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TWO PER ANNUM,? HALF-YEARLY IN ADVANCE. $ AHB FARMERS' AND K1EGHANIGS1 RE01STEB. C IF NOT PAID WITHIN TITE YEAR f j 50 WILL DE CHARGED. PRINTED AND PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY JONATHAN ROW, SOMERSET, SOMERSET COUNTY, PA. 2Tew Series. TUESDAY, JUNE 2, 2846, Vol. 4. No, 29. From the Baltimore Patriot. I Could not say Farewell. BY S. El BROWN. 0, who can say, Farewell ! When the heart is on the tongue ! .'Tis sadder than the funeral knell, O'er joys departed rung. I left thee in thy bloom, With what anguish who can tell, I tore my heart away from thine, But could not say Farewell ! I marked the smile upon thy lip, I felt its magic spell I knew it only mask'd thy grief, And could not sav farewell ! I saw the tear drop in thine eye, And kissed it ere it fell I pressed thy velvet hand in mine, But could not say farewell ! GEN. WINFIELD SCOTT A Glance at Ills IJfc. Since the appointment of Gen. Scott to the command of the army against Mexico, a peculiar interest seems to be taken in all that pertains to his life and character. His life has been a truly chequered one, marked bv noble deeds and signal events entitling him to occupy a conspicuous place in the ranks of the good and great. With a view of measureably gratifying the prevalent public curiosity, we subjoin a brief sketch of his history, comprising a notice of his valorous conduct on one or two occasions, for which we are indebted to the Philadcphia Inquirer. General Winfield Scott was born on the 18lh of June, 1780, near Petersburg, Virginia. He pursued the usual prepara tory studies, spent a year in the High School in Richmond, and subsequently went to the College of William and Ma ry, where he attended a course of Law Lectures. In 1805 he was admitted to the bar, and in 1807 he removed to South Carolina, intending to practice law in the Courts at Charleston. Soon after, the . aggressions of the European Powers on the commerce of the United States had reached their height, and Scott, participa ting in the spirit of patriotism which ani mated the young men of that dav,voluntccr ed as a member of the Petersburg troop of horse, that had been called out under the Proclamation of the President, forbidding the harbors of the United States to British vessels of war. In due time, wc may here just add, upon the breaking out of the war between the United States and England, in 1S12, Scott obtained a Lieut. Colonel's commission, and immediately proceeded to the Niagara frontier with several companies. In October of the same year, the cele brated battle of Queenslown was fought. Scott participated in it, and greatly dis tinguished himself by his bravery and ac tivity. We have neither time nor room to give a full account of this battle; but will simply append a few paragraphs going to show Scott's intrepidity and pa triotism as displayed during its pro gress. At one time during the battle, it is sta ted that Scott arrived on the Queen stown heights. He had been permitted, as a volunteer, to cross the river with his ad jutant, Roach, and assume the command of the whole body engaged. On the Canada side, he unexpectedly found Brigadier-General Wads worth, of the New York militia, who had crossed without orders. Scott, therefore, proposed to limit his command to the regulars. But the generous and patriotic Wadsworth would not consent, lie promptly yield ed the command over all the forces to Scott. " You, sir." said he, "know best prefessionally, what ought to be done. I am here for the honor of my country, and that of the New York militia." Scott, therefore, assumed the command, and throughout the movements which ensued, General Wadsworth dared every danger in aiding the views of the commander. Though they had met for the first time, he had become already attached to the young colonel. He repeatedly, in the course of the battle, interposed his own person to shield Stott from the Indian rifles, which his tali person attracted. At another time, while the battle was , raging, information was brought to Scott and those engaged, that the militia on the American shore refused to cross to their assistance. The enemy numbered not less than thirteen hundred, while the A merienns were reduced to less than threo hundred. Retreat was as hopeless as succor, for there were! no boats on the Canada shore, and the other side would not afford them aid. Scott took his posi tion on the ground they then occupied, rc- " solved to abide the shock, and think of surrender only when battle was impossi ble. He mounted a log in front of his much diminished band: ''The enemy's bslls," said he, "begin to thin our ranks. His nurmVrs arc overwhelming. In: a moment the. shock ranst ectne. and there is no retreat. We are in the beginning of a national war. Hull's surrender is to be redeemed. Let us then die, arms in hand. Our country demands the sacri fice. The example will not be lost. The bloyd of the slain will make heroes of the living. Those who follow will avenge our fall, and their country's wrongs. Who dare to stand?" "All!" was the answering cry. A vigorous resistance was made; but finally, overpowered by superior numbers, the brave American band was compelled to surrender. The contest was truly a bloody one, and throughout this scene of various ac tion, of mistake and misfortune, of success and disaster, Lientant-Colonel Scott, says an accurate account, was distin guished for great exertions. He was in full-dress uniform, and his tall stature made him a conspicuous mark. He was singled out by the Indians, but remained unhurt. He was urged to change his dress. " No," said he, smiling, "I will die in my robes." At the same moment Captain Lawrence fell by his side, as it was supposed, mortally wounded. Thus ended the battle of Queenstown Heights: an engagement desultory in its movements, various in its incidents, and unfortunate in its result, but not without consequences important to the spirit and vigor of the American arms. Magnitude is not always necessary to the dignity of an achievement, nor is defeat always dis couraging to the unsuccessful party. It is the nature of the action which gives character to the actor. Judged by this standard, the events of Queenstown had their value, and their inspiratiun to every patriot American. Hull had surrensered without a battle; disgrace not from the mere disaster; but from the mode by which it was produced, was inflicted upon the country, and felt in the hearts of its children. It was battle, and honorable battle only,which could drive this gloomy shadow from the country, check the taunts of enemies, remove its own doubts and re-establish its self-respect. The bat tle of Queenstown Heights did this in no small degree. While the mistakes, the errors, and the losses of that day were deplored, the American press and people recognised, amid regrets and misfortunes a spirit of achievement, a boldness in danger, and a gallant bearing, which in spired new hopes, and pointed out the wav to ultimate success. The daring gallantry of Colonel Van Resslaer; the capture of the British battery by Wool and his heroic companions; the intrepid conduct of Wadsworth, of Chrystie, of Totton, and many others, and particularly the courage, skill, and continued actively and exertions of Scott, had given a cheer fulness even to the darkness of defeat, and almost a glory of satisfaction to the memory of Queenstown Heights. We may add many other interesting particulars relative toScott's life,illustrative of his bravery heroism and skilful general ship. His name, as the reader well knows, is indissolubly connected with Lundy's Lane and Chippewa. Had he not taken part in any other engagement, his participation in these, alone, would have rendered him immortal. But we cannot enter into a minute description of those great battles. Our limits forbid it. Let it suffice to say, of the man and his character, that should our country, unfor tunately, become embroiled in a protract ed war with Mexico and other powers, we would find Scott, as on .the forme r oc casions, boldly standing up in defence of his country's invaded rights and soil, and actings part, which, in its coummation would entwine around his brow addition al unfadng laurels. Lan. Tribune. AX IXCIDEXT FV THE LIFE OF GENERAL SCOTT. The following incident is related by the Biographer of General Winfield Scott, as having occurred during the "Pa triot Insurrection" in Canada and on our Northern borders. - . Manv davs after the destruction of the "Caroline," (writes the spirited biogra pher and historian) another steamer, the "Barcelona," was cut out of the ice in Buffalo harbor, (January, 1838.) and ta ken down the Niagra river, to be offered, as was known, to the patriots, who were still on Navy Island. Gen. Scott wished to compel them to abondon their crimi nal enterprise. He also desired to have them, on returning within our jurisdic tion, arrested by the marshal, who was always with him. For this purpose, he sent an agent to hire the Barcelona for the service of the United States, before the patriots cnuld get the means to pay for her, or find sureties to indemnify the owners in case of capture or destruction by the British. He succeeded in all these objects. The Barcelona proceeded back to Buffalo, where Scott had immedi ate use for her on Lake Erie, yet naviga ble in all its length. The authorities on the Canada side were on the alert to des troy her As the Barcelona slowly ascended a gainst the current on our 6ide of Grand fsland, (belonging to the United Slates,) three armed British schooners, besides batteries on the land, were in positions, as the dav before, to sink her as $he came out from behind that island. On the 16th of January, Scott and Governor Marcy stood on the American shore op posite that point watching events. The smoke of the approaching boat could be seen in the distance, and the purpose of the British was perfectly evident in all their movements. The batteries on our side were promptly put in position. The matches were lighted. All was ready to return the British fire. There was a cri sis! The day before this, when it was sup posed the Navy Island people were com ing up the same channel in other craft, and before it was known that the Barcelo na had accepted his offered engagement, Scott wrote on his knee, and despatched by an aid-de-camp, the fol,owing note: To the Commanding Officer of the Armed British Vessels in the Niagara. "Head Quarters, Eastern Division U.") S. Army, two miles below Black y Rock, January 15th, 1838. J "Sir With his Excellency the Gov ernor of New York, who has troops at hand, we are here to enforce the neutrali ty of the United States, and to protect our own soil or waters from violation. The proper civil officers are also present to arrest, if practicable, the leaders of the j expedition on foot against Upper Cana da. "Under these circumstances, it gives me pain to perceive the armed vessels, mentioned, anchored in our waters, with the probable intention to fire upon that ex pedition moving in the same waters. "Unless the expedition should first at tack in which case wc shall interfere we shall be obliged to consider a discharge of shot or shell from or into our waters, from the armed schooners of her majes ty, as an act seriously compromising the neutrality of the two nations. I hope, therefore, that no such unpleasant inci dent may ocenr. "I have the honor to remain, &c. &c, "Winfield Scott." The same intimation was repeated and explained the next morning,January lGth to a captain of the British army, who had occasion to wait upon Scott on other busi ness, and who immediately returned. It was just then that the Barcelona moved up the current of the Niagara. The cannon on either shore were pointed, the match es lighted, and thousands stood in sus pense. On the jutting pier of Black Rock, in view af all, stood the tall form of Scott, in full uniform, watching the ap proaching boat. On Scott's note and his personal assurances, alone depended the question of peace or war. IIappily,these I assurances had their just effect. The I T- 1 . 1 1 MM. !:. 1- narcciona passeu aiong. ine .uriiisn did not fire. The matches were extinguish ed; the two nations, guided by wise coun sels, resumed their usual way; and war's wild alarms were hushed into the whim pers of peace. Small a place as this incident may oc cupy in history, it was a critical moment in the afiairs of nations. Had one Brit ish gun been fired, and much more had the Barcelona been destroyed, no author ity or influence would have restrained nur excited populaion. Wre should pro bably have had an unpremeditated war, one of those calamities which nations have to endure for their sins, and which is without the consoling and self-supporting consciousness of a great moral right. It would have been war from incident, and not a national controversy. From the Pittsburgh Gazette. FATAL DUEL. The following letter furnished to the Journal of yesterday by Joseph Knox, Esq., gives painful intelligence of a fatal duel in this peaceful state: Carlisle, May 16, 1840. Dear Sir: Our town was thrown in to an excitement yesterday afternoon, by an occurrence which cast gloom and sor row in our midst. It appears that as Gen eral Armor was reviewing the several companies in his command, on Wednes day last, which was review day, some words passed between him and Col. A. Noble, the reeult is that General Armor challenged the Colonel, and a duel came off yesterday afternoon, wherein Colonel Noble was shot dead instantly the ball passing through his brain. After a coro ner's inquest had been held, (finding that Colonel Noblocame to his death by a shot fired by General Armor,) the body was brought into town and taken to his mother's dwelling. The most intense excitement prevails among the citizen in regard to the act. F. MEIIAFFY. P. S. Since writing the foregoing, General Armor has been taken and lodg ed in jail. Col. Noble was buried this morning at 9 o'clock; a tremendous con course of people attended the funeral. In the single county of Mercer, Penn sylvania, there are now erecting fourteen new iron furnaces, and one thousand miners arc- now wanted to mine iron and coal in the valley of the Chenango Men that have some experience in mining are most needed, yet all are sure of employment in a region proverbial lor its healthfulncsf. - ' . - ' From "the Union" of Thursday Kight. OFFICIAL XEWS. We learn that despatches were receiv ed this evening from General Taylor, da ted the 3rd and 5th , instant both Point Isabel and the fort on the Rio Grande perfectly safe. On the 1st, the defences on the river et,rtn ,., -U, ,.mrx.o.l : , T , f -v . Gcneral laylor left a garrison of some 3 ! five hundred men, under Major Brown, ! of the seventh infantry, and marched with the remainder of his army (twenty seven miles) to Point Isabel. Not an enemy was seen in the whole distance. All apprehensions for the safety of that depot of supplies were thus dissipated. But on the morning (5 o'clock) of the 3d, the enemy, from the side of Matamo ras, opened a heavy cannonade upon our tort, which lasted with but little intermis sion till midnight. In the mean time the enemy's guns (all but one mortar) were j siienceu uy our ion. lajor lirown lost one searg t killed, and not another man wounded. Our gallant little band expec ted an assault from this side of the river at the same time, and was fully prepared to repel it. None was made. Matamoras was necessarily fired upon in the set of sinlencing the enemy's bat teries, and also to kill or disperse the troops therein quartered. -The buildings were probobly but little damaged. The inhabitants, no doubt, had mostly fled be fore the commencement of the cannon ade What number of Mexican troops were killed was only known by conjec ture; no doubt a considerable number. General Taylor, at Point Isabel, expec ted on the 5th to march the next day with a heavy train of supplies for the fort on the river, and thence to assume offen sive operations against the Mexicans; but a private letter makes the probable conjec ture that General Arista had returned widi his regulars to the other side of the river, leaving in the chaparrals only the rancheros, his irregular cavalry. It is not likely that he will re-invadc Texas, as General Taylor had received, or expec ted to receive on the 6th instant, several detachments of troops (regulars and ir regulars) from New Orleans. The affair with Captain Walkcr'sTex an Rangers, as was represented by ru mor, was much exaggerated. 4n the tem porary absence of that gallant and enter prising officer, his company lost, by a surprise, but a handful of men 8 or 10. . Captains Thornton and Hardee and Lieutenant Kane, all of the second dra goons, had arrived unhurt, prisoners of war, at Matamoras, and reported them selves to General Taylor, by letter, as kindly treated. - In the cannonade, Major Brown, Cap tain Mansfield, of the engineers, Captain Lowd, and the garrison were all much distinguished. General Taylor always writes coolly. His inarch, when he ex pected to meet three thousand Mexican horse, was a gallant enterprise. The Mexicans have not probably had, good and bad, four thousand troops on the low er Rio Grande. 1 From the National Intelligencer. Tlie National Fair and the Tariff. Messrs. Editors: I see,' in th last "Union," that a writer (I presume thoir usual correspondent, the British agent now in the Capitol) complains, not that the goods exhibiting at the 'National Fair' are too high, but too low. He says that they ctmnot be sold for the prices marked, and invites merchants to give large orders at these prices, and thus back them out. Let them come on, and this Manchester man with them, and the man ufacturers, I venture to predict, will not only fill all their orders but thank them for their custom. But this writer inquires, when the American manufacturers can supply goods atlower prices' than foreign-) ers, why tax the consumer! How? by givmg them goods at "low prices? This is a strange taxation; but it is the way the protective policy always has and always will tax the people, by giving them goods All the citizens of the Csmmonwcalth, cheaper and cheaper as capital is invested, arc exhorted to be united, firm and deci skill acquired, and supply increased. J ded "in preserving order, promoting con- Kepeal the tariff, check American com- petition, get goods from abroad as former- ly, and these Manchester men will soon put up their prices to former rates and make their fortunes at our expense; and this is just what they so ardently desire to accomplish by breaking down our tar iff. Will an American Congress gratify them? We shall soon see. But the "Union" man inquires, if wc can manufacture as cheap as foreigners, why keep on the tariff? And I ask him, if the tariff has, by inducing investments and increasing supply, reduced prices to one third and one-fourth of what they were before, why repeal it, and thus check further investments, further rednctionsof price? Answer this. But, says this British advocate, these manufacturers are rcalaizing profits of from 3a to 100 per cent. So much the better, if, as he says, thev are giving ns .1 - i t .1 . ' i i xne gooas cneaper man iney can ds inauu abroad. For it is clear if they are reali j zing such profits, capital, always watch- ing for the best employment, will soon ! rush into this profitable business so fast, and increase supply that the prices will ; be so reduced that the profits will soon , come down to the ordinary rates of 0 or 7 per cent. Repeal the protective tariff, and you check all further investments capital. Continue or increase the tariff. and you increase investments and compe- i,,.... i ,:m tition. destroy monopoly, and still more an(j morc re(jucc prit.esby still more and more increasing supply, skill, and expe nencc. 1 hen wc go lor the tariff, to promote competition, destroy monopoly, reduce prices, and thus benefit the con sumers, whilst we increase the wages of i labor by increasing the demand for it, and at the same tune increase the prices of agricultural produce of all kinds, raw ma terials and breadstuff, by increasing its consumption. Thus these an'i tariff agitators are do ing every thing for the invested capital by checking home competition and secu ring them a monopoly of the American market, whilst, on the other hand, they are injuring labor by diminishing its em ployments, and depressing agriculture by diminishing the demand for its produc tions. The friends of the tariff arc, therefore, the true friends of the farmers and working men, while the opponents te agitilors of the tariff arc the rcal,thongh CNINLENTIONAI. friends INVESTED CAP1- ta l, by checking competition and secu ring them a monopoly, whiltf they break down agriculture and the laboring man by curtailing their employments and their markets. Is not this the plain practical operation and effect of the present course of the anti-tariff party? 1 submit this question with confidence to every fanner, mechanic, and working in.ui in the coun- try, s. Pennsylvania ss. I . I f . . M J . Mtr, in me name, una ou inc an thorily of the Hf&$ weull'li of Pennsy KYFUAXCIS 11. ' llwritv of the Common- ytvauia. Governor oj suhl Common- wealth, A PROCLAMATION. Whereas, The President ot the United States, in his Proclamation of the 13th instant, has announced that bv the act of the Republic of Mexico, a State of War exists between that Government and the United States. And Whereas, It is our first duty to acknowledge our dependence upon the Great Ruler of the Universe: I do, there fore, invoke the good people of the Com monwealth, by their religion and their patriotism, to submit as freemen should, to this dispensation of Providence, and humbly ask of him, who alone can give counsel and strength, to sustain us in the lasf resort of injured Nations. And Whereas, The President has been authorized bv Congress, to call for and accept the services of fifty thousand volunteer soldiers, to protect and maintain the honor and security of the Union. And Whereas, All the force that may be required promptly and efficiently to conduct the War, and bring it to a speedy and successful termination, should be in readiness, to meet every contingency that may occur in its progress. And whereas, The Union of the States binds together the seperate sover eignties, and secures one common feeling und interest, in which the people of Penn sylvania largely participate. The Officers and Soldiers of the Com monwealth will, therefore, with that alacrity and zeal which animate Freemen and for which they are distinguished, hold themselves in readiness promptly to meet and repel the enemies of the repub lic, and to preserve the rights and honor, and secure the perpetuity of the Union. All persons who have charge of pub lic arms, and other munitions, of war, are reminded bv our existing relations, that it is their imperative duty immediately to ' prepare them for the public service, And whereas, the power of the Union ' is made effective for protection and dc- ' fence, in all emergencies, by the harmony 1 and energy of the people of each State: 1 therefore, cord, m maintaining the efficacy ot the j laws, and in supporting and invigorating all the measures which may be adopted '. by the constituted authorities, for ob tain- ing a speedy, just and honorable peace. GIVEN under my hand and the Great Seal of the Common wraith, at Harris burg, this sixteenth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty six, and of the Com monwealth the Seventieth. Bb the Governor. J.MILLER. Secretary of the Commonwealth. Mr. Benton. A Washington writer says, among other thing?, the following, of the Senator from Missouri : "Amidst all his labors, which are Her culean, he has siipcrinteded the education of his children, all of whom except the j two youngest, are proficient in seven hn- " gui.- Foreigner 1 ihc Mexican Arm j. Some considerable sensation has been produced by the publication of a Procla mation from the Mexican General, direc ted to the foreign born in our Army, a::d inviting them to desert us for the protec tion of Mexico. Wc arc strongly of thu opinion that the Proclamation as publish ed is not authentic; indeed, it bears evi dent marks of a forgery on its face. The New Orleans Tropic refers to the appear ance of foreigners among the Mexican troops, as officers and engineers, and ex presses surprise that any one should con nect the nation with the individuals who appear among the Mexican troops. It then follows up the subject by saying that "it should be remembered that eve ry country in Europe is a military despo tism, and that there are hundreds of able officers, who are by profession soldier that fight tor pay, and are not particular about the side they arc on.as to the princi ples they contend for. This fact will ac count for the appearance of French, Aus trian, or Spanish officers in the Mexican army. We understand, from good au thority, that able European engineers and officers are in Mexico, anil constantly dis placing the native officers. The commander of of the Sikhs, it will be remembered, was a French offi cer of very considerable distinction in Eu rope, and the splendid park of Sikh ar tillery was commanded by French and other European officers. Wc shall s? the same thing in Mexico, and the great est talents of our officers will bo called in to requisition. Reg. & Examiner. From the A. , Journal of Commerce. Chemical Phenomenon. In the tOAvn of New Berlin, Chenango county, New York, and about three mile north of New Berlin village, on the farm of Mr. Zalmon Hubbcll,are two spots of earth, from two to three rods in circum ference, of a dark color, somewhat resem bling the bed of a coal pit. The field around is covered with cobble stones, many of which, when burnt, become sand stone. Whenever these stones arc car ried on to cither of these spots of dark earth, which they frequently are by the plough, they soon, perhaps in a few months, assume the appearance of having undergone the action of lire,and in proess of time become fully decomposed and crumble away to sand. The earth in these places, a little below the surface, is of a redish yellow; but when brought in contact with the atmosphere, after a time it assumes a dark color, resembling much the appearance of the bed of a coal pit, aj above stated. As the writer is neither a geologist nor chemist, he hopes hereby to induce some scientific gentleman to visit thi place, and ascertain the cause of the above phenomenon. GL.ASS. It 1832, (says the Vermont Watchman,) there were 17 flint glass factories in tho United States. As the tariff was redu ced, the number of factories was also redu ced, until 1812, when there were but 5. Since the tariff of '42 was enacted, tho number of factories has increased to 19 which consume annually $800,000 of of coal, wood, lumber, staves, hoops, straw, iron, rosin, pcarlash, lead &c.t (all of this is exclusive of the food consu med by the operatives,) and gives freight enough for constant employment to 5, 393 tons of shipping. Since 1812 the price of glass has bcert reduced 25 per cent., while the wages of the laborers have been increased in about the same proportion. In this case it is evident that protection has cheapened glass to the cosumers, while ithasincrcs ed the wages of jthe makers apparently a paradox; yet such are the facts. And why should it not be so? When foreign manufactures had killed ofl 12 out of oar 17 factories, the way is prepared to in crease the price of their glass, and at the same time when glass makers enough to supply 17 factories, arc forced to rely for work upon only five, and these five doing a precarious business, it is certain ly reasonable tosuppose that they cannot command full wagess reasonable, be cause thev cannot have full work. The foreign sljss dealers arc now flattering themselves with the idea of again prostra ting American glass makers, by means of Walker's tariff. Said one of them re cently to a Yankee glass maker "Give us that bill, and wc will soon stop your fires for you!" - The Steamer Boreas was entirely con sumed by rircon the 4th hist, in the Mis souri river. No lives wrfe lnt but her whole cargo, which was l.'.rge, ."-nd about 650,000 in gold dust and specie, belong ing to some passengers o:i board, was de stroyed. The Boreas was a new boat. and cost $20,000. An Avalanche of Ear.s. The Canal boat Independence, says tho Rocp,c.s;?r. daily Advertiser, is on her way Atbasy. with 239 barrels of e;'jH Each birr: contain 90 drn, o thai 'tbn Ncv Yerkers wav look out for 3C8,12 rgz.