and precision ofatr
officer on duty, to an ancient cafe kept hv
an old comrade in arms, on the levee, mar
the Frynch market. On aiming at the
cafe, he would salute his old comiado with
a grand <tir mililairc, and then, laying his
word on the table, would proceed lei-nscU
to arrange lire domiuoo for a gaureai that
Tftry quiet favorite diversion of elderly
Frenchmen, with any lounger who might
happen to bit present. A glass of coguiae,
fi^nently replenished by his faithful
friend ami host, would serve to give spirit
to the game.
Tims would the veteran spend the great
?r part of the day, now ami then relieving '
its tedium bv vivacious conversation, mid
exciting reminiscences exchanged with his
sidniiring comiade, until his prolonged po
talion*, producing their usual effect, would
arouse him to m <re active, but h--.s digni .
tied, demonstrations of his natural ardor
mid military enthusiasm. Then he would
appear in the character which attracted the !
admiration and curiosity of the little Creole
boys, who, fired with military pride and '
ambition, would regard with intense interest
4-le irrand irencud de la "Kcnubliouc
Francaise," ?5, flourishing his sword, he
walked down the streets, shouting, at the
top of a powerful voice, snatches of the
Marseillaise and of the Chant ilu Drpart,
and other revolutionary airs.
Alas! tho poor old Gaul had outlived his
generation, lie had descended from times
of military emprise and ambition to an era
of trade and money-scrambling. Mammon
had long since displaced Mars in the world j
mound him. If, thus isolated from the
hustling crowd, he was driven to the use of
that oblivious antidote, by which the
gloomy present could be momentarily banis:.ed,
and the glorious past, with all its exciting
scenes and noble associations, brought
vividly to mind, due allowanco must he
made for the weakness which cii cum dances
forced upon a gallant and sturdy old
soldier, who, in his day, had played a conspicuous
part in events of great moment.
Yes, that old soldier, who died twenty
years ago, in poverty ami destitution, who
was indebted to an old quadroon woman
for his only allen-lnucA hi sickness, and
was buried at the public expense, bad once
been a proud general of the French republic
in its palmy days. To him was intrust
ed the com nand of the expedition to emancipate
Ireland from English rule, in 1798.
A more dosperiito enterprise was never conceived.
Its character, events, and results
I r. l 11 i .1 ? '
iinto iiMiiiu n |i.inmci in iiio expedition oi
Nnrcisco Lopez to Cuba, in 1851. For a
long time, this design bad occupied tlio
most anxious deliberation* of tlio French
republic. Tlio presence in Paris of several :
prominent Iiisli patriots served to keep |
alivo this feeling and encourage the plan
of striking "pfrjide Albion" in this her
weakost point. The French never doubled
the assurance that tlio Irish wero united
and harmonious in their devotion to re- j
publican liberty; that they wero i.s hostile ;
to the British dynasty as tho French were
to tho Bourbon rule. Various plans of invasion
wero proposed, and gicat preparations
were made to carry them out. Failure
apon failure, disaster after disnster followed,
and frustrated all the efforts of the
Irish patriots to oigauizo an efficient expedition
to proceed from France. One greatj
difficulty was to obtain a leader in the 1
Frcncji army of sufficient experience and
prestige to take charge of such an expedi !
tion. They were all willing to go with a ! i
large army, but none would venture with i i
a mere experimental force. It was in vain
the Irish patriots, Tone add Sullivan, represented
that the Irish pec,pfe were united
iu tbc cause; that they on I; nooded a small i
uiscipliueii torce and arms to give direction
to their unconquerable ardor; that a largo
army might either create that jealousy
which nil people are prone to feel towards
foreigners, even when acting as allies, or
might induce an entire dependence upon a
forco which they regarded ns sufficient to
accomplish the object without their aid;
that a people, to appreciate their independence,
must achieve it themselves. These
aro precisely the arguments which encouraged
and emboldened the companions of
Narcisco Lopez in his expedition to Cuba,
in 1851.
Franco was then (in 1708) crippled in
power and means, with tho oh! world arrayed
in arms against her, and constantly
threatened with internal revolution,change*,
and discord. About this time, loo, the I)i
rectory, composed, as it then was of a more
philosophic and conservative class of republicans
than had wielded tho destinies of
tho nation for some years before, began to
adopt a inoro pacific and prudent policy.
Still, it could not hazard its popularity bv
discouraging, even if it did not afford material
aid, to the ontcrpiiso of liberating
"oppressed Ireland." Olliecrs and soldiers of
the ariny were, therefore, allowed to volunteer
for tho expedition, and arms and millions
were furnished to them. At this moment,
Humbert stepped forward to volunteer
to lead this foilorn hope. lie had
served with distinction on the Khino, under
l'iehegru, Moreau, and Hmnouricr, and was
an ofltcer of acknowledged courage and ettergy.
Repairing to Rochelle, he immediately
set to work, in conjunction with tho
Iiish patriots. Tone, Teeiing, and Sullivan,
to organize an army out of a heterogeneous
mass of adventurers, who had assembled
there, composed of straggling French sol-,
diers. Iti-di volunteers, British deserters,
and a few carnet enthusiasts in the cause
of universal fieodom and republicanism.
To obtain money and Mipj li?.s fer the expedition,
llumbeit was driven 'O the expedient
of a military requisition on the merchants
of R H'hcllo, who were glad enough
to pay an illegal tax to he rid of so discordant
and adventurous a free. After a
thousand annoyances, difficulties, and troubles,
being compelled to shoot several of
his men to euforce discipline, llumbeit
succeeded in sailing out of the poit of Rochelle
with his motley band of iibcratora.
The Irish 11iunivirate, as they w?.re calle I
?Tone, Teiling, and Sullivan acorn pa
nied him. They were in tho highest Merits,
and almost certain of victory and sue
cess. They wine assured that the people
of l-clan I weio ripe for a revolution, which
was to rid the green i>lo of the Saxon. S ?
confident were they of this tosult, that the
Him c fi*'? ? ! IIUICIll 1>1 UIO 1H.1IHI, 1110 WUOI0
organic ilion of its civ it admiuUtialinn, hid
been discussed and carefully digested aiul
prepared. They looked even beyond this.
When they bad gained their independence,
and extorted secuiitv for the folme, they
would next demand indemnity fir the past.
They would reijuire the We.-?t India i?laud>
a* compensation for the woe and poverty
which I?ngiisli misrule had brought on the
island. Humbert was iinpn!>i\e, enllitid
nslic, and aeUulou*. lie could not doubt
such tamest assurance of his Iri-.ii confedoratc?.
He hated Kuglnnd with intense
earnestness. Treachciy, falsehood, pride,
avarice, grasping eovctousness, and reckless
bintaliiy, were tins characteristics ho assign
ed to the Knglish. Despito thc-c feelings,
however, doubt would frequently cloud the
bright piospcets of the expedition, so glowingiy
d tinted by the voluble an enthusiastic
Irish. His impressions of the character
of liis allies wer not elevated by an enervation
of tlie conduct of those engaged in
the expedition. StilMio was embarked in
the enterprise, ami determined to prosecute
it with courage and energy.
Humhcil effected a landing at Kilhrln, on
tlic sourtliern coast of lie-land, in August,
17'JS. I lis.force consisted of less than a
thousand men, including a battalion of
good French soldiers well officered. At
lvillala, he arrested the Protestant bishop,
and detained him as a prisoner, treating
him with a respect and courtesy which did
not please the excited and wild mob of
peasants that soon began to pour into tbe
town, greatly perplexing and embarrassing
bis arrangements, rather than adding to
his strength and resource. Ignorant of
their language, their peculiarities and customs,
llumbcit was almost driven mad by
the turbulent and unruly character of his
confederates?tho oppressed race which he
had conn; to liberate. They set at defiance
nil military subordination and discipline,
and even ridiculed the still' carriage and
neat appearance of tho French regulars.
When tho officers assumed any control
ovgr them, they rolled their eyes, pouted
their lips, and cracked many a joke lit the
impudence of the ''interloping foreigners."
At last, however, having by dint of superhuman
efforts re luccd his command to
something like order, Humbert commenced
his march into the country. His battalion
of regulars advanced in military order, but
it was tlauked, and followed, and surrounded
by the disorderly host of wild-looking,
ragged peasant*, with their long uncombed
hair hanging down their necks and shoulders,
barefooted, with signs of starvation,
of poverty, misery, and oppression in their
countenance, carriage, and habiliments.
And yet, they were full of enthusiasm and
patriotism, and inarched gayly along,
swearing, hurraing, singing in ihe exuberance
of their joy and liopo of the rescue of
Sweet Ireland" from the vile Saxon. Nor
was patriotis i their only inspiration on
this occasion. Whiskey, tho inseparable
concomitant of all such enterprises, was an
important element and agent of the revolution.
Its importance in this rc*|>eet is appreciated
even in this enlightened ago. Tho
patriots of Rillala celebrated their imaginary
independence, as too many Americans
do that real independence which was declared
on the 4th July, 1770, by getting
drunk nnd falling by the road -ido, so that
Ilumborl's advance was marked by the
bodies of tho victims of alcohol, rather than
by those of the perfidious Saxons whom be
had cotno to annihilate. Ammunition
carts were loaded with whiskey barrels, and c
at every halt there was a general bibation. o
Mingled with tho men, who thus eticiun- j
bered Humbert's march, were many wo- li
men and children. Tho small, regular, 1 e
compact body of disciplined soldiers, look- a
ed even smaller from being enveloped by p
such a rabble. They were perplexed and t
astounded at the conduct of their allies ?
of patriots, who would bear no restraint,
submit to no discipline, who all wanted to i
be ofticers, chiefs, and leaders, who sneered I .
at tho generous devotion of their allies, and ^
frowned on any assumption of authority by "
them. Humbert saw at a glance tho folly ^
and hopelessness of tho enterprise.
"Wo shall all bo taken, and probably I
! shot," he remarked to his aid; 1 but then !'
; Franco will bo committed to tho enterprise, 'j
i and will bo hound to avongo us. So
! Vive la Republique! Vive la Jlepublique! ?
j En cvunt! En event!" '
And thus tho enthusiastic and heroic!
; Frenchman advanced rapidly towards Canj
tlebar. Here he encountered a considera- ' T
; ble forco of royalists, strongly posted with
j artillery. Tho French battalion steadily ^
advanced on the royalists, but a few dis:
charges of tho English guns scattered in ^
j every direction Humbert's nuxiliaios. Char- ! j
giug gallantly with his Frenchmen, Hum- j
i bcrt succeeded in putting the royalists to ^
flight with considerable loss, and achieved
a brilliant and decided victory. lie then 1 ^
made a triumphal entry into tho town of i
! Castlebar. Ilerc he was joined in greatly i '.x
! augmented numbers by tho po isantry of I j
the country, who with scythes, pikes, and
every rude weapon imaginable, crowded / '
into the town and made it hideous with I's
their wild revelry. They imagined that j
tho last blow had been struck, and that j
Ireland was now free. Humbert was com- j
polled to tairv here for the reinforcements (.
. daily and hourly expected from France. ,
i These rciiiforcenients were rapidly proceed- j
ing to Killaln, but unfortunately the fleet , j
under lJompard, which was conveying i j
them, was attacked in tho bay of Killaln
bv the sonadron of .Sir John Warren, and ,
! ? .: i-. .i > ?-, .. i"
viiini'K iii'Minu'u. linn was i imuDcri ? i j
last hope annihilated. j (
Meantime Lord Cornwall!*, with a pnw- ! a
I erful army, was gradually surrounding |,
Humbert, as ho !iini<elf had heen surround- ' p
, ed by the French and Americans at York [
town, Virginia, some fifteen years before, i p
As the rumors of the approach of the tj
llritidr began to thicken upon him, llum- |j
bert observed his allies rapidly falling oil", u
and slinking out of the town, until at last '
he was left in the village of ltovle witii hi .
French veterans, and a few of the liisli
leaders who were t?> far committed to : f,
retreat, llirmlictt called a council of hi* t,
i officers, and proposed to fight it out, offer- ' j,
ing ihoiifctdves a sacrifice on the altar of 0
Irish independence. Hi* officers, who had
been disgusted with tlte enterprise from j >(
their landing and first acquaintance with
their allies, were not s > enthusiastic and r
t devoted. Under their ml vice ire deter ?
: mined to surnndcr. Accordingly, Lord |,
j Cornwallis had the ratisf.iction of receiving t.,
I (lie sword of the French general, an event t|
well calculated to remind that distinguish- i
; ed llriton of a incmorahlo scene in his own v
| military history. Humbert was released c'
i on parole, ami finding no prospect for p
i promotion in France, came with main ,,
other soldiers of the old French republican
! school, whoso republicanism was of too t,
I earnest mill uncompromising a character ^
: for Napoleon's views, to New < Means.
When Jackson aniveil, in 181 1, to a-.- a
i sunie the ilcfcnco of the city, Humbert was tl
1 one of the first to tender his services a.s a t;
volunteer, lie proved eminently servicea- o
l?lo during the campaign. Having no "
| regular command, ho was always ready it
for any detached service, how perilous and o
1 difficult soever it might he. Mounted on c
a huge black charger, it was his custom r
; every day to emerge from the American fi
lines, ami trotting down the road to a li
point within mu-ketvhot of the British t<
outposts, to take a deliberate observation of h
their camp through a field glass; after o
completing which, he would wheel his 1
horse and leisurely return to the American it
encampment, disregarding tho halls which n
frequently rained around him from tlie a
British hatteiic.-, and report to Jack-on q
the exact condition of the enemy's camp, s
For these and other services lluinbeit was p
highly complimented in Jackson's des o
patches. The ol 1 Frenchman, in return, j
declared that Jackson was worthy to have
commanded the army of tho Whine which b
distinction was alone necessary to complete It
his m litary greatness and renown, lint ' e
though thus eulogistic of Jackson, the p
vereran did not include in his good onini >n tl
tho mass of the soldiers whom Jackson i
Iiiii! the "misfortune to command." Ho \
could never ho persuaded that the rude, (
, dusky, awkward, slouching bush lighters c
i from Tennessee, with their careless, uiiiuil* c<
' ilary carriage, their reckless, undisciplined, ti
! barbarian stylo of fighting, could ho con- o
verted into soldiers. What particularly 1
annoyed him, was the habit these "saura- h
| yes" had of thinking for themselves? dis- n
cussing the merits of their ollieers and tit.- a
expediency of orders from their command* w
ers, and as-timing to reason and judge, it
when their only duty was to net and ohey. u
A disagreeable illustration of this habit a
was brought home to the general on n b
certain occasion, when, being ordered out
for a reconnoissanco with n detachment of ii
Codec's men, ho brought them under the ; ll
severe firo of a lbitish redoubt?whereupon ll
theso independent, self-thinking soldiei*, r?
not relishing or appreciating the necessity ft
of losing their lives in so unprofitable an p
undertaking, quietly wheeled their horses ol
and returned to the lines, leaving the st
veteran cursing and swearing in lha field n
amid the shot. When Humbert reported , w
! this "infamous conduct" to General Jack- ii
son, lite General could not refrain from a at
, smile?but seeing one of the men of ibe g
I detachment near his nuarters, bo called ol
i liiin, and frowningly asked, "Why did you tl
i run away?" "Wall, General," replied the a
: bush fighter, "hot understanding French, k
1 and beiieving our commander was a man 1 0
f sense, wo c?m strutd his orders to retire
itit of reach of the cannon bulls, and so w?
list kinder countermarched. The General j
lad some difliculty in interpreting this
xcuse to Humbert, who shock his head,
,nd continued to tlio day of his death
irofoundly skeptical of the soldierly quali
ics of the Teniicsseeaus.
m ltl,
The Use ol Torture in India.
In the Edinburgh licview for January, i
just published by L. Scott A: Co.) is a relarkab.'o
article on tho use of torturo in j
hat part of British India known as the
ludrus Presidency. The facts are made
iiowii through tho official report of coin- ,
lissioners appointed to make investigation
iito alleged eases of torture, "submitted to j
ho Governor in Council of Fort St. George,
n the 10th of April, 1835, and pro; en ted ,
u Parliament by command of her Mnjcsy\"
This report forms the basis of tho ,
rticlo in tho Edinburgh Quarterly. The
oviewer says that the Indian Goveiiiinent I
i chargeable with something more than ;
assivo acquiescence in the toituro system 1
ihieh formerly prevailed under the unlive '
overnmenU; that in Biilish India the hurors
which formerly prevailed in Oude have
een perpetrated; and that the British ndlinistratiun
of the land system, "although '
ir more merciful than that of the native
overnmenls, has not been Mich as to put
u end to the traditionary evils which have
ttended tho collection of tho land revenue
i every part of India." And this position
ic reviewer proceeds to establish by the
icts narrated in the report of the cominis* j
oners above referred to.
In a debate which took place in the |
louse of Commons, on the 11th of June,
854, for the creation of this commission,
was formally alleged that in the collcc
on of the laud revenue in the Presidency ;
f Madras, the Government oflicials weie
i tiie habit of employing torture. Tho al-1
gatiou was denied and even ridiculed by .
ie Hoard of East India Directors, by many
tern born of tho House of Commons who !
ml icsided in India, and weic supposed to !
o familiar with the administration of the
iovernmcnt there, and was disbelieved by
majority of the House. Tho statement,
owever, was solemnly and earnestly rc- j
catod and persisted in, and in the end the :
'resident of the Boaid of Control was coui11
- ? . ?
encu to give ins assent to the mvestiga- i
on, though still declaring his own disbcof
of ilie allegation; and the commission (
as a; pointed. The Government of Mad- ;
is is represented to have cordially co ope- j
itvd with the cominis.sii.11. Everything |
as done that could he done to ..ceilre a
ill investigation. Lord Harris, the Gov- J
inor, who also disbelieved the statement, '
isued orders to all subordinates to give
very assistance in their p mcr. and the
mplest piovision was made for the expends
of the inquiry.
The land tenure which prevails in Madis
is peculiar. It is known as the "ryot '
errv system." The ryot, or cultivator,
olds directly under the Government. The
olloction of rent, tax*, or assessment, is in
lie hands of Government oflicvis. The
ioveiiimetit, in fact, is the landlord. I he
ystein is .similar in the l?oml ay l'rcsideuy:
but there tlie tax or rent is lived by a
cinianent assessment. In Madias it is
liter wise. There i - no fixed assessment,
nd "il..s . . .0 la .1 .1 'I
.. . i f w m ii?v iiirit) "I UIC CUIIl'C*
jr as to the amount of his land tax, as t>>
lie cultivation of his laud, and as to the
ern,aiie..ce of his tenure." JJo is a tennl-at-wilhiu
the most dependei;' sense of
lie term. In the arrangement f a!! de
lils. tiio <ioveruinent, through its own
Hieials, is the dire -t at; 1 immcdint > act >. .
For every increased valuation, foe every
iteifeionce tvitli the liberty or the mode
f cultivation, for every dislutnance or
hange of tenancy, the < ioveininenl i-> died!
y and immcdiaU !\ responsible." t hereno,
says the reviewer, "the startling qu sioti
which t! e Madras < 'onimi.-sione.s had
.? try was, not whetliei instances of latinjrd
oppression, even in the revolting lorn:
f torture, had occurred in the Madras
'residency, hut whether (.iovorniiienl itself,
i i's capacity of universal landl id, was
>t, through its own native <.}}} ials, chargehie
with those atrocities." And the inuirv
was limited t<> the last seven years,
d that, says the reviewer, "our wounded
lido Iris not even the palliative that these
annuities were perpetrated at a remote
J lie inquiry was oiiginaily designed to
c confined to tho tiscof tortuie for llio coltction
of revenue, hut was subsequently
\teiided to a resort to the same cruelty for
olice purposes; and upon hoth counts of
10 indirtment against tho ' 'ov#_m anient, it
i painful to be oblige'! to record that a
erdicl of guilty lias been returned. The
lommissioners declare, as "the only coplu-iou
a', wbicb any impartial minds
i >u: 1 arrive," thai "personal violence, prac
sed by tbo nalivo revenue ami police |
fficiaU, generally prevails throughout the
'resiliency," and that this "personal vio
sneo" is, to all intents and purjroscs, torire.
The) add, indeed, that it is beyond
II dispute that ' many of tbo practices
hie 11 undoubtedly exist must cau>o acute,
n mij'uiiii> or even moment,uv, agony;
n?l that in no few iccorded instanc* *, fas
| peai> by the calendar*,) Oven death has
?l!ovvo 1 upon their infliction."
Tho evidenoo in the case is overwhelmig.
( if persons actually put to torture by
ie police, J7 coinpl.lined 111 person lioloie
to commissioners, and 1 111 by letter; in
.'vcuiio eases, i!09 complained personally,
nd "79 by letter. In ir-tVronee to the,
rnctico <>f torture in tho formci service, out
f 109 answers retimed froin the various
ations in the Madras Presidency, .90 were
ennui, not a singlo one was negative,
hilo no lo.is than 79 were unhesitatingly
i tho aHirinative; and out of the 1-1 anvers
returned to tho queries sent out re
arding the use of torture in the collection 1
f revenue, while 17 oflicia's expressed
icir disbelief of tho uso of torture for such
purpose, and 7 professed to have no
nowlodgo on tho subject, no fower than
9 ret'iinel an unoquivocnl affirmative.
Xl?f? kinds of lorlurc employed are tluis do
scribed :
The two most common forms of torturt
appear to bo tho Kiltc (in Teloogoo called
C'heeratat) and tho AnunJul, which in the
same language is called Giwjtri.
Tho kilte corresponds with the thumbscrew
of tho European toiluro. It is a
wooden instrument somewhat like a lemon
squeeze, between the plates of which the
hands, tho thighs, (in women also the
breasts.) the cars, and other more sensitive
parts of the body arc squeezed to {ho laM
point of endurance, often to fainting, and
even to permanent disablement. In many
places the kitlehas been superseded by the
more simple plan of violently compressing
the hands under a Hal board, on which a
heavy pressure is laid, sometimes even by
the peons standing upon it; or of compelling
the sufferer to interlace his fingers, and
delivering him over to the iron gripe of the
peons, (or policemen,) who sometimes rub
their hands with sand, in order to giv?
them-a firmer gripe. In other cases the
fingers are bent back until the pain be
comes unendurable.
The anundal is a more purely Eistoin
torture. It consists in tying the victim in
a stooping or otherwise painful and unnatural
position, generally with the head forcibly
bent down to the feet, by a ropo or
cloth passed round the neck and under the
toes. Tho posture, however, is varied at
the caprice of tho executioner. Sometimes
the poor wretch is made to stand on one
log, the other being forcibly tied up to bis
neck. Sometime-, the arms and legs are
curiously interlaced, and the frame, thus
violently distorted, is kept bound up for
hours in a condition little short <>f dislocation.
Sometimes a heavy stone i> laid upon
the back while thus bent; and it often happens
that the peons ainusu themselves by
sitting astride upon tho unhappy sufferer
who is undergoing nnntindal. Mure than
one of the witnesses dt-poso to tho intlictiou
of this lorturc under the fierce Indian
sun, upon a number of defaulters placed
together in rows, for two, three, four, and
oven six hours; and this in the immediate
vicinity of the cutcheriy, or revenue officer,
and in prescnco of the tahsildar, or
native collector- nn.1 f tho no??r.,i.i...i ?'.t
These tortures are often used simultaneously;
'.lie kittce being applied to a man's
bands, cars, or thighs, while he is actually
undergoing nnundal.
Flogging in various forms is also one of
the ordinary instruments for the collection
of revenues. In must cases tho defaulter
is hung up by the arms '.o a tree, or to the
roof beam of a bouse, as preparation for
the lash, which consists either of a acourgv
of leather thongs (called corticchctear, and
sometimes jcrbuml.) or of the tough fibics
of the tamarind tree, or of the coir rope.
Many witnesses complain ~f having been
dogged to laceration.
Various other minor, but yet most de
grading an 1 painful, species of violence, are
detailed. One of llieni, th'jmhiiitivary, consifts
in pulling tho person about violently
by pinching lito thighs, whelhoi with the
kiltee or by the hand gripe. Another,
Amihwsaretry, is puijiiig a man about bv
the oars. Occasionally a man is held aloft
from the ground by the ears, l?y the hair,
ami even by the mustachio; ami the latter
torture, in sotno instances, is applied so
savagely as to tear away the mustachio by
ibo roots. Sometimes a sort of bastinado
is indicted, sometimes v iolent blows on the
shins, the ankle*, die elbows, or othe?
highly sensitive points, lholongtd immersion
in the water tanks or the river; t'orei
bio compression of the arms, the thighs,
and even the ho.iv, by tying a coil of rope
round them, and then applying cold wat?*i
so as t>> cause it to conliaet and sink into
the tlesh; binning with hut iton; hanging
heavy stones round the neck; the stocks;
lying two or tuoie individuals together bv
the hair, *u that every movement is attended
with pain; placing a necklace of bone*
or other disgusting or degrading mat?*iials
round the neck; tiusc are a few of the minor
iullictions devised by those m isters of
the oriental schools of torture. If we add
to theso a few practices like liio.se Used at
home bv amateurs of the turf or the ring,
f >r the purpose of "reducing fle?h;" tucli as
starvation, prolonged deprivation of sleep,
compulsory driving up and down under a
broiling san, forcing the noh ?ppy wretches
to run long distances, their h inds being
tied to the a\le of a bandy or country car
liago, we think the catalogue of torture
will be admitted to be tolerably complete.
Ami yet there are other device*, that
evince in their very conception an amount
of hateful ingenuity which, however possible
in an individual, it would bo oitiicuit
to understand as forinirg par'. <>f a system,
were they not seriously detailed by the witnesses
examined before tho commission.
Will it be credited, for example, that it is
not uncommon to apply to the moal sen-i
live parts of the body, (enclosed in a cloth,
or a cocoanut shell, or other similar reeep
taob\) a biting insect or reptile, such as the
pool la 11, or carpenter beetle, ami to leave it
to gnaw the llcsh of the miserable sufferer!
That by a further refinement of cruelty,
meant to comhino both pain ami humiliation,
the defaulters aio sometimes lied bv
tho hair to the tail of a donkey or a bull do?
That they are occasionally hung up with
the head downward) And that it is an ordinary
practice to put pepper or powdered
chillies into the eves or the nostrils, and to
apply the*? and similar irritating drugs in
other ways loo revolting to be even hinted
After this description of tbo various
modes of torture, follow numerous instances
of their application. The*? our limit*
forbid u* to copy. We must refer the reader
to tbo Edinburgh Koriew. The reviewer
alludes to the well known fact that native
testimony in India is not g nerally reliable,
especially in matters of personal
suffering. And this, in forming a judgment
upon tho*o horrible atrocities, com
milled under tho shadow of the British
Government l?y its own official*, should be
borno in min i. Kvery Christian man must
' wish tliat the whole evidence coul
i be proved untrustworthy and false. I3t
? this wo legiet cannot be. These sue tli
I instruments of torture. As we hnva see
i above, the majority ol the officials a im
that tlicy use them, and scarcely any den
their being resorted to. All the testimon
i has undergone the scrutiny of the coinini
I sioners. Some of it was derived from th
i Courts themselves. Some was "drawn froi
i j tho official returns of a class of Kuropea
i ! witnesses who would he deeply interests
in concealing the facts if it had been pos*
bio to do so?the collectors, sub coltector
; judges, magistrates, surgeon*, and-ollu
I civil servants of the Government; part fror
tho testimony of merchants, clergymei
and others unconnected witli the rulminii
, trhtion; l>ut by far the most curious an
, interesting portion consists of tho writte
] or oral statements of the aggrieved partie
i themselves. Native testimony in India i
proverbially deceitful, and there is n
proposition which tnav not be establishes
in an Indian Court of Justice bv prepare
w itnesses; but in th's ease, the Commission
1 ors themselves declare that the variety an<
' extent of the evijence precludes the possi
bilitv of fraud." They say:
4 ln consequence of a certain nolidcatioi
disseminated almost simultaneous over th
w hole Presidency, without any previou
warning or notice, 11)09 complaints wer
preferred within tho space of three months
by parties, the great majority of whon
could have had no means of acting in con
ceit, poor, ignorant, and penniless,d wellinj
at great distances from, and totally uu
known to each other, and using even vari
ous languages; vot these complaints, oiv
and all, speak to similar facts, detail simila
practices, ascribe similar causes for tliei
treatment. If (his be a concocted plan, i
is the most singular conspiracy in tin
world's history; but indeed tho above con
ditions preclude the possibility of an;
other conclusion than that tho act* of vio
leiico complained of are commonly prnc
All this?and tho half of the Jtorror
i have not been told in this article?withil
seven years, transpiring probably only :
few months ago, under the rule of a Chris
linn Government! It is appalling, anwould
have been incrodibU had the fact
been derived from any other source than i
nppottUOU l>>" tllftl ifUVCrIIUI?nt
All comment would be lame after tucl
revelations.?A'. 1'. Commercial A'lrcrti
SCr' ?...
The War Question.
We are quite certain that wo need offe
our rendu: & no apology for transferring ti
our columns the follow ing able and sensibl
nritiole, from the London Alhcnaum?at
English Literary Journal of unquestioned
iullucnce and respectability. It is sti*fac
tory, especially at this time, when othe
hading English newspaper* are indulging
, in extravagant iligh'.s of Dobadilisiti, l<
find su.lt rational views of our intcrnalion
al relations, entertained by our eotempora
iv. They will meet with the approbation
of eveiy American citizen. And it wouh
only excite the laughter of our readers, 01
' thi- side of the Atlantic, were we to assur
thenl, that there is no danger of a war be
I ween England and the United States
1'ho belligerent bluster of a portion of tin
British pros* excites but ridicule in thi
country. But such remarks as the following
will meet with general sympathy; nut
m.iv fairly be regarded as an illustration o
Aineiieart, as well as English sentiments
' Common politics lie beyond our pro
vince. We gladly leave to our potverfu
! and sagacious cotompuraiies the duty o
i , ...i; ?
?-'tu i .in ? 1:1 uie scale ot nations
We concern ourselves slightly with tin
lights <>f men and the wrong* of women
Kveil the lluKtian War has had fur in oub
.1 secondary interest. Our labors fall, ven
happily for ourselves and for our leader*
in the calmer regions of intelligence ? re
gions rarely disturbed by intrusion of tin
tierecr passions, and acro-a which tlie tlasl
of battle pas?es as a softened light, and tin
roar of bombardment is only heard in i
sa l and mournful monotone. LleG'io w<
, can deal with politics, they must generally
have pissed into history. Hut there nri
exceptions to our rule; and the question o
i possible iiipture with America is certain
1_y one of these exception*. Stiro'y such ,
itiplure is unlikely! Yet the air grow
heavier day by day. The idea is bocom
ing familiar to many minds. Passions an
, rising. Kvory mail appears to bring u
; nearer to the cataract; and unless the govx
and moderate men of both hemisphete
j come to the rescue of their governments, i
collision turn i ike place. liuler snob in
aspect of ev. nts, every voice to which th
public Mill listen should be raised. Th
in no cautiously wo ourselves a barn in it
1 ordinary tiints from pronouncing on th
course of our national policy, tho more w
feel bound in this solemn moment to up
peal to the true feeling and sedate unuei
?i mding of our readers on both sides c
the Atlantic against the levity, the pride
or tho incapacity which would urge th
two nations into war.
"War with the United Stntcs! The idc
of such a war is incredible. If theie be ii
the catalogue of mortal calamitfc* a 'wore
than Civil War,' it is Kticli n conflict a
might arise between Amoricajuu! Englaiti
A civil war has generally smno basis ii
reason. Some grand piinciplo is At staler
The sword is drawn in defeace of frocdon
? in defence of property?in defence c
religion. As in our own civ^r.jes^r cei
tarn degree of romance, of t IjirvAidjund <
intellectual activity, often s oingjHfcW** th
conflict and flourishes after iw^iS??th
blossom and t'?o fruit of a splendid an
i deadly contest. But n war against Ainer
! oa would have no single redeeming poirt
l'liere is not?and there never ought to b
any real ground of quarrel with th
United States. Tho interests of the tw
countries are identical. Their moral prir
I ciples arc the same. They Jinve neither
I language to separate nor \ toI?|(ion t
i estrange them. The *ame blood flows i
i'tbo veins of their people. Th#y have
d common history?a coiniuon literature?a
it common tradition. They posses* the same
ie Bible. They read the same Shukspeare
u and the same Milton. Blake conquered
it and Cromwell ruled for both. They have
y aa equal interest in Italeiglr, in Vane, and
y in Penn. Nay. their present state is as in*
? separable as their past. They still live by
e | the light of the same old Saxon laws. They
n I still drink id the same intellectual fountains*
n | regardless whether the springs lie on the
J eastern or t!:? western shore* of ?h< Allau i
tic. Irving, Bryant, Bancroft, llawthorne,
*, ! Longfellow are admired with aa warm an
it , affection in England as are Thackeray*
u i Tennyson, Dickens, Jerrold. and Mncauiay
i* I in America. A war between England and
i- America would be a war of brothers?a
d war of friend against friend. It would be
n a war against the aflinitica of race, against
is i the unity of religion, against the inter*
s ; changes of trade. It would be a war in
0 favor of barbarism, piracy, restriction?a
J war ngnin&t the bounties of nature, the en*
J lerprises of genius, the advances of cirili??i
tion. Such a war would bring sorrow into
1 evert Anglo-Saxon home in Europe and
America, and a feeling of shame and humiliation
into every Anglo Saxon heart, iu
ii whatever quarter of the glol>e it beats. Such
0 , a war would close the Gospel for nearly
s ! half the Christian world!
e ; "We say nothing about material inter*
' ests. They go for much; but the moral
1 j interests far outweigh them. The inter*
change of thought is more important than
r , the interchange of cotton. And for what
ate wo threatened with an interruption of
| our friendly relations with our American
i< kindred? Is any principle at issue? Are
r our lil*rties threatened?is our property
i i unsafe? Not in tho least degree. Only
t ' three slight and miserable causes for quare
?el appear?a dispute about the construe*
tion of a treaty regarding that interesting
r savage, tho King of Mosquito, a dispute
. | about toms wretched sandbanks lying off
rt-r:??- _t .... .i-- --
?rtuu n <ii-jiuic ituoui me attempt
to enlist troops for the Crimea. The first
s two are quite insignificant. We might aa
i weii go to war about the sovereignty of
i Eel l'ie Island. We may be right or we
I may be wrong in our interpretation: the
] ! Americans think we are wrong. There ia
h much to bo saiu on both sides; and we all
ii know that when private persons disagree
, i about littles, a courteous and conciliatory
i tone toon removes tlio caUss of quarreh
About the third point?the attempt to enlist
in tlio Republican territory?we a*"?
unquestionably in the wrong. In neithe.
case is our honor engaged; in neither case
r does any principle which ought to be mainj
laiued stand behind the fmnal terms of
t the disagreement?thus presenting a true
, ground of quarrel, as in the Russian War,
j which the genius of the nation can seise
and accej?. Our statesmen might? and
r must?find in the resources of diplomacy '
r a means of satisfying all interests without
j ati insane appeal to the sword. Where
. we : re clearly wrong, wo should at once
' and fully admit our error, making whaleri
or reparation is fuirlv dup. It is amid tl?*
J i Washington Cabinet requires the with'
u I drawn! of Mr. Crampton. Surely this i?
0 : no extremes or revolutionary request, l'er.
| sonal unpopularity h:is always been consul.
ere?l a sufficient reason for requiring the
,, withdrawal of an ambassador. We could
^ give a hundred Instances in which sovereign
. powers have exercised this tight. Under
1 j such circumstances withdrawal does not
imply censure. It merely implies that the
. personal relations of the ruler and the minister
have become such ns to impede the
I transaction of public business. We were
f wrong in attempting to recruit within the
lt; Union. Mr. Crampton was the instrument
c i of the wrong, lie has thereby rendered
I himself an object of suspicion at Washing(
ton. llis withdrawal, therefore, at the re
quest of tho American Cabinet, would bo
in accordance with usage, and would be m
sure pledge of the sincerity of our ucknowl'
8 i cdgfiicnt of the original error. Strong n.v
, lions can afford to he graceful in their coira
| cessions.
, "Tho other, points are Ic&s deaf. Yet, if
e ! a proper spirit of conciliation presides nt
the discussion, we have no reason to fear a
L. permanent disagreement. We have a right
f to expect that our diplomatists and pirlilij
writers will approach the discussion in ;*
? pacific mood. Above all things, we depreh
cato a menacing tone. We cannot rea?>
without indignation the elaborate display
p of our naval and military powers which
s some of our journals havo thought proper
I to make. Every Englishman feels that he
, would not bo put down by such a parade;,
and we imi-l not forget that our descemf
, ..... . ... .....v. .v.. >? *.- ju-i ??* imugiuy a*
e ourselves. They have our blood, our p*se
iiuiii, our Acute sense of t>019011.1! UuM/
IX Against ourselves tlie threat of force it th*
0 one Argument tliat is sure, under all cire
cmnstAiicee, to fail. Nor will the Aineri*
| cans l>e cowed by n menace of the BnTrie
fleet. We must argue our point as if no*1
,( fleets were in existence, and take our aland
[ on the ground of history and reason."
!An IiJ-f^TR ATfox.? I amis Kottrnh thfle
illustrates tbo controversy in regard to the
j Central-American ipieslion :
"Two travellers bad but on?
' of them proposed an ngrecr^ctr*
,s term*: the first half hour &?
and I will ride; tiio second half uBLr I
will ride and you shatl walk. JiUPttch
would bo the Central-AinericAU treaty, ac11
.r. I ? r. .U. ? U-t- 1-A *? ?
J inv interpret anon,
[" A New York Assemblyman hu intt?
,: tiuoeJ h bill iu>o l!?o Legislature prohibit*
e ing tlio pnbltcation of nnonyinou* letter* m
e newspaper*;-and another Solon hiu brought
^ forward n bill to exempt clergymen of j*aj*
'* ing toll on plank road*, bridge*, tnrnpikca, |Eg?~
i * _ intf
e CosirntiKSTAar,?A very ucly mu,
0 wlro ?v a greet horticulturist, Imtnj; dxntd
1 i by h uiitw perched ?y in cherry tree, kit
n friend exclaimed/ "No wonder, Philip, that
I, you have the fi-.ort ft nit h? the country:
u for you are not only your own giuiieuor,
a but, e^.nl! yon own ict/rrrntr, too.*
I ? .

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