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[Numb, i 6 of Vol. ll.] SATURDAY, December 22, 1792.
To the Speaker and House of Dele gates of Virgin i a. The Memorial of the people called Quakers RefpeElfully fheweth, THAT your memorialists, fcnfib'.e o the liberty they enjoy under the present government, in common with o then, do moreover acknowledge wit! gratitude the indulgences they have expe rienced in matters of conscience wherein they dissent from other foeielies of chris tian profefTors. This dilpofition in the legislature for the relief of tender confcien ces, hath encouraged them to folieit the attention of this house to other fubjefts, •which, notwithstanding they may appeal trivial to foms, are nevertheless of such z nature as to induce a belief, that a vo luntary compliance with them would be inconsistent with what they conceive tc be right for them to do. They (wppofc there are very few, if any, of the members of this house lo little acquainted with their religious principles and pra&ices, as not to know, that they have at all times heretofore scrupled to contribute in any manner towards the support of an hireling ministry ; and they trust their pa tient fufferings in times pall on that ac count, fufficiently evince that such refufal was the effedt of real conviction, and a belief that the injunction of Chnft to his immediate followers. " Freely ye have received, —freely give," remains to be a standing ordinance in his church, and a clear demonstration that a com pulsive maintenance for any set of clergy whatever, is in :onfiftent with tl e nature and defigu of the gospel ministry : They hoped, however, that ali legal demands for priests' wages, had been entirely abo lifheJ with religious establishments, with in the United States of America ; and particularly in this (late, by a law for the eftablifiiment of religious freedom, where in they find it declared that, « No man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatever. But your memorialists being informed, that a chaplain is hired by the afiembiy to attend the house during the session, and paid out of the public treasury, they be lieve it right for them to express their unealinefs at the continuance of such a practice ; as well froin confeientious scru ples, as a belief that it is inconsistent with the spirit and intention of the present conftitntion. They are however far from wifhmg to discourage any from the ex ercise of religious duties ; but being fully perfuadedthat fucha&s of devotion would be as acceptable ir. the fight of the great object of adoration and worship, were they performed at the proper expense of those who may believe it neceilary to have the affiltance of a chaplain ; so they conceive no inconvenience whatever can result from its becoming a private instead of a public expense. And, however singular your memorial ids may appear to some, in refpedl to their nonconformity to the fafhions and cus toms of the times, in dress, address, or the like, and particularly in that of not vo luntarily uncovering the head in honour to any man, or body of men whatsoever, they trust they fbafl (land acquitted by every considerate person from the imputa tion of obstinacy, or the want ofdueref pedt to those in authority, when it is re membered, that their disuse ofthat cullotn proceeds from a belief, that it originated in pride and superstition, and that it is a mark of honour due only to the Supreme Being. They believe, nevertheless, it is right for them to render to all their due, " Tribute to whom tribute is due, «uf tom to whom custom, fear to whom fear, and honour to whom honour;" which they conceive is better demonstrated by an or derly conduct, and refpeftful behaviour, than empty forms, or adulatory profeffi ons : They trust, therefore, from the le nity heretofore experienced, tiwt they By P. FREN EA U : Publifked Wednesdays and Saturdays, at Three Dollars per annum. may at least receive as great a degree of indulgence in this particular as their friends experience in other Hates, and al io from Congress, and the national afTe ri fely of France, where they have been al lowed to appear in their own plain way without interruption and without offence, when their common concerns ami ng men required their appearance before thofc in authority, whether in a legislative or jitdi ciary capacity : And feeing the depriving a man of any part of his neceffa-y appa rel by coercive means, appears to them arbitrary, and inconliflent with a repub'ii lican government, and conveys no real lionour to those who exact it ; and more over may, under particular circumllances, of aged and infirm people in inclement seasons, be attended with inconvenience, and perhaps danger too; they hope an ! request the house will take the matter in to consideration, and grant such relief ns in its wisdom may appear just and reafoi - able. Signed in ahd on behalf of a yearly meeting of the aforefaid people, held at Black-Water, in Surry coun ty, Virginia, by, adjournments from the 2rfl ir.y of the <;thmonth, 1792, to the 24th of the fame, incluflve. To th: Editor of the National Gazette. Sir, AS it is of importance that the people should know the sentiments, as well as ta lents of their representatives ; and as it is a pity that a good speech, being a rare tiling, (hould be loft for want of gather ing, I have cohered the following- trip. ji i?.nt oration on high salaries, delivered, whether in his own imagination as the le gislature, I will not pretend to fav, of **** renowned representative from the county of P... —, "Mr. Speaker, this is an important ques tion, and I cannot do ]11 it ice to mycoiifti tuents unleis I speak to it. They are a"crfe to high salaries, and as I am but their representative, the punch in the puppet, I mud speak their feelings and sentiments, as I have none of my own has been foolifhly affected, I lay fooliflily, because I am a living wmefs to the con trary, that a man is incompetent to the science of legislation without having had an education, and without much enquiry Si reading. This I ma ntai'i to be utterly falfe, and I will prove it a pofleriori, Mr. Speaker j for I hold that there is such a tiling as intuitive knowledge, and thai there are inspired politicians, as well a infpired divines. The law givers of the Israelites were inspired and I cin fee nr good reason why the law givers of th. Pennfylvanians may not be inspired like wife. If my coniiitnents did not believe in inspiration, they certainly would not have elected me, fori cannot boast of an academic education, neither can I vaunt of puzzling my brains with fnb>'e disqui sitions on government. But, Mr. Spea ker, my conflituents are n.cn of llrong and and tried faith, and bel eve that miracle? have not yet ceased ; for altho' I can but make fhift to read and sign n>y name, so implicit is their belief, thai, they join me in opinion, that I am intuitively compe tent to all the pnrpofes of legislation.— What education is necessary to make a taylor ? Surely none—it is a mechanics, thing which requires no more than hands and eyes ; and may not the slate be com pared to a pair of breeches, and be darn ed, patched and featcd accordingly ? 01 to bring the simile nearer home and more on a level with ray comprehension, ma) not the slate be compared to a Lumber yard, where little skill is requisite 10 point out the proper materials for repairing snr building, and any man of common capa city may point out the cuttings ? But Mr. Speaker whatever gentlemen may argue to the contrary, I contend that length and breadth are cffcntially necessary o a good member, and in these particulars I cannoi suppose myfelf deficient to any gentlemer m tkis house ; for as the argumentum bacu< hnu.n is often more nervous than any o liter, and produces convidtion when ever) other argument fails, Eature has amplj endowed me with this logic. This j use in two ways, either in per fori or b) broxy, and I can produce some instances o\ its eiju;.-;: y ; indeed I in some meafurt J.ve my i. at in tK s house to its persuasive power;;. Examine my dimenfions.Mr.Spea ker, judge of my weight, and if either oi the gentlemen in this house can produce i call mat will weigh more, and whose lead is larger, brains smaller, or Jkull l " 'ker, I will vacate my feat immediately; out, Sir, I am fearful, lam treipa ipon the time and patience of the house, his I hope will be pardoned when the nembers consider that in all well corrtpo ed speeches a fhuiriftiing exordium is ne efTary, and as I have now finiflied this I will come to the point and conclude with i pithy peroration ; 1 will prove fyllogif really that high salaries are improper, whether considered in a political, moral >r religious point of view j and firll po itically —high salaries make men proud ; pride is antirepublican ; therefore high alaries are improper—iecondly, morally— ugh salaries make men drink too much vine; drunkenness is a vice ; therefore ligh lalaries are improper—and laltly re igioufly—high salaries produce no tribu ation ; tribulation 13 neceilary to repen ance ; therefore high salaries arc impro- JCr —i- bus, Mr. Speaker, have I proved is clear as that things equal to one and the ■■me th.iag are equal to one another, that .ligh laiarits are injurious and wrong—ln iddition to the arguments already Hated I could produce another of equal force t iz. that we might find men who would erve much cheaper; for myownpartlwoulc confenttoferve as governor or chief jufticf or one half or indeed one third of the fa ary allowed them—l hope gentlemen wil .onfider the importance of the trust de egated to them, be faithful stewards, i'>t squander away the public money or nch trifles as the officers of government; ! he great Cmcinnatus I am told, follow 1 the plough, when he commanded the iioman legions, and why may not oui late commander do the fame,: am ave the Hate two thoafand a year? FOl II y own part I think the honor of thf hing a fufficient reward ; not that I havt my objections to two dollars a day my elf, because this is a moderate allowance or a man who stretches his brains, a: 'g ht as a fiddle firing in the lervice o ns country. (To be continued.} In the origin of the infurredion of St. Do mingo. [Tranflaxed from the French] T- HE French revolution has caufec urn a (hock in all the dependencies of thi rmpire, a 1 ! such a difi'uiion of light ha: :Tued from the metropolis, at once de trudlive or ancient prejudices and so com pletel) eveloping the whole system o/'thi natural rights of man, that we mull not inly in hrture forbear ere&ing new poli ical structures upon those conventional inundations, which have thrown the mo dern European governments into such 2 chaos of confufion ; but alio avoid fnp porting or in any degree ct-nntenar eing t 1 ofe which have hitherto b.en crested on a similar plan. The boldetl experiment, perhaps, that has ever been made Gnce the exifter.ee of the civilized slate of na tions, has bej:un to inllnuate into the minds of people, even the most stupid and enfiaved, an idea of their own llrength. and the means of breaking their chains; and will, when they are completely difen* tangled from their fetters, elevate their minds to a sense of the due dignity and im- [Total No. i2o.j portance of relying upon reason for thei 1 guide inall human concerns. Mankind are now about to carry into prafticea theory, which i as hitherto ap peared io little adapted to the condition and nature of the world wa live in, that rven those tyrants pafled (fit visionaries, who had exprcffed iheir appreheniions tnat it would one day become a prafh'cal fyfteifl. Every Frenchman now under- Itands that the general good is the great end of all laws, and the themomcter of t.'ieir value ; and that the advancement of this general good alone obligates a peo n'e to obey them. He also knows that t-.e people have a right to annul them whenever they fee fit, and even to change a conllitutioti itfelf whenever it fails of attaining this end. 1 his truth, so folemniy declared In the conuitution of France, so well understood and now become so familiar to all minds' will inceflantly pursue, till they are whol, !y destroyed, those vicious initiations, which facrifice one country to the inter ests of another, and on the altar of ambi tion immolate men to men. The anti luityof political abuses, and the ambi guity of sophistry, which has hitherto i upported them, will no longer conceal i heir weakness and danger. The people know very well, and the courts of all princes mull loon confefs, that what has been, mud not determine what is to be, any more than what ought to be. It was by lofingfight of these maxims, To eflential to colonial government, that the whites of St. Domingo, and the con stituting allembly, (which was weak e nough to ariopt their tyrannical opinions) :>cca(ioned the revolt of the blacks in that island It is perfe&ly ridiculous to attribute this event to any pretended machinations of the frinds of the black#, or even to their philanthropic writings, as the white colonilt have presumed to fay, and as the minister of the marine has insinuated upon their authority, without condescending to bring the least proof. Pliilanthropic societies, much older and of much better reputation than out own, subsist in Great Britain, and yet the Ja* maica negroes, and those of the other Butifh insular coloni s, so difficult to controul, and always inclined to revolt, have never been more peaceable than since the institution of those societies In North America, a rich and influential feci have publicly demanded the emanci pation as the blacks ; nay, whole states and the Congress itfelf have either pro- K'nbed, or will ioon pi ofcribe every spe cies of slavery : The free mulattoes there enjoy the fame privileges as the whites and yet there has not been the least sti r of iiilurre.'lion, altho' the population of the iouthern dates consists principally of negro Oaves. The negroes themselves are not fools. They hav £o bferved enough to know that the whites are almost every whc ; e engaged in some way or another ameliorating their condition, and that every tlung is doing for them thatpofiibly can be done. They infer from thence that in the present fituatidn of tiling the moll prudent part they can take i s so submit to the laws, keep to their work and obey their matters. ' Very different has been the conduct of the v. hite mailers on the island of St Dom'ngo. The effects produced are therefore contrary to those in the United States In the general (hock of the French revolution, the negroes mull have been absolutely as stupid as the brutes themselves not to have seen, that inllead of bettering their condition, a more griev ons burden was ptepariug, in reducing them to endless political slavery, by de priving even the free muiattoe3 of the rights of citizenship; to whom all the ancient French laws, and partcuiariy the code roir (black system) of 1784, .had granted them precisely the fame pri-