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the third clay of January, in the present
year, r 793. In tliic report you acknowledge that you began to draw bills on account of the mo llies, arifmgfVam the foreign loans, on the 15th of December 1-90 ; and 011 the 31 it of October, 1791, had drawn to the amount of 1,005,526 dollars and 36 cents, of which large sum it appears by your letter of the 13th of this month, no more than 361,391 dollar iad 34 cents had been paid into the Treasury fomerime'm 1791, leaving 011 the said 23d-of "Janti ary 1792, the date of yo;n firft mentioned memorable report, a sum ot 644,135 dollars and 2 cents in your hands, unaccounted for and concealed from public view.—But this is not all :itis w ell known that in confeouence of your said memorable report of the 23d of January 1792, a motion was produced in Congress on the Bth of March following to refer it to you t<> report " your opinion of the belt mode of raising the additional supplies re quilite for the eiifuing year.":—which, as ' ter violent couteft was carried in yourfa vour by a majority of one or two votes, including in that majority the votes ot al! the Bank-Dire£tors. I fay nothing, by the by.;, of the artificial neceffiry you had thus created for additional supplies, and which produced a reference to you to report real not artificial means of supply—nor of the fitnation of the Bank-Directors, the only men in Gongrefs who knew a word oi your fecrct proceedings refpectilig the loans. On the 16th of March 1*92, you report ed to Gongrefs your plan for railing the ad ditional supplies, in which stating the sum of 52 s-950 dollarsas neceflary to beraifed, yo'j fuirgeft three expedients—firft, to dispose of the i'ltereft of the United States in the bank of the United States—second - ly, to borrow the money—or, thirdly, to raise it by taxes. You presently condemn the firft and second expedients, as unad vifeable. and recommend the adoption oi the third. You speak in this report with ail the affected concern of a man who re ally felt for theincreafed burthens on com merce, and fay, " It wereimich tobe wifli ed, thatfo early a resort to new demand: on that class of citizens, could have been avoided''—when at the moment of writ ing. for all that appears to the contrary, the aforefaid sum of 644.135.d011ars of the fo reign monies, was still in the situation above defcribed—for altho' in your letter of the 1 3th of this month, yon f>y a far ther payment was made to the Treasury bf 327,436 dollars, in March 1792, yet as you have notfpecified the day of the month when it was paid, the prefupiption is. that it was not paid until after the 1 6th—and even if it had, it would itill leave a sum or 3r6,9 ''V dollars in the predicament I have Hated. To proceed: After your report for the additional taxes and duties was m ule, they were speedily adopted by Gongrefs, and a lawfor the purpole, allowing for the delay of palling it through both Houses, laid be fore the Prelident, and approved by him on the second of May 1792, at which time you had 011 hand the lad mentioned sum of 316,999 dollars, concealed from public view.and not paid into the public treasury, altho' the bills had been fold so long as the 31ft of October preceding, on a credit not exceeding 90 days, besides a farther sum of 202,020 dollars and 20 cents on bills drawn the 17th of April 1 "92, and fold 011 a credit of fix months, m iking together 519.019 dollars—and the whole sum proposed to be railed was 110 more than 525,000 dollars.— It is further to be noticed that betweer the aforefaid 17th of April and the 28th day of December I ast, you continued tc draw to the amount of o>te million of dol lars, of which enormous sum, no more thar 50,000 dollars, on account of bills paid tc Mr. Jefferfon, had been received at tht treasury when the enquiry which extorter the fecrct fromyou commenced, altho'yoti now confefs that 605,883 dollars and 8 cent: had then been received at the bank of the United States and the ofHccs of difcoum and deposit of Baltimore and New-York. Neither should it be omitted, that in the face of all the strong and pointed circum stances I have stated, you did on the 25th of May 1792, under the authority to bor row, which was given by the aforefaid acl for raifmg additional supplies, contra£l with the bank of the United States for a loan of 523,000 dollars at 5 per cent inter i eft, and received on the firft of June, 100,000 dollars, on the firft of July 100,000, n the firft of August 100,000, and on the ,rft of September too,ooo dollars. Altho' n each of those respective days there was . , n the treasury not less than four or five * hundred thousand dollars of the public noney, besides which the bank of the Uni ted States, which you admit to have been the sole agent in the sale of the bills for the aforefaid one million of dollars, was deriving all the benefit of credit which the sales of bills to such an enormous amount procured it. These are the fa£ts and data on which the charge against you, dated in the for mer part of this letter, is founded, taken from your own letters and reports now before the public. Numerous and important are the re flections they produce. Various are the interests which have been affected by them, and deep the imprelfions they have made. That I may not, however, become tedioir I Ihall reserve until my next letter, ttioft further animadver.'ions which the lubjeci prel'ents, connected with another and ve ry interesting view of it, and wliich ma; podibly lead to the development oSJecrec j not yet before the public. Feb. 31. DECIUS. For the National Gazette. No 111. ■yyHILST we are aflumlng the merit ol a glorious revolution, let us take cart that we do not give posterity reason to re gard our emancipation from Great Britaii: rather as a revolution of men than aiprin ciple i. As far as the situation of the Uni ted States would admit, we have introdu ced the form of the British government united with the parade of a court, levees, &c. and we are daily imitating her policj and cuftomi. A funding system is one ol the moll ruinous parts of the government of that country which we have imitated.— If in this manner we adopt and pursue the principles of that corrupt court, we Ihall inevitably create an inequality be tween our citizens, which, in its excess, every real patriot must regard as the great eftof evils. Banks and public credit, in all countries in which they have taken place, have uniformly tended to increase this evil. However they may enrich a few or contribute to fjpport and cherilh thi vanity and dangerous ambition of courts, they contribute nothing to the happiness ol the people. National credit, unknown to the anci ents, has become a general expedient with modern statesmen, by which the property and labour of pofterity x is mortgaged to fa tisfy debts contracted by the present gene ration— It may be allied, what claim ha 5 the present generation to the property and labour of posterity ? On the full and im partial examination of this question, every mail of candor and common sense mull al low, that the practice of mortgaging the property of posterity, to discharge debt ; contracted by the present generation, is highly unjufl and criminal. I would carry this idea still further and fay that the present generation even to preserve it? own exigence has no right to infringe on the property of poiterity. The following axioms must be regarded as immutable truths, as they cannot be cal led in question without sapping the foun dation and subverting the unalterable de crees of God refpedting man. ift. The earth and the fruits thereof be long to the living, by the gift of God. 3dly. The dead have neither power nor 1 right over the earth, nor the property thereon, we have then only to determine ■ what length of time a law made by one ■ generation can continue in force, without i violating the rights of their fucceflbrs.— ' This knowledge may be acquired with a • considerable degree of precision by the bills i of mortality. • Let us suppose a whole generation of 1 men.to be borne on the fame day, to attain : mature age on the fame day, and to die on , the fame day, leaving a succeeding genera ; tion in the moment of attaining their ma t ture age all together. Let the ripe age be f fuppofedof2i years, and their period of a life 34 years more, that being the average t term given by the bills of mortality to per -9 sons who have already attained 2 1 years e of age : each successive generation would - in this way come in and go off the stage at n a fixed moment, as individuals do now: h then we fay the earth belongs to each of o these generations during its course, ful ly and in their own right—the ad genera n tion receives it clear of the debts and in o cumbrances of the firft ; the third of the e second, and so on—for if the tirft could d charge it with a debt, then the earth u would belong to the dead, and not to the ts living, which is contrary to the axioms le with which we set out : therefore, no ge lt neration can contrail debts greater than c. may be paid during the course of its own le existence. l- What is true of a generation all arriving :h to felt government on the fame day, and ■- dying ail on the fame day, is true of those ct in a constant course of decay ar.d renewal; £t with this only difference, a generation a coming in and going out entire, as in the r- firft cafe, would have a right in the firft e, year of their felf dominion, to con o, tract a debt for 33 years—in the iotli le for —in the 20th for 14 —and in the o' 30th for 4. Whereas generations chang as ing daily, by daily deaths and births, have ve one constant term beginning at the date lie of their contract, and ending when a 111a li- jority of those of full age at that date (hall en be dead. The length of that term may or be ellimated from the tables of mortality, as Take for instance, the table of Buffon, he wherein he states 23,994 deatiis, and the nt ages at which they happened. Suppose a society in which 23,994. persons are born cli every year, and live to the age stated in ir- this table ; the conditions of that society en will be as follow . — ift. It willconfift con >w flantly of 617,703 persons of all ages—2dly. Of those living at any one instant of time, e- one half will be dead in 24 years, 8 mouths he and 3 days—3dly. 10,(175 will arrive year m, ly at the age of 2 r years complete—4thly. le. It will conu.uitly have 348,417 persons of all ages abov.? 2 r years—sthly. The half of those of 21 years and upwards, living at any one instant of time will be dead in 19 years. Then ry years is the term beyond which neither t;ie representatives o£ a na tion, nor even the whole nation itfelf as sembled, can validly extend a debt. Observing the practice in civil society, jf reg'ilaring the descent of property ; it is (aid whole communities (liould be equal ly fubjeft to such regulations, and Ihould be obligated to pay the debts &make good the contracts of their predecefi'ars. The observation would be proper, were the : aij'es any way similar. An individual re ceives property from his father or friend, made fubjeft by the municipal laws of hi c ountry to the payment of the debts of :he former possessor. Altho' the legatee may not in this cafe have been previously acquainted with the condition of the be .]ueil, yet having a full power to reject the egacy, without putting himfelf in a worse ituation than he was before, he, in fact, becomes a partner to the contrast. The ituation of a whole society is very differ ent. On the demise of one generation, :he succeeding generation take an uncon litional pofTemon of the earth, as their na ural right. The firfl is an adventitious ight, wholly depending 011 the municipal aws of a country. The second is a natu -al riglit, derived immediately from God. Altho' we may find no difficulty in bor "owing money from the bankers and Jews if Europe, to support any extravagant ['theme of the present generation, can it be thought just to mortgage the labour ofpof- Lerity to discharge debts thus contracted ? An AMERICAN FARMER. Feb. 2r. CONGRESS. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Monday, Feb. 18. A committee's report oa the poft-office law was read and referred for to-mor row—Several other reports on private pe titions, and petitions were also read ; after which a mefl'age was received from the se nate, informing that they have concurred in the bill to authorize a settlement of Jo seph Henderfon's claims against the Uni ted Stares—The ait for promoting the pro s;refs of ufeful arts was reported duly en rolled; also an ast repealing part of the resolution of a late Congress relative to the inhabitants of Post St. Vincennes ; which were then signed by the Speaker. — A meffiige was received from the President. with a map of the territory of the United States, oh the Potowmac, & the commifli oners' report refpeftingthe fame: the house were also notified of the President's having signed and approved the act for enrolling and licenling veifels employed in coafling, and for fixing the compensation of Presi dent and Vice-President of the United States.—The House then, in committee of the whole, took up the amendment": of the feieft committee to the bill in addition to the ast to eftablifli the judicial courts of the United States, —After some debate, the amendments were agreed to by the committee, which were then reported, and adopted by the House, except the lalt. Tuesday, Feb. 19. The President's communication of ye sterday, refpefting the Federal territory on the Pocowmack, was read and laid 011 the table—Several petitions were read and re ferred ; among these was a petition from the manufacturers of printing paper, pray ing that the duty on certain descriptions of imported printing paper may not be taken off—laid on the table—a report on the pe titions of certain Canada refugees was read, and referred to a committee of the whole on Saturday next. —A bill was re ceived from the Senate, authorizing the comptroller of the treasury to fettle the claims of Lieut. Thomas Wilhart, which had passed their house with an amend ment —also, a mefl'age from the Senate that they infill on some and recede from others of their amendments to the bill for regulatinginvalid pensions; In confequjnce of a decition made yeiterday by the su preme court, that slates are liable to be J'u fd by individuals, a motion was made by Mr. Sedgwick, that an article may be pro posed to the State Legillatures, to be in serted as an amendment to the Federal Constitution, " that 110 slate fliall be liable to be made a party defendant, in any of the judicial courts, eftabliOied, or to be established under the authority of the U nited States, at the suit of any person or perfoos, citizens or foreigners, or of any body politic or corporate, whether within or without the United States —laid on the table—A ineffage was received from the President, notifying the House, that an appropriation would be necessary to de fray the expence of holding a treaty with the hollile Indian tribes—Mr. Giles pro posed the following as a fubflitute for the resolution refpefting the commissioners of the linking fund, that " the commission ers for jmrchafing the public debt be di rected to report to the House a statement of ali their proceedings uot heretofore furnifhed". This occasioned Tome debate. The yeas and nays being at length called on the motion of Mr. Giles, it passed in the affirmative, yeas 39, nays 22. —viz. — Yeas.—Messrs. Aihe, Baldwin, Clark,- Findley, Gerry, Giles, Gordon, Gregg, Grifiin, Grove, Hartley, Heifter, Key, Kittera, Lee, Macon, Madison, Mercer, Moore, Muhlenberg, Murray, Niles, Page, Parker, Schoonmaker, J. Smith, I. Smith, J.Steele, Sumpter, Sylvester, Tredwell, Tucker, Venable, White, Willis, Green up, Milledge, Orr, Hindman.—39- Nays.—Messrs. Ames, Barnwell, Ben- Con,Boudinot, S. Bourne, B.Bourne,Day ton, Fitzfinions, Gilman, Goodhue, Hill houfe, Huger, Kitchel, Lavvrance, Lear ned, Livermore, Sedgwick, Sturges, Thatcher, Wadfworth, Ward, Leonard. —22. The message from the President of the United States was then read, relative to n treaty to be held with the hostile In dians in the country north weft ofthe Ohio, with the Secretary of war's estimate of the probable expense—a committee wag ap pointed to coniider the fame. PHILADELPHIA. February 23. Tuesday evening last arrived at New- Y'ork the ship Briiiol, in 54 days from Lon don. The heads of intelligence extracted 10m papers, to the 25th of December, by :his veilel are as follow.—The Court of Vienna was preparingfor warwith France with redoubled vigour, putting all their regiments on the war establishment, to the imount of 360,000 men, which were to be ready for marching the beginning of De cember; 72,000 men, of the Hun garian army had arrived at or near Vienna —The whole province of Austrian Gueld res,with its capital,had surrendered to the French gen. Miranda, the Austrian council and their regular army of 3500 men having retired before them—The French Nation al Convention decreed on the 16th of De cember, that all the members of the royal family, Bourbons, and Capets, cxcept An toinetta and her son (confined in the tem ple) should quit the department of Paris in 24 hours after the trial of Louis Ihould be tinifhed, and in three days, the territories ofthe republic, and the countries in which the French armies now are—an exception was afterwards offered to this decree in favour of M. Orleans (Egalite) the deci sion on which was portponed for three lays—Ou the 26th of December, the late was to receive his final sentence from :he Convention ; the event extremely loiibtful, whether death or perpetual ban- Ihment—General Montefquiou, who fled from his. command of thr French army near Geneva, had arrived in London. The report of a committee of the House of Representatives ofthe United States to whom was Tome time iince referred that paragraph of the President's speech which relates to the transmission of newspapers by the public mail, is in substance as fol lows :—The poll master-general to be au thorized to dire£t his deputies • o receive fubferiptionsfor newfpapers;,and that eve ry fubferiber, at the time of fubicribirig, pay to the postmaster the amount of half a year's postage on the paper which he en gages to take, and half ofthe annual price ofthe paper —that of the postage thus ad vanced he retain one fourth of a cent for each paper he will have to receive or de liver, during the firft half year; and of the price of the paper, twenty five per cent, and remit the reficllie ofthe postage to the general post oflice, The postmasters, and not the fubferibers, to be refpon lible to the printers: they (the postmasters) receiving the 2 5 per cent, before mention ed, as compensation for the above inten ded agency in the business—The commit tee also fuggefl the propriety of securing the printers'money, by the fame bonds, of the postmasters, by which postages are se cured ; and that duplicate lilts of the fub feribers ihould befent by the postmasters to the general post office ; and that upon the complaint of a printer against a poffmafier, payment may be enforced, under tlie fame bond that secures arrearages of postage of letters to the office. We hear from Newark, that a fubferip tion-book for erecting bridges over the Hackinfack and Paffaick rivers was open ed at that town on the 14th instant. — " Such was the avidity of the public to en gage in this important undertaking, that the number of shares (one hundred) allot ted for ftibfcription in Newark, was in stantly filled : the demand so far exceed ing the proportion to be fubferibed that thares have arifento 30 dollars advance." The Senate of this state, on Tuesday last, passed a resolution for the appoint ment of a Federal Senator, by joint vote of both houses. The resolution it is said, will be concurred in by the House of Re presentatives of Pennsylvania. We hear from New-York that John Watts is chosen a representative in the Congress of the United States for the rii ltri£t of New-York ; end T. Tredwell for the diftrift of Long- Island. •7>'§-K- Several Communications are deferred to our next.