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BY CAVIS & TKJM3IIER. Dnwtn) to SmttytKVt politics, ?gricultltVf, Attfo iitigccliflni). <2PEBAIHUM.
VOL. XIII. * SPARTANBURG, S. C., THURSDAY, MARCH 27, I85(j. ?? No. 5. ? ? THE CAROLINA SPARTAN~ BY CAVIS & TRIMMIEB, T- 0. P. VERNON, Associate Editor. Prieo Two Dollars per milium in iilwiicc, 01 $2.50 at the end of the year. IT not paid unti after tiie year expires $3.00. Payment will bo considered in advance if modi witliiu three months. No subscription taken for less than six months Money may be remitted throu~h postmasters a our risk. Advertisements inserted at the usual rates, aik oontracts made on reasonable terms. The Spartan circulates largely over this nn< adjoining district", and offers an admirable medium I* our frietida to renclt customers. Job work of nil kinds promptly executed. Blanks, Law and Equity, continually on hand #r priircd to order. :SPKKCHT0F HON A. P. BUTLER. 'OK SOl.'TI! CAHOLINA, la Tin Skkate, March 5, JSf>0. Ou ille l'rciidvut'i Menage uf l'Yb. IS, 1S?"?G, relative to affairs in Kau*as Territory. In reply lo a suggestion made by his friend Mr. Hunter to adjourn the debate to accommodate Mr. Butler; Mr. Butler said: Mr. President, 1 piefor to go on now. When I obtained the floor the other day upon this question, it was with a view to tuake a very few remarks in order to relieve the Senate from any impression which might be made on it by the statements made here on the resposibilily of Senators, or by newspaper coimnunica lions, in relation to the part which my friend General Atchison has acted in Kansas affairs. 1 intended no more; and 1 shall endeavor to discharge that duty beforo J.conclude tho remarks which 1 propose now to-submit. The debate on this subject, Mr. President, has brought many tilings within its scope, and has, in my opinion, been made the occasion of fearful indications for the fulu'c. What the developments of tho future may disclose 1 know not; but this much 1 will say before 1 approach the main sub ject on which 1 intend todelivcr my views, that tve arc reduced, by the issue which lias been made in Kansas, to the alternative either of suffering tho President, under the message which lie has sent to us and tho proclamation which he has issued, lo excr eiso his high ollico to preserve the peace which is threatened to bo disturbed in Kansas, or subject ourselves to the usurpation of squatter sovereignty and the discretion <>f an unealculatiug fanaticism; raising a whiilwind on which it may not bo ald< to ride. This is the issue which is present ed to us. Kor it the President does not in torposc his authority to preserve peace, 1 have no reason to conclude hut that t!i< conflict between tlie two parties in Kansui may result in the shedding of blood; and hir, my word for it, one drop of blood shea in ciyil strife in this country, in which par tics have bec-n distinctly in rayed, so far ni they oau lie arrayed by their advocate* will have more effect on civilisation au l ni society than all the blood shed in all the battles of antiquity, or in the struggles al lloroUiuo and the battles which followed it Sir, I am entirely persuaded that, if we ar< to approach what has been threatened?;i rupture of this Uuion?or if we are io pro serve the Union, it is the "duty of every man, as far as he can, to throw his in flu encc into the public opinion which will jus lily the course of the Picaidoni, so as tube free from the consequences which may otherwise glow out of this fearful i?sue Yes, sir, if the South is forced to take hei destiny in her srjwrnlc keeping, let us dall we can to justify our conduct before llu tribunal of history; let us do al! we can ii the way of explanation lo dispel delusion and rebuke the mad fpitil which has in fused itself into the public mind in a por tiou of this Confederal)}'. Danger inaj speak with a loud trumpet to the ear o reason and justice. ft lllnv llA Cll.l lliof T Uoi'A a. .....j ww " vi v41Hi* & 11it u through the ordeal of experience, and per haps of time, and that they have had lliei influence on in) temper; but, sit, I look 01 anything like a rupture iu civil govern inent, and especially such a one as wouh throw us into the horrors of anarchy, will not the same view as others who may hi moro intrepid, and who may think the; can come out of it without hazard t< themselves. There is nothing ?o mischiev ous to society as any movement a (lectin] iis stability, uncontrolled by responsibiiit; and unregulated by intelligence. Digotry fanaticism and prejudice are fatal counsel ors; and under the Slinrpe'a rille intlu?nc< they have exercsed their intluencu on tin issues of the day. Now, before I approach the main poin I must dispose of some of the rcmnrk made by the Senator from New llamn shire, [Mr. Halo.J 1 reply to liis remark because he 1ms been in llns Chamber lor i | longer period than the Senator from Mas sachusctts, [Mr. Wilton,] ami lias hail us sociations here which t think ought at loasi Xo have tempered sonic of his expressions I do not intend to use the language of as perity in this debate, if I can avoid it; bu allow me to say to the Senator from Nov Hampshire that I think, when ho usee some expressions, not only in relation t< tho President of tho United States, tlx chief magistrate of this Confederacy, but ii relation to tho Supremo Court, and othoi Departments of ibis Government; and whei iio allowed himself to road from a uewspn per, under the signature of an anonyinou writer, statements in reference to a distin guisbed gentleman with whom bo bad beet associated hero?I will do him the justici to say that I hardly think ho consulted (Ik dictates of his own nature; for I believe Ilia generally he has rather shown a tempei that would lift him above such things, ex cept when lionets as tho committed archei Qttfe pulling tho arrow under tho behests of It ii Bl urging huntsmen. The Senator from Now Hatnp-diiro is a commitled advocate to i sectional, fanatical organization; and, per haps, ho is not at liberty to deny the au thority untie*; which he has entero I tin Senate. Sir, what did I hear ,lim That tho [ to Supreme Court of 'M United States was ! t? the citadel of slavery. He did not know j w when ho made that remark hoc? '"r cx*! w. tonded and what it might not e,nbr.*co? Is j vi ho not associated with a class of politicians , j in this country who have said that tho ; Constitution of tho United States?tho fun- ? ; dainental law of their country?was tho ! W citadel of slavery? Yes, sir. I have had of J pamphlets within the last week laid or. my ! Oat | desk, maintaining that tho Constitution of hit i the United States itself is the citadel of | coi 1 slavery: and that, unless it is broken down, f of I and tho institution of slavery thereby reach-1 , ; in all the States, it is a Constitution coi which ought to havo 110 validity and obli- 1 sin gation. 1 think i havo seen tho same 1 an ' ! statements in a paper called tho Radical of ; Abolitionist. When the Senator speaksof j no , the Supreme Coui 1 as the citadel of tho in- ; is 1 , stiluliou of slavery, ho might better have ge designated ll.oin as opposed to tliose who bii havo called tho Constitution of their coun- j on ; 11 y tho citadel of slavery. Sir, I would Cli prefer regarding the Judges of tho Supreme #hi , j Court, as far as I know anything of their . Dc ( decisions, as the sentinels and defenders of to I tho Constitution ? a Constitution rocognis- yo ' ing the equality of the States, and at least Ics imposing on llicm such obligations as that tai llioy are not permitted to tiausfer their Uu judgments into another jurisdiction, pie- lib scribed, I suppose, by what is technically tlx ( called tho higher law?a jurisdiction of 1 tlx di cretion and prejudice. \ tin 'l hcy have not gono down or up?as tlx gentlemen may choose lo consider it?to di* j tho higher law. As far as I know the ga' ' court?and 1 havo had intercourse with its j fro i venerated ami venerable chief justice, frotn j I I my official position as chairinuti of tlic tin j Coininiltee on tlie Judiciary?I ?1<> not be- nic I licvo I. have ever known a body of men boi ( more honestly disposed to <lo their duty of ! | under the obligations of the power which tio ( gavo them the right to discharge judicial tat functions. 1 believe, when our first par- hit 1 enls were driven out of l'aradise, it was Th under the suggestions of the higher law. Nc | Tho Devil went in and suggested to Eve lin thatlhcic was a higher law; and, disregard- del ing tho law under which she was placed las , ; in Paradise, she and her posterity have sio ' suffered the penalties of disobedience: trans- j do ' grcssion is tin. 1 wish to recognise no tri- tin ' htinal and no set of opinions which will at- . | j tempt to rule the countly except by some aft' prescribed law and a constitution laid down At tor them by those who give them their I bo r! ofticial existence. 1 believe that the Stt an ' pieine Coui t has committed errors, though ha not intentionally. I heliovc their decision we in the ca-.e of Prigg and Pennsylvania has | ro< led to mischievous consequences not in- j nc , tended by the cotut. When tlic court tin- wl dcrtuok to say that the Slates tliemselvos wl , might be absolved from the duly imposed no j o:i tl em by the Federal compact of return- ?a; ing fugitives from labor, I think ihev made on s a decision tending t<> absolve the States of ! from the bono: of compacts. " Thev did not *ei ' say it in so many words, nor do I think th; their decision i> i f l!iat import, bat the i.u , iiwii aim? iiunnir^ mail's nave m) CUllSlrUOd "I1 it. Instead of that decision being a jmlg bli [ nient from the citadel ofslaveiy, it lias io- ph ' douuded entirely in its consequences to tin- | ev lion slaveholding States of this Union; or uo rather to let their accommodating morality ne lake icfuge in it?to excuse them for <li-.ro- do gardiug the obligations imposed upon them w? , as co operative agencies Arc. an I would rather regard that high tribunal hi as one which could look abroad upon the an . vast and beautiful hoiizon oftruth and jus l>e ( lice. I .should not wish to see them govern co cd by that popular agitation which is at ( threatening to undeiiuine the institutions it ; of the country, and to destroy, not only the bo present form of our Union, but to wash awav m the very landmaiks of our forefathers. In at such a case I would bo glad to see tbe Su- ca L . r prune Court, like tbe proud promontory in i:t tbe deep, ' ot '"Let the fc nihil ccona Htirgc upon its base, so l/;t storms assail us summit?" . to r I wish it to statu! lirm at least as tbe type in , of the duration of the institutions of this in . country, and as an emblem of eternal jus- In | tice. 1 at least w ish that, amidst tbe agi in , lalion of tbe time, it shall maintain itsid.-n dc e tity. I.ct not the Senator from New tin k. Uampshire suppose that he can assail or , touch that promontory by any shaft that m . he may aim at it. '1 lie band that shoots cu T , the arrow may belong to one more willing of y j to wound than-it can lie able to iiuil. It II has certainly been discharged by an archer tli . 1 occupying too great a distance from his ob- an j, joct to do barm. Lot mc hope that there sti e is more of the hand than the lioart that I >i has been exhibited in the shot. Theweap co I on has fallen harmless. se s After the Senator from New Hampshire a" . bad disposed of the Supremo Court under , s tip ''? >.I,M.j.,torv epithet, ho approached '-It . ll... i -- - - , ...? . . ?. -- vi. .. I .1111 IIUl UIIU t>i lIJl'Sl' WJIO 1,1 mi Icrtako to defend the President on ull pc occasions; but, sir, lie is the Chief Magis- i" L i trate of thi-> Confederacy, and whilst, I am 1? , in the Confederacy, I will see at least that ge a neighbor's hand, moved, petliaps, l?y a of t, resentful rivalry, shall n?>t wound tlie Chief lb , Magistracy of ill" whole Country. The h<* 1 Senator from New Hampshire took exeep- ar< > lion to the course which the President has vo i taken, by saying that ho had committed ati i himself to a different judgment ami a tlilTcr - ch r I cut course of conduct by receiving Dorr fat i when he was a refugeo from jusiico from co | Rhode Uland, and then sustained him by fa1 s resolutions which were passed while he co | was chairman, I think, of some Democratic '* i association. Mr. l'icrco is arrayed against ( it* 3 1'resident Pierce. Does the Senator sup- i mi j pose that the Chief Magistrate of this Con- ci( t fedarncy, after ho has attained the high po- n? r sition which ho now occupies, is to admin- wt | i?ter his trust as a common trusteo for all i hri r tlio people of the I uited States according pe i to any opinions which ho may have enter- gr ' lained on any former occasion when he fn i was ciiairman of a Democratic society? lie | Why, sir, you might as well say that one lb' ; ascending a mountain should stop half way mi ?l and oonsult the vision which he thon had, an I rather than the certainty of tho more ex-' do tided vision which he would have ofler alining iho summit, where tho horizon ould he more distinct, and where he ould have a larger and more extended ew. The Chief Magistrate of the United ales is trustee of tho wholo Union. Lie not tho organ of any portion of New a nips hi re; nor is ho subject to auy latitude, ixtho vigilance and even solicitude a guarJ'an> ?-"* mUR' protect tho inters and rights of all who are committed to i care. He is noi now a Party in the ntroversies of a former bu! a judyc all the parties before him. Sir, tho last thing to which I can eve* nsent is, that any man who goes abroad nil wound tho home of his resdencc. I 1 not specially interested in tho history New Hampshire, but I say that this is t the place to expose her infirmities, nor this the place to take occasion, because a ntleman gets a seat on this floor, to ng under proscription the conduct of 0 of his fellow-citizens, who is now the lief Magistrate of the Confederacy. I ill not justify Mi. l'ierco for receiving >rr at the time, hut I will say in relation him, that he was then comparatively a ting man, and that having cultivated the sons of liberty which his ancestors had ight him, much, in the langurgo of Mr. irke, is to l>e pardoned to tho spirit of ertv. Another thing is to be said, that 1 judgment in relation to Dorr had not :n been formed. It was then passing ough the ordeal of trial, and 1 know it that delude 1 young man had many tinyuishal spin pat hizers. Mr. Tierce vc Dorr shelter; this is the head and lit of his offending. Sir, 1 have always regarded it as one of s most odious acts of the British Covcrn:nt, when Napoleon Bonaparte went on ird the Bellerophon, claiming the rights hospitality, that thev changed his condia into that of prisoner of war. His repuion a d position in tho woild entitled n to the rights and honors awarded to eniistoclos. If Dorr, instead of going to w Hampshire, hn<l gone to South (Jnron, perhaps, at that time, 1 myself, to the luded yonnd man, would have l?een the t to have seen him sacrificed to his deln ns; and I believe much may he parnod to the spirit of liberty, guided by j ardor of youth. I come now to another personage in this air, a distinguished friend of mine, Gen. chison, who has also received the notice th of the Senator from New Ilampshiie d the Senator from Massachusetts. 1 vc known General Atchison long and 1!. They have attributed to liiin a ferity and vulgar inditTorence and leekle-s4s in relation to the afi'.iirs of Kansas lich is refuted by every confidential letter rich he has written to me, and which it in conformity to the truth. 1 will not y that torn. Atchison is the enemy of any e. 1 will not say th it he is the enemy the cmiginntrt in Kansas who have hoen it there hv the aid societies; but I say at 1 know of iio mail, within the age of my acquaintance, who could he rested inoic itfeclu lly with the nltii les of the Cotiqiieior of that class of peo *. And how do vou suppose lie would ercisc that high powei? Let those who w asperse him settle around him as ighhors, and ifllie r l:ou-i wvie harued mi and assistance were required, he >uld be tiist man to render tbein assistee, and he would coiunier them hv his ndiicss, 1 \ liis justice, by his good S'-n-e, d by his (joiH'fosily.' '1 here was uovor a tier illustration of his character than the it J net he displayed in the expected tiagedy Lawrence. I know the fact, ami 1 station inv own authority, as a tiuth not to disputed, (hecauso I have liis letters in y drawer,) that, when that controversy ose, General Atchis-m was absolutely Hod upon to attend I'lvhardson's com and, and lie went, with a positive pledge i the part of those with w hom he was asdated that he should rather bo the Menr than the leaih-r; and ho has written to e that but f>r his mediatotial offices, the iuse& of the people of Lawrence would iVe been burnt and the streets drenched blood. An appeal was made to him ua ir circuinstances which his magnanimous iture could not resist, lie had the cour ;o to do a duty which in its performance iglit even offend Ids comrades and a*so ites?a courage much higher than that meeting an open enemy in ilio lield. e elfectuallv exerted his influence, under c appeal made to him, to save from tiio id sword the village of Lawrence, tho ronghold of the aid society emigrants, ul for the gentle advice, and, perhaps, nlroiling influence, of Atchison, tiio lions of the settlement would Itavo been hiirtit id its highways drenched with blood. When those people were suppliant*, how ffertnl they fell then from what ilieir caiuuies have evinced since! The generous son who saved them i> to he converted to their ferocious persecutor. Atchison i.-> he immolated on the altar of fanatical vonnnce; and that, too. through (lie medium anonymous w riters in newspapers, under e sanction of speeches made in this t'liamr. Well, sir, is this to he his requital? o aspersion and misrepresentation to per rt the truth of history? (tcntlemen have tributed to him a ferocity of unexampled functor?an attribute that cannot nssimi ;c to his nature. Throughout the whole ntest lie has always said that ho was in ror of?to uso his own expression?"the rnpetition o( preemption settlers." Jle licved that it competition had been left to elf, and if there had been no hostile dconstration on the part of the northern sorties, Kansas would have been settled by ighbors knowing each other, and who >uld have lev objection because they did low oaclt other; and that ill tho end, rhaps, thcro might have been a few nooes, probably an "old mammy," or some roiito servants for household purposes, or Id laborers, contented in and bettered by pir condition. Ho supposed that there gli have been a population of that sort, d such as tho mastors would not like to >ert, and inch as the) would not commit | to try the title of the two clitlereiit sections to lite public domain, the common domain irclongini; to tin: whole Union. I suppose tho emigrant aid societies' settlers may In regarded as ottO party, and ulfat tliey choose to call the border rulHans the other party?one the John l>oo, the other Licitaid Hoc, in this lnu>tsit. 1 am perfectly willing that the suit shall he tried bv jus lice and truth, and u<>l under the lieate I declamation of gentlemen who intend l< | inllanre the public mind of their own sec! lion, without regard to the dictates of th?. , tuith of history. Now, what are the facti in relation to this case? As I have them ! from authentic sources, they are not such a> can give Johu l>ue much credit. In my opinion, tiovcrnor Kccder wil have to answer more than any other hu man being f?r the blood which will hi sl.cd ?if any shall he shed?for he occu pied :m important position to ccnlru events. I suppose trono will doubt now ] i i;u wnen ui?' .Missouri line was a<Iopteil I it was done I'} a mere legislative power and therefore c.uld bo wiped out I.v tin >:iuie coin potent authority. Missouri was ndintlol u. ailist the consent of the Noith i as a body; hut the South, in a -pint .>! compromise, agreed to that line. How ha? -he been treated.' Since I have heen r nieniler of the Senate, no opporturr'ty ha? heeu offered when some northern man Iranot, on the occa-ion oftenitory being ae ipiited s ?utli of that line, made a motior to exclude the slaveholder. There ha- n < heen a single occasion, when the oppoitu nity has been presented, when they hnv? not violated tlie implied pledge coti'.aitiei in the obligations of that line. 1 ring i in their ears. If I had no other cause t< wipe out the line, I could tind it in tin fuel that they have not regarded it in gooi faith, hut have violated their public honoi and plighted faith, a- expressed on tin statute bo>k. When Oregon was orgatii Zed into a lerritorv, this feeling so far pre vailed that it would not allow Southcri inoa to vote for it, upon the ground, lint inn-nun.h as the territory lay north of .'it deg 30, it might he organized under tin , intendment of tho Mi--ouii cornprotni.-e. Sir, you will remember tho oeeuuenci o( the war with Mexico. Day after daj many ! us went to the War Departmen expecting to hear, what many did hear, tin dreadful le-ults of battle to friends an I re , lalives. 1 suppose we mav consider t o war with .Mexico as having been fought It a ceitain extent to acquire the territory I which followed its termination through tin .......It..... ..r ? t. - ... mi.!.* *?? in ?\L lllJll IIIIK" when the South contiibutod as many men and as much money, for the projection o the war as tho North?the South sending furtli many more men?did I not hoar ; Senator from New Yoik [Mr. I >iv j rise in Inv^Saee and s iy tliat lie intended to main tain the NVilmot proviso, on tho ffroun mainly that it would create a cordon o free Stairs around the slavchoMing States and with tho assertion of tho superior civ ilizalion of tho free States? Was that nc violation i>f the Missouri compromise? I put it now faiily to tho men who spoak it this healed language, if territory were U ho acquired to-morrow wouhl they not pro pose tho samo W ilmot proviso? 1 >o they think that no violation of the Missuur compromise? They claim positively a! that was conceded to them, and deny tlx benefit of its provisions to tho South thai | made the concession. Now, I am willing to propose a game of fair play. Let th opinion of the people, us it may Ir fonnto in the process of territorial existence, deter mine the character of the State, and wtelh or the Stale picketing herself Cot admit ' to tlie Abolitionist*. It would lim e been, i > technical phrase, perhaps, h populatio 11 with some masters, but with some servant j and scarcely any slaves. Those called mm teis would have been inoro like guardian: i and those called slaves would have bee better ofl' for their protection. In this r< labor, lliey become objection.*!.' to the Abe lilionists, who are willing to st'i then free, that they may become vagabonds, am bo destroyed under the philanthropy v proscription and rivalry. Under tho current of this settlement j Kansas would likely have become a quas i c\nnmunitv, with many white men and few : negroes?with labor capable of being use fully and profitably employed?a com in u nity of farmers, using labor as they thought proper. In this way, by accretion, Kani sas might have become a State. Sir, I am not going to put on an equality, or auything liko an equality, the movei meats and conduct of those who have gone I to Kansas with Sharpy's ritles in their hands, 1 and the Missouri "border ruffians," as they have been termed. They ara not in pari ' dclirtie. Tho difference between the population of a portion of tho two sections lias ncvor been ?o well illustrated as in I that very denionstation. The western people, of daring gallantry, of open hospitality, , trust to tho occasion, and when they draw ! the sword, it is rather under the influence | of heat and passion than malice?but with ; a fertility of expedients that is equal to i craft; and if they commit homicide under such circumstances, it is reduced at least ! to the grade of manslaughter. When, I however, I see an organization at a distance : of a thousand miles from the Territory, sending out men who go, not with fowl ; ing-pieecs or the ordinary rilles, or com WM ?V.I|' MIJ ' I ? llitll lllO III 1^ II ( 1 use, but all going with ono uniform gun ? , Sharp's rifle?let mo not ho told that (hoy ! were going there for merely the innocent I purpose of settling tlio Territory tlionv i solves. It is evident they were going there j to drive off others, if it became a contest, which the Missouri "border tutlinns," ns I they arc called, never anticipated. The crime ' of those who are designated by that name, if hotnicide'should be committed, would be much nearer "the character of manslaughter, whilst the blood shed by their oppO' ncnts would much nearer approach a inerccnarv homicide. Now, sir, 1 suppose this controversy may be regarded as a great ejectment case? 1> rhasrs the tricatest that ever was tried ? > ti<> mofc. Wliat was the President to dounder these I circumstances! \\ ho brought about this r catastrophe? What is the altilydc of these men! Tliey have taken the law into their < own hand*, and when the)' did so they im plortd David II. Atchison for mercy, and 1 lie saved them, llere 1 will do him the t 'justice to say that ho has not heretofore : 5 passed the Itnbicon with the spiiit of an e ambitious ruler; l?ut if hereafter ho ever passes that Kuhieon, all his lieuevoloiice ? i> and it is vi ry large? w ill not enable him , to overlook the taunts and iambs which t have been heaped upon him. If David II : \tchison shall ever pass the lino again, and sar, a^ thesar did, ' I have passed tlie Kuhi2 con, and now 1 draw the sword," I should dread tlio content, for the very reason that ' r he who goes into matters of this kind with reluctance D most to bo feared, Hcmem, her, sir, that Hector, at the scige of Troy, ; , was the last to espouso tlie cause of one I who had done dishonor to Priam's house, j and he was the la>t to desert it. lie per i ished for the coward who got him into tlie i difficulty. Tlio proud patriot was averse to the quarrel of otfeminato Paris?but once 1 in, lie was the last to yield up the honor of f the house of Priam. Sir, this subject enlarges itself very much mi in.- i ;uii.iii.'ii ?.t g? otleme i who have > spoken tip'>n it. 1 shall use no epithet* I toward" the senator from New Hampshire, i I have thus far attempted to avoid thern. I > have characterized his speech, but 1 have J used no epithets. Tito senator from New llmnpshiru undertakes to say that, throughi out tho wh.de of tho controversy in relation i to the public domain of the United States, ? the South have been the aggressors. ' Southl cm aggression" was tho term on his lips ? [ southern aggression?southern insolence ? and dough face treason on tho part of hi* ! own countrymen! Ilotli statements ate untrue. I do not impute to hint personal , untruth. 1 make the remark in a bistort I cal and parliamentary dobate, and ! am -a ii sion shall admit or exclude slavery bo no] n bar to her admission. s, Sir, that compromise, as it has been call- I i- cd, has never been observed. There never s, , it as been an opportunity offend when those ; ii who cry out about its abrogation have not ? | been willing to violate its true intendment, i > ' I say its true intendment, because south of 11 that lino it was always understood that the i people should have a right to hold slaves ! f or not, according to their own oplii n. In I j re^^d to tlio Territory of Kansas, I think , I it might well have been left a debatable j i ground?nen!?er to call it a slaveliolding ' r nor n non-slavchoiu'ug Sbite. It was an - occasion when wo migt.'t lia\"? cemented, . in some measure, the bonws of the .'.'ncient t brotherhood; but no, sir, we finu that ge."'* ' - tlemeu conic in with tlio liible in one hand to prcncli against slavery, and the torch in the other. Tnat is the attitude in which they present themselves in tlio temple of i our common deliberations?tlio torch in , one hand and the 1 tible in the other?the pulpit and Sharpe'a rille. Under the ban! ncr of theology, incendiaries march, with i torches in their hands, proclaiming God's i will, but doing their own. 1 have stated one reason why the Missouri line should have been disregarded by , | tin- southern people. Now I go further, ; and 1 say, in regard to the immediate is- j i suo on which the President has inado the proclamation, he is justified, llow was > it brought about? I said before, that Governor lteedcr was responsible for it. 1 say , so flow. Hy what authority did lieeder , go to Kansas! lie went ilicre under the i authority of a law rcgulaily constituting a , Territorial Government. He went there to be its Governor, and to carry out the provisions of that law, just as much as if the Missouri line bad not been repealed. llecdcr received liis commission as a tenant tinder a land lord; and I have always said j that it was one of the wisest provisions of the common law that no tenant should he i allowed to dispute his landlord's title. Ho , : was placed thero as a sentinel*, hut what J was liis course ? He liist assembled the >1 Legislature at Pawnee City. They were ! not long there before they adjourned to > J the Shawnee Mission. He refused to sauc' tion the adjournment, ami the very first hill brought to him afterwards was one , chartering tho Kickapoo Kerry Company, : 1 think, lie refused to sanction the bill, and refused to maintain the authority which had been conferred on him, and without which he would have been a criminal intrui der. As ho was there under the color t>f i law, he was in a position to do much evil ! or to do much good, lie was the trusted officer on the quarter deet in a storm, and l?y his judgment might save the vessel, lie refused to continue with Iris trust, and has ! given rise to fearful trial. Well, sir, wjieli Keeder would not do his duty and carry out the provision of the I law, what was the President to do? lie ?, ibovc him, of enitse. When ho was removed, what w as the tiexlstcjd Those who J call themselves fiec State settlers, etni- ! grants sent orrt by the ; id societies, tissetn- 1 . bled at Pig Springs, and- nominated as I i their tloveruor (perhaps I may ho mistaken, as their 1 relegate to Congres-) this [ inan, who was in open rebellion to Iris . ; own authority?a man who had disputed , 111o title iiiuler which he entered the Territory. They not only did that, but they j instituted proceedings for establishing- a government to invent themselves, under the name of squatter sovereignty, with, I suppose, the right ofusnrjrers. They had a second meeting at Topeka, and adopted a , , constitution in convention, and under that constitution elections have been held, and a ! r <i ivcrnor, judges, and members of tho leg- j , isl.aturo have been elected. That I*egi?!a I t lure was to assemble yesterday. (?od knows , what may ho the?tragedy growing out ??f the 4th of March, Ifljti. Sir, tho news of what occurred in Kansas on the 4r|; , March, 18o(?, may bring its the intelligence t which will he the knell of the institutions ? I will not say of lho Union?of this eountrv; f r I hope there is wLdoni enough [ leli to preserve republican institution* in , durable form, should the present Union be speaking of transactions. Let the senator answer me one question: When Virginia ceded tho Northwestern Territory, out of which five free States have been created, was it southern aggression? When she parted with that domain, and gave it ovor to the non-alaveboldiiig population of the North, was it southern aggression? She parted with her domain, and bestowed it as a bounty upon those who have enjoyed it. I will not say who is the Cordelia or the liegau in the sisterhood, but I can say who has been the Lear. It was the Old Domin ion. Littlo did Virginia think, when sire planted those States by her own hand, that they would give rise to a controversy in which an opinion would be inculcated by which the should- bo reproached for her decrepitude. She can well say, '7fow sharper than a serpent's tooth it is To luvO o t'mnkUos chiki!*' j Hosiilo alliC have availed themselves of tho power tints ucq'med, and, like a cockatrice, aro willing to sti.VJf the bosom that gave them life, iL'O nurse*, however, are much worse than children, some C'f whom I have reason to know are true hear'od, and are willing to maintain good faith, but , for the intermeddling of faiinlical influence that regards no rcstiuiut of law aud compact. - - | Do you call that southern aggression? The South then parted with her power, aud now it is rcgaided as southern aggression ' when she resents the insults of those who have availed themselves of it. At least, this much may be fairly said?the fanatical portion of tho North are willing to use all the advantage thus given to assail the southern section. Now look at the acquisition of the Territory of Louisiaun. There the South agreed to exclude herself from all that ! pot lion of it north of 3G dog. 30 min., and j one free Slate, Iowa, has been formed out of that portion of the Territory. The senator from New Hampshire quoted the opinions of many senators to the effect that Kansas is not to he a slave State. Sir, 1 do not know that it will be a slavcholdiug State. 1 say, however, that when the southern portion of the United Stales pari- I cd with that dominion which we rightful- j ly possessed, aud allowed ourselves to l>e i excluded from the Louisiana territory, we I played the pail of a geucrous parent who lias only met with the scorn and contempt j which a want of1 wisdom justly deserves. It I was putting a rod in the hands of other?, without knowing who ihev were, under the hope that it would be used as a wenp- ! on <>f common defence, but which has j been used against the donor as a means of controlling his authority. When we obtained California, by whose tie isure and wlio?e arms was it acquiied? Sir, I will not imitate the example of the so lator from New Hampshire. I will not, in tny place, allow myself to say that it 1 was not acquired by northern as well as j l>y southern arms, and l>y uorthern as j well as by southern treasure. A protest was made that that acquisition was to re dottud to the South. Let me ask where the ' *300,000,000 which it is said huvo been j collected from California have been poured out, like the dew of liesveu, which arises in | one place aud descends ou another? 1 w ill ii"t -ay, in this connexion, that I mi edit I iinblazoii liso fame and gallantry of south ern heroes and goncraU. 1 might be *s proud of ill j gallantry of my own section as antiquity was of the heroes of Greece anil of Rome, ami the heroes of Muiathon. 1 will j not refuse a coiniion grave to the gallant Ransom, ami the equally gallant Dickersou j wlio tell in the same battle. I would not' deny to them the mingled wreath of the laurel ami the cypress. Sir, in the face of the truth of history, when we have shed our : b'ood in a common coolest, and when we acquired a territory by common treasure, what ia the fact? lias it not been appro- : printed to the non slavcliokling portion of this confederacy, under a nor.-Javcholding constitution! That is s >ulhcru aggression! I >i 1 tlie honorable senator from N'cw , Hampshire think that he could satisfy any J one w l'?. U. aid him on these |>oint-d No, sir; but it looks as if he intended to feed the ' tlames which are burning, but which lie, in his benevolence, ought to extinguish. The gravamen of his argument, however, j i-, th .t Texas was annexed with a view to 1 pander to southern insolence and pride. \(i\V I inlntl.l il? ll?n? eonnnv 1 ' .? mnv vumiVAIUII, i KJ |MU' pound some questions which those who | agio.* with him will fitul it \ory difficult to swallow, They have been so much u?cJ to eating dainty things at the North that their stomachs are not quite strong enough far the wholesome food which 1 might of f> r them, and which their sentimental stomachs might reject. I will put my question*, however, to the senator from New Hampshire, for I am better acquainted w ith him, and I suppose he is the organ, j and stands at the head, of those who agree w ith hiin in opinion. Would ho consent j that Texas should have become a British , province, with the certainty that England would place that province in the same condition as its West India islands, and with tho certainty that her policy would bo to innko war on the institutions of LouLiana and other soulhe' 11 Stn'e*? Would ho take the part of Kng and in such a controversy sooner than of those who have i givc'ti us our liberties and our lights? 1 Would lie consent that Groat Britain should tako possession of Texas, anil make war, liken roaring lion seeking whom it may , devour among its neighbors) Would he consent to that, on an acknowledged con j diiion only that it should not have slaves, I and should be pledged to make war on the institutions pf the southern States! Would lie agree to make war on his southern ! con federates on such conditions and through such agencies! . I The next question which I have to propound on that point i?, whether they would consent thai Texas should up to this time have retained her separate existence hs an independent republic upon our Itorders, carrying on, in a coimntnorcial point of view, a comjietition with us, which would Itavo redounded to the :fdvai>lage of tho South; because, if Texas had opened her ports under the doctrine of free trade, she would have conciliated her southern neighbors both by propinquity, consanguinity, interest, and trade, and she would have had a right to do it? The Xorth would have suffered luoro by her separate exist* cnco than the South, becauso they would have brought goods to Galveston, and when they got there nil the Shnrpe'e rifles and the pulpits of the Nprtli could not pre* vent thetn from going wherever the people chose to carry them. I say nothing about smuggling. Let those do it who are ac, customed to it. 1 wi.?b to make no invidi* \ out distinctions; but I may romarlc that the Yankee is a very keen fellow, and I think ! he is the pioneer at bargan making and trade wherever there is an opportunity. The next question I put to the genlla* men is, whether they would consent now to remit Texas to her original condition, and let her assuiile n separate existence as a rival republic? They would do none of these things it they would consult the public mind of their constituents. They might say sr, but they would ho rebuked about as effectually as any public men could be rebuked whenever they appealed to that judgmeuf. These are hard anestions, I admit. I ast them, would -ther agree that England should take Texas and exclude slavery, or that,Texas should continue to be a separate republic! or would they expel her now from tho Union if in their power? Why talk of these thing* when they do not intend to do what ther speak about! They would do no such thing. They would not dare to do it. Still, they resort to the safety-valve of rhetoric to get rid of these difficulties, and to pour out it* effusions on a deluded constituency. They make tut eje parte motion, and do not expecf a judgment ou iL Now, sir, I have disposed of most of the topics which hare been introduced into this debate, and I eoiue to the main gravamen of the matter before us, and Utat is, what is the President to do? Suppose the so-called legislature assembled in K*""t ou the 4th of March alieolutely hoisting the banner of treason, rebellion, and insurrection, w hat is the President to do! I tell you, sir, as much as the gentlemen to whom I allude denounce the President, if he should not interpose his peace-making power in Kansas, that legislature will be opposed, and opposed by meu as brave aa they are, with weapons in their hands, and the contest will be decided by the sword. ' If it whs onl v to involve them, perhaps it would not he of serious consequence; but the feeling which they have engendered is j>ervading tbo republic. Even in my own State I perceive that parties are being formed to go to Kansas; adventurous young men who will tight anybody. Sir, let me cntuion you, do not hold out to the youth of this country a temptation to go into scenes of blood. If you do this, you will commit the gravest of all controversies on earth, and the most important concerns of society to the youth of the country, for they ., will go there; and the cause of a republic may be decided by the judgment of youthful impulse. Will gentlemen tell me that the President was not to interpose ami save them from such a con'esi? R?r, he would be guilty of a criminal dereliction of duty if lie wore not to interpose; for, by interpo.nwr 1 .1 * '' v> ion miiu utem irorr. ilio consequence* of this issue. 1 do not advise him to firo lite federal gun, of which the senator from New Hamp-tbirc spoke. God knows, as I have said, one drop of Wood sited ia civil stiife in this country may ?K?t only dissolve this Union, but may do won-e. Sir, I have such confidence in the good sense of the country that 1 believe republican institutions might survive tlie present Union. Iteally it is broken already; for the spit it which cheiislted it has been extinguished, and the very altars upon which wo ought to worship have been profaned by false fires. I have been accustomed only to look at this Union to bo preserved by observing the obligations of the federal constitution, and the honor of compacts, and as to be maintained by the good faith of that old l'uritan school which formed the constitution, and did not have quite as much sentimentality nssotne of their suecosiois. 1 do not say what kind ofsucceasjis thev nro. Sir, the men of those day* had :i hardy morality which dealt with events as they were. They had a wisdom which knew how to accommodate itself to ciicuinstance#, and did not lift themselves so high that they saw moru than other*, and sought ethereal regions because the earth was too good for them. Sir, it ie not the purest bird which always seeks the highest regions of air. The vulture, it is said, lives iu the regions cf ete?na! snow, and yet it can descend fto n its ethereal height to live on garbage below. The President of the Untied States is under the highest and most solemn obligations to interpose; anJ if I were to indicate the manner in which ho should interpose in Kansns, I would point out tho old common law process. I would serve a warrant on Sharpe's titles, and if Sharpe's rifles did not answer the summons, and come into court on a day certain, or if thev resisted tho sheriff, I would summon the ;*>?? * comitalus, mid I would have Col. Sumner's regiment to l>o part of that ;*mm comitutuj. Tli9 men in Kansas may be deluded. There may ho good men among tliem. I no not w ish for an outbreak. I think there arc many men among them who, on reflection, w ill give over their delusions. I am not among thr*c who ha'.e any man because lie differs from ine, hot I do despise tho?e who are willing to commit otU. or* 10 a contest in winch they themselves will escape the consequences. Mr. l'rewidtnt, 1 shall not pursue this subject further. 1 have reviewed what l?aa been said so far as 1 thought proper to el' ludc to it, and now [ conclude with this re* mark-that if we are to l?e drifting in this way into a dissolution of the Union. I would rather that it should b* dissolved lo nror* row?I wish my words menainred?In pre* forence to living in a Union without th% w