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Gazette of the United States & evening advertiser. [volume] (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1793-1794, March 18, 1794, Image 2

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Jir commerce between her fubje&s, and
our citizens, to a blustering bullying con- ,
duit—to a vain paiade of military prepa
rations, which may furni<h forne nations
with matter for ridicule, and the enemies
of our growing itrength with a hint of an
easy and effectual method of involving us
in ruinous expenctiv. Sir, if a declaration
of war had been made fcy Britain, or by
Congress, then the arguments used by
forne gentlemen againlt the resolutions
would have weight with me—but as those
gentlemen, from what, till within a few
days, had fallen from them, appeared as
averse to war as 1 am, I cannot believe that
they will agree to a jdeclaration of war;
and without luch a declaration, 1 fee no
reason to be diverted from an attempt to
regulate our commerce, and in that man
ner, especially, Sir, which it was the wi(h
of our fellow-citizens it Ihould be regulat
ed ; a wi(h, to which I think we owe the
produdiion of the Federal Government,
and the exiftenceofthis House.
Mr. Lyman spoke nearly as follows
The difcuflion of this question hath al
ready engrossed much time. It hath been
postponed. I was in favor of a postpone
ment because, Sir, I then thought, I now
think the house were not in pofleffion of
all the information and premises neceflary
to guid; their determination on all the re
solutions proposed. It was then said, Sir,
that although we had aggravated com
plaints against Great Britain, (he could
not be so infatuated as not to render justice;
that those injuries were in atrain of nego
ciation and that it would be ralhnefs and
foily to interrupt them. I confefs, Sir,
that this reasoning had its weight with
me ; but the cafe now aiTumes a different
face. Is there any gentleman that still
doubts of the hostile and mad intentions of
that nation. Their aggressions have en
creafed: they meditate still more, and
have denied us in an unequivocal manner
any compensation ; they have added insult
to injury. Ido not fay these things with
a view to fire the public mind to resent
ment—that is alraady done to such a de
gree as to want the rather to be allayed
and given a proper direction. But it has
been said, Sir, that instead of that firm
front of defence which the danger of our
situation requires, these resolutions are
important and trifling—mere pap. I can
not think, Sir, this language is any com
pliment to the understandings of either
the community, or this house, or even
the gentlemen themselves, who so zealonf
ly oppose them. If they are infignifi
carrt as the gentlemen declare them they
ought wholly to be difreyarded. No, Sir,
they are got infignificant; they present us
with a.part at lcall; of a just and temperate
defence against a nation that with unac
countable enmity plunders and insults
us. If they are infignificant, lam con
tent to be undeceived, as not compre
hending them. I do not intend at this
time to go into a minute consideration of
the general nature of the resolution ;
that hath already been amply done, and I
am convinced, and cannot be afraid to ha
zard my opinion to the public, that it is
founded in immutable natural principles,
that will itand the tell of time. There
cannot be a plainer explanation than reci
procity of advantages in navigation and
It is for our interest to countera&the
commercial regulations of other nations
by those of our own ; to repel their fa
brics and manufactures from our country,
and to replace them with our own. We
have both the right and the power to do
it. These are truths that have been al
ways acknowledged in this country. Con
viction of their importance was one among
the causes which produced the present
constitution. We have hitherto forborn
the exercise of this right. Ido not pre
ted to arraign the motives, 1 believe they
were good, because, Sir, I recoiled that
our commerce and navigation for some
years until late hath been prosperous; al
though owing perhaps less to permanent
than adventitious causes ; to the fame cau
ses pofllbly which now conspire to oppress
and despoil it, and threaten a total difTo
lution. Was this not the cafe, I could
have been content, nay I would have pre
ferred ftfll further forbearance; but the
evils are alarming; something is unavoid
ably neceflary to be dqne, and as no gen
tleman propofea any substitute for the pre
sent system contemplated, I find mylelf
compelled to endeavour to make the bed
of thi*, with a firm reliance and perfusi
on that it wiH promote the peace and pros
perity of our country ; for I do not
think any thing we (hall do will have a
tendency to raaVe Great Britain lefa hos
tile or more friendly.
•She has already convinced us, and eve
ry one ra«ft be convinced, that we cannot
expeil any tiling from her moderation and
ju(lice*; and I hope we shall have nothing
further to fear from her force. I hope,
Sir, and I believe tins measure will attach
and encreafe the number of our friend#
and diminish and confoUmt our enemies ;
for I can by no means iubferihe to the
do&rine, that a national character is
wholly abdraoiled from all sensation of be
nevolence, gratitude, humanity,—virtues
that so highly adorn iudiviitual characters.
These, Sir, are my imprefiions ; the re
sult of a cautious and even anxious inves
tigation, in which I have endeavoured
not to be transported by either pafiion or
prejudice—but to obey the calm dictates
of my understanding, with that inde
pendence and fteidinefs which is indifpen-
Cble. (To be continued.)
January 30.
(Mr. Madison's Speech concluded.)
Mr. H's letter he observed, closed the
correspondence on the fubjeit of commer
cial arrangements, being justly considered
by the executive as a final proof, that the
pawers of Mr. H. were incompetent, and
irrelative to the object ; and that it would
be improper to open a foi-mal negociation
with him, under them. His inftruftions
might be a rule and a warrant to himfelf,
but not being even exhibited, could be no
evidence of his authority, to the executive.
And his plenipotentiary commission in the
ordinary form, could never be underttood
as relating to the special objects he pro
posed to discuss. According to the usage
of nations, a special commission is, in such
cases, always furnilhed and required. Mr.
M. was persuaded, that no sovereign in
Europe would listen for a moment to such
a claim as that of Mr. H. and that the
Britifli court would have been offended
at such an one from an American minister.
He thought therefore that the executive
had equally consulted dignity aud pru
dence, in silently dnoppiug thy fubjeft in
the fame manner they did, until Mr. H.
should receive and produce adequate pow
ers in theaccuftomed form; as might rea
sonably be expected, if his court was c(uly
disposed to meet the United States, in an
amicable arrangement of commerce, by
That the con ft ruction put by Mr. H.
on his powers, was inadmissible, appeared
to Mr. M. to lefult from theconftru&ion
itfelf. v Either thp general plenipotentiary
commifiion was tp be taken in the techni
cal and limited ferife in which it is appplied
to the ordinary diplomatic objects of a
stationary public minister ; or, in a literal
sense, without regard to fueh limitation.
In the former sense, it clearly does not ex
tend to negociations for a treaty. In the
latter sense it would extend to the concluji
on of a treaty, and not merely to negotia
tion, as Mr. H. explains and limits.
Mr. M. adverted next to the state of
the correspondence relating to the treaty
of peace. It appeared, he observed, that
as long ago as the 29th of May, 1792,
the Secretary of State had addressed to
Mr. Hammmond, a full explanation of
our rights and demands, under that treaty
—that on the 2d June, Mr. Hammond
informed the Secretary, that he (hould
transmit it without delay for the consider
ation of his court; and accordingly did
forward it in the course of a few days; that
on the 13th Nov. 1792, previous to the
present meeting of Congress, Mr. H. was
desired by the Secretary, in pursuance of
a charge from the President, to let him
know whether an answer could yet be
given to the letter of May 29, 1782; Mr.
H. replied that it could not, ; but that
he was confident the delay was to be as
cribed to the continuance of the cause al
luded to in a former answer to a similar re
The cause alluded to was the interetting
po ft lire of things in Europe, which it
was said, had diverted the attention of the
British government to obje£ts of a more
pressing nature ; and this consideration
had been urged by several members, as
an apology for the filerice observed towards
the United Slates. Mr. Madifonthought
very differently. The interval between
the receipt of the letter written by the
Secretary in May 1792 ; and the accelTi
on of Great Britain to the war against
France, had been fufficieut for the pur
pose of preparing and fending the proper
inftru&ions to Mr. H. Mr. M. added,
that the profpe£t of being engaged in new
controversies of a more serious kind in
(lead <jf juftifying an inattention to an ex
isting one, ought to have quickened the
efforts for a previous settlement of the lat
ter. This is the courfc dictated by pru
dence, to nations as well as to individuals;
and where a right disposition concurs, it
is the natural course.
It had beeii mentioned as a further rea
son ajainll the commercial proportions,
at this time, that they might draw upon
us the resentments of the Combined pow
ers. Mr. M. could fee no ground for
such an apprehension. The Combined
powers were pretty fully occupied with
France ; they could have no pretext for
conceining themselves with us, in a cafe
where we did not concern ourselves with
them ; and there was the less room for
imagining that the combination could
mifconllrue the measure into an offence
against: them ; as two of the parties, Prus
sia and the United Netherlands were in
treaty with the United States, and are
favored by the propofitioris.
7. It was finally contended that admit
ing our situation to be such as had beea
described, the mode proposed was an ob
je&ionable one.
Mr. M. said he had no predilections for
the mode that could prevent his giving
a ready preference to a better, if a bfctter
should be offered. And unless it (honld
be said, that the Legislature ought to ad
journ without doing any thing for the
public relief, he thought it incumbent on
those who objected to one proposition to
fuhftitute another that would be less ob
je&ionable. By this he meant a propo
sition not merely better in itfelf; but one
that would probably be thought so, both
within and without doots; and be more
likely to coincide with the sentiments of
erery part of the union, as well as to con
ciliate a majority of voices in the public
The firft que!Kon,he said, was whether
any thing ought to be done. If this be
decided in the affirmative, as he presum
ed to be the Wenfe of a majority of the
committee—and if war was not in con
templation as of course was taken for
granted ; the next question could only lie
between negotiation, and commercial re
gulations. Negociation it had been (hewn
was in no train, or profpeft, that could
juftify reliance on it. Commercial regu
lations alone remained. They would be
pacific in their operation. They were
the means belt suited to the temper of our
constituents. And he fmcerely believed,
that, If judiciously framed, they would be
more likely to answer the reasonable pur
poses of the community, than any others
that could be proposed.
Congress of the United States.
Friday, March 7th, 1794.
On motion,
Ordered, That Mr. Foster be the joint
committee for enrolled bills on the part of
vhe Senate, during the abfcnce of Mr.
Vining. '
Ordered, That the Secretary notify the
Hoyfe of Representatives thereof.
The bill sent from the House of Re
presentatives for concurrence, entitled,
" an ast making appropriations for the
support of government, for the year one
thousand seven hundred and ninety four,"
was read the third time.
Rifolved, That this bill pass as amend
Ordered, That the Secretary desire the
concurrence of the House of Rcprefen
tativej. in the amendments to this bill.
On motion,
Resolved, That Mr. King, Mr. Lang
don, and Mr. Strong, be a committee to
join wit h such committee as the Houfa of
Representatives may appoint on their part
to confkler and report what business is ne
ceflary to be done by Congress in the pre
sent feflio.n, and what part of the bufi
nef» now depending may be without great
inconvenience, postponed until the next
fefllon ; that the proceedings may be so
regulated a» to close this fefllon by the
firft Monday in April next.
Ordefed, That the Secretary commti
nicate this relolution to the House of Re
presentatives and request the appointment
of a joint committee on their part.
A meflage from the House of Repre
sentatives by Mr. Bgckley their Clerk :
" Mr. President—The House of Re
presentatives ha»e pafied a bill, entitled
" an act to prohibit the canying on the
Slave Trade from the United States to
any foreign place or country," also a bill,
entitled, " an ast limiting the time for
presenting claims for destroyed certificates
of certain defenptions," in which bills
severally they desire the concurrence of
the Senate."—And he withdrew.
The Senate resumed the second read
ing of the bill " in addition to the ast for
the punishment of certain crimes against
the United States," together with the a
mendments reported by the committee,
and after progress, the further coniidera
tion thereof was postponed.
Mr. Foster re[)orted from the commit
tee for enrolled bills, that they had ex
amined the bill, entitled " an acl for the
remiflion of the duties arising on the ton
nage of sundry French veflels which have
taken refuge in the ports of the United
States," and that it was dulv enrolled.
A message from the House of Repre
sentatives by Mr. Beckley their Clerk :
" Mr. President—The Speaker of tlie
House of Representatives having iigned
an enrolled bill, I am directed to bring
it to the Senate for the signature of the
Vice-Prefident."—And he withdiew.
The Vice-Prefident*figned the enrolled
bill last reported to have been examined,
and it was delivered to the committee to
be laid before the Prefidentof the United
for his approbation.
Mr. Foster reported from the commit,
tee on eniolled bills, that they this day
laid the last mentioned enrolled bill before
the President of the United States.
The bill sent from the House of Repre
sentatives for concurrence, entitled, "An
ast to prohibit the carrying on the slave
trade from the United States to any fo
reign place or country"—was read the
firft time.
Ordered, That this bill pass to the se
cond reading.
The bill sent from the House of Re
presentatives for concurrence, entitled,
" An ast limiting the time for presenting
claims for destroyed certificates of certain
descriptions"—was read the full time.
Ordered, That this bill pass to the se
cond reading.
The Senate adjourned to 11 o'clock on
Monday morning.
Monday, March 10.
The Vice-Prelident laid before the Se
nate a letter from his Excellency Jofiah
Bartlctt, governor of the state of New-
Hampshire, encloling the remonftrancc of
the Legislature of that state, against the
determination of the Circuit Court for
the Diftrift of New-Hampshire, held at
Exeter on the 24th day of O&ober 1793;
which letter and papers referred to were
On motion,
Ordeied, That they be committed to
Mr. Livermore, Mr. King, and Mr. Lang
oon, to consider and report thereon to
the Senate.
The bill, sent from the House of Re
presentatives for concurrence, entitled,
" An ast to prohibit the carrying on the
slave trade from the United States to any
foreign place or country," was read the
second time.
Ordered, That the further considera
tion thereof be the order of the day for
Wednesday next.
Agreeably to the order of the day the
bill " to erect a light-house on the head
land, and Cape of Hatteras ; and a light
ed beacon on Occacock Island in the state
of North-Carolina," was read the second
time and amended.
Ordeied, That this bill pass to the
third reading.
On motion,
That the petition of Francis Mentges,
presented the I2th of February last, be
referred to a committee.
It pafl"ed in the negative.
A meflage from the House of Repre
sentatives by Mr. Beckley their clerk:
" Mr. President—The House of Re
presentatives concur in the amendments of
the Senate to the bill, entitled, "An ad
making appropriations for the support of
government for the year one thou&nd fc
yen hundred artd ninety-four"
" They also concur in the resolution of
the Senate of the 7th inflant appointing a
joint committee on their part.
" The President of the United State*
hath notifiedthe House of
that he did on the 7th instant approve,
and (ign the ast, entitled, " An ast for
the remission of the dutie« arising on the;
tonnage of sundry French veffeU wkich
have taken refuge in the porti of tho U
nited States—
And he withdrew.
The Senate resumed the feeond reading
of the bill, " in addition to the ast for

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