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The evening telegraph. [volume] (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1864-1918, December 27, 1864, FOURTH EDITION, Image 3

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TIIE DAILY EVENING TELEGRAPH. PHILADELPHIA, TUESDAY, DECEMRTm 27, 186 1.
f i aj ay I
, ttVtkrV I1, g. AfVttttt If I
1TJKSDAT, Pf CBMBBll V, 1M4.
the riGanNa-powER or eusope.
How
th ArmlM irr ltll-riv nil
lion l idw Arm.
A writer in an KDglish jonrnul, the Temple ll.ir
Mnaatino, friron nn IntcrpsUrs: account of the
armlet of Europe, the methoili y which they
Are raised, and their comparative strength. Wo
extract from his paper the fallowing parts ;
"In Rnfloi's grimly cmccivcd picture of 'Na
poleon's Midnight KcTkn'tlio sh idowy armies
of tho CorsHui hero arc marshaled In force on an
lie an I nary Chimps do Mara. Once more the vete
rans of Lo.ll, Ansterlitz, Jen i, I.cipmc, ami Mas
tow, with the young ncruis of the Hundred
Day , hour the voice of 'Ir petit fnpnral,' and
(warm In opcctral ImUiiIIuih to m inunivre anil
march past' benea h his commiinding eye. The
exile of St. Helen, familiar to u as the Irmcly
mpcnr gazing out over tho Tint rca h of Atlnn
tle wad is in melancholy contemplation of hii
destiny, and wilt. Llug suntincMiao for the d ly
Btar of hope to ariic, beholds oocc mora the
resurrection of those whom he has led to victory,
and receives the homage ami devotion of n multi
tudinous array. The ghostly columns come on,
dense nod deep, filling the capacious canvas with
their weird forms. Like Milton's hosts, they
firing up ranuiucraMo as the autumn leaves o
Yallambrota, or rather as the rau-iering of the
Warring angels, when 'nil ihc plain, covered with
thick tmbaitlcd sunilrons liright, chariots and
llnming nrins, and ticry steeds, retiming blar.e on
blsr.i,' first appeared to tho faithful Abillel
in his return to hear' n. What a gathering I what
review I what n monnment to the incarnation of
imaiiatile conquc-t ! How eloquent a comment
on ambition, power, glory, fcrtunn, the vanity
rid the nothingness of human machination-!
"To him who wielded the htton and give t tie
Word of command to these martial hordes, thoy
were but as tools and engines, the instruments of
his will, With them he executed his high
schemes, and, like an Attlla or Tamerlane,
scourged the nation who wire disobedient. For
htm war begat war; a son of slaughter, he in
spired hit followers with the love of slaughter,
and they, volunteers nf tight, fell victims ami
victimising in one tcrriMc melee, wuvisir the
broken entire above their heads, aid shouting
with delirious cniuusiiisiu, uyuu with their livsi
gasp, ' I ire I'lCmpmur.''
' Were It possible, alter tho mnnner of TUfrist
not, however, nt a midnight review, hut in tho
open eye of day to marshal the armed myriads
that constitute the living armies of Kurepc, what
crowding of warriors there would tie upon the
plain I From every quarter of the continent the
shining cohorts would muster. From the pine
clad crags of the Dovrcfield to the black coasts of
the Kuxine; from the Interminable steppes of
Muscovy to the laughing plains of Andalusia;
from the sober-hued rillciiian of Great Hi Ham to
the gnrgcous-enpoted Albanian.they wouldthrong
in thousands, nay, by millions ticlmotcd, tur
lianed, sbakoed, kepied, hatted, and c.ipped to
meet in this great military camp of the nations,
this universal gathering of the cl.ins and
races of F.orope. Wo believe ourselves to bo at
peace; to lie reposing under our vine and li'-trve,
with the clouds of war fur from their shadow.
Thirty yearsof comparative exemption from hos
tilities has fed the illusion ; the sound of drum
and fife was rarely beard, except on parade, and
the ninsic most familiar to Fngllsh ears was tho
IiiUMCof a Doric pipe or an Julian lyre. We
mocked ourselves with the idea tiiat civilization
was Introducing 'moral' elements into the fiov
ernruent of the world, and that the sword was to
lie converted into the ploughshare, mid the spe ir
into the pruning-hook. Yet never within the
annals of history havo the nations maintained
such stupendous armies, or mankind witnessed
such fearful destruction on the battle-field, as at
the present day; never has the spirit of war been
more systematically fostered, and a military
education amongst the people encouraged, than
la this year of grace lvt. The contagion has
caught even the solid, stolid, phlegmatic English
man. Our armies are larger Mian they have ever
been before ; our war expenditure is out of all
proportion when we consider that our earnest
prayer ana wish is to live peaceably with all men ;
and not content with setting aside a portion of
sua community to act professionally as oar
sentinels and guarciiiins, a vast number of our
manhood Ins been Kindled with tno martial
spirit, and taken npon itself a share of the national
defense, and under the title of citi.cn soldiers
given oiieTmoro illustration now little pcacuablo
are the ideas that prevail on ovcry side.
TIIK FRENCH SOLDI Kit.
"The armies which were raised by Frnncc and
England lor the invasion of the Crimea, and tho
forces rinsed by llussia to repel that invasion.
were enormous, even by tho side of the vast runs-
tennis tiiut took" place under tne eagles or tue
First Empire. Aguin, the colossal hosts that
were thrown within a few weeks upon tho plain
of Magenta and against iho heights of Solfeiino,
no less than the lavish carnage that a few hours
Witnessed on those memorable battle-fields, testify
to the same fact, and show how numerous and
how crowded nro the barracks of Franco, Iuily,
ana Austria.
"So little, howcrer, can a Government depend
npon the martial instincts of the people, upon
their innate love or fighting, that in every coun
try in Kurope, with two exceptions, and those
the freest Urcat Britain and Switzerland this
natural repugnance to arms has to be forcibly
overcome ; in a word, the army Is created by con
scription, la trance, uussia, Austria, ana l run.
sia the system is carried out with extraordinary
rigor; and even under me most iavorauic sus
pices Is regarded with consiernaiion by tho pre
drstinatcd drawers of the nmmro nuir, or the
black ticket, which consigns tbetn for tho next
decade of their me to tue Iiuril tare ana aonormtu
existence of the barracks and the camp.
"Let us watch for a moment tho career of the
forced recruit, first in F' ranee, and afterwards in
tho other principal kingdoms of the continent.
In France when lad arrives ut the age of tweniy
one, he, 1, liable to bo drafted in the army. To
the poor, fate is inexorable; to the wealthy she
affords a loophole, a chance of escape, in tue
shape of a substitute. Within four and twenty
hours of its birth, every Inlcut is carried by the
nurse and its father, or some other relation, to the
Mairie, and there its name and sex lire duly
enu red in a vast volume in the Registry olllce.
If it bo a buy, It is followed about by tho
police all over the country. Jeannot's parents
cannot move from one place to another
without giving notice to the commissiire
of his migration; and when, after years
of this civic persecution, he enters the
threshold of manhood, the luckless lud liuds him
self invited by the Minister of War to present
himself at a military bureau. Too w. II he knows
the meaning of that ominous i.ivltation, aud with
beating heart and heavy .step obeys the summons,
lie knew that it must come; his mother knew
that it must come; his Bister kuow that it must
come; Jeannctte knew that it must come; yet
pone the less sorrowfully he goes and they ace m
rany him to the bureau, and noue the less tear
fully they behold him dos -ending tho steps, with
the gay colors pinned to his cap in mockery of his
mudortune.
"liio.ooo youths aro thus annually torn from
their homes by un imperial decroo of 1Kj7, the
number was lixod ut this high ligure. Previously
it was left to tho discretion or caprice of tho war
minister, who rained it or decreased it according
to the supposed exigencies of the times. When
i hostilities tue invaliding, the number Is aug
mented considerably; us during tho Crimean
campaign, when the annual conscription rose as
liigh as HO.OoO. To this great evil there is, how
evir, some mitigation. For example, although
the leuul term of service extends to seven years,
the actuul term is wore frequently six, and some
times less; for, In consideration of good conduct
and ability the now apt-and-ready soldier is per
mitted to joiu the 'army of reserve.' Again, it
docs not always happen that the lull complement
drawn is required tbr Immediate service; when
Uiis is the cuse only a portion is drafted into the
regular army, the rest being sent to depots, where
for six months they are diilled and taught the
manual and platoon exercises. This last modi
fication, the necessary corollary of a lixed
yearly quota, is said to be the Irult of the pre
sent Emperor Napoleon experience and studies
in 6wiuerlaud. bnbsi!tutloat moreover, is, as
we have said, allowed in the t reueh army. Up
to the year WZ private agencies existed, whnre
substitutes could be procured for a stipulated
eum; since then, however, these age ucloe have
been abolished, and the Government has en
tirely monopolized the business, with tho view
vt creating a Dotation Fund, wherewith
to encourage re-enlistment when the original
term of service has si sired. The price of a sub
stitute is fixed aunually, aud varies considerably;
yet it is at aay time a large sum for a youth,
.n nf tha middle classes. IO DST. lulrt l") the
sum was CD; lbA7, (f i0; and in M2, iW. To
show how poorly voluntary enlistment succeeds
in France, and also hew the true campaigning
pirit is declining, we may record the fact that,
whereas in 1M62, 80U0 preseiitod themselves to the
r,.riim uiriruant. not more thtn 21'J'2 displayed
their martial seal in ltMi ; so little pugnacious is
yeur real Frenchman if left to himself. Near nay
In the world olfere greater prizes ; and It would
mot be fair to the military system of France not to
state that rapid advancement is open to every sol
dier, end that no man with superior education
' ever remains lor In the rauki. For the artillery
and engineers, special public schools, UQk a the
I'. Iviei litifr, rH. f'yr, Sniimiir. A ., b ire tv
tlitiitcd ;nd hrri' 'me produced K.m f th
"Thrsiurc and arint of that sp'emlid
., b ire best! In-
tio Mnest
d corps,
the l eu's (Jsnlrs, the Oriental ouama of the
.ouaves and Turcos, tho Intlit b ni l and lighter
step of the l basenr de incennos, tho grave
and defiant ti cad of the bltie-coatd (frensditr-i,
the meanurrd yet tasy pace of tho Chasseurs
d'Afriquc on their silk-coated hor-cs, the well
appointed l lilans, and the picturesque Npahis,
present a scene no les attractive from its variety
than from the conviction that with such men an
impi rial commander may be niasior of wh iterer
poHticn be cltoosift to lake up. A toree or
4. 0,(100 Mich nun a number that may speedily
and with si arcely an cllorl br raised to Ti'i.niHl
b uks with irciueixlons weight the monl Indu
ce of mi empire, and when wisely and dis-
redly handled can rrmlertlic lVimoihcus which
has created it formidable at home and irresistible
ai mud ; absolute amom'at li.s ivvn suliects, a
potent atbiter in the de-Pnlo- of f ,rcigti nations
provided there be no cheeks. Are ihero such
checks lor France Yes, and for i. trier c uritrles ;
but unfortunately it i in the eqn ili.ation of the
military mength of e uh nation ; hrnco the vast
menacing, expensive armies whie'i st md 'at at
tention' throughout the continent, crippling ttto
energies, and mulralinsg the in lustrr, utul dc,
voiiimg the resources ot rich ai d po r in mon-
i, n hies alike.
Till IU SSIAM nia in IT.
'The ri itular and irrevulnr at my of K'i-v i is
hunted at upwards of aii.tl l olli -ers and 1,100,.
bin I mutes. 1 his mighty forces -tiroes, like the
waters of the ocean, agnin-t every frontier, a'id
by crpc'iialiy lashirg it, sventu illy diint"gra es
and acquires a poition ol it. 11 a v is this ui iltl-
tude of armed men raised ? Again the answer is,
by Ciiiu ulsion. The conscription is in full foreo
mia rig-t ttie p usatits ami artisans ; the net or tuo
Tecruiiiiig otllccr is c ragged through the popula
tions of the towns un; villa.?' s, and the pesy Is)
caught in the rmporti in of foar or sixJitnd
ton climes as much as eit'ht or ten, in iery
thousand. This dillercnce too may lie pointed otit
between tho conscription in France and Hu-sl i,
mat whereas in the toriner country every indi
vidual who Is of the proper age is liable to be
Imwn, in lln-siaonlv the lower classes arc tho
victims nobles, magistrates, merchants, prions,
students, and the members of cerfiin trade-guilds,
being, by imperial ukum', exempt from tins per
sonal military service. The Government, indeed,
trouble thenielves very little about the levy;
the number to be raised Is tixed for each district
according to the Inst census, and an order issued
to the nobleman or landowner of each eswte to
furnl-h the number. They can nominsto which of
tlielr dependants they please, provided tho men
aic of In allby body ami sound of limb, arid bo-
tween the ages or eighteen and forty. Ho vast
are the territorial posessions of some of theso
tmiiies tne iiemidons, tor example so largo
the tribes of serl'sthey own, that not unfreqiientiy
their contingents amount to ItooU. and sometimes
even to AbOO and fiuoo. The imperial reforms re
cently Introduced into Russia, by which tho rota
tions between the peasant and his master have been
considerably montfted, will no doubt affect this
system of recruiting ; but at present the system
is in full force, and to it the ('. ir Is Indebted for
by far the latgest portion of his regular army.
"There is, however, another mode of recruit
ment which is peculiarly characteristic of a
paternal Government. Marri ige is warmly
encouraged amongst the Ku-siun soldiers, and
every facility is sllorded to those who desire to
take unto themselves a wile. The 8iate supplies
the martial iienedlct with lodgings, and under
takes to feed, clothe, and educate the young
olive-branches that may chance to spring np
around the happy trooper's table. All this is, of
course, kindly meant, and seems benevolent;
but oficn ' things sweet to taste prove in diges
tion sour.' A bounty that appoars on the
first blush generous in the extiemo has its
drawbacks. Iho nialo children of theso Musco
vite sons of Mars, called cantimiiln, are claimed
by the .S ate; aud from infiuey are reared
and trained with a view of being made soldiers,
or ol being otherwise employed In the public ser
vice. They remain at home until thoy aro
breeched and coated, when they aro summarily
sent oil' to tho military depots to be instructed in
their military dntles. it is estimated that this
la vitical class numbers no less than ,'ino ,uifO souls ;
and from it thenon-commissioncdolllcers of rogl-
inenis are obtained ; the discipline they have un
dirgonc, and tho education they have received,
having contributed, it is supposed, to habits ot
steadiness and industry, as well as rendered them
prolicicnt m the rudiments ot the Uussiau held'
book.
One thine the army of Russia esncclallr in (Tors
from, and this we may allude to here a dearth of
otlicers. superior education isconhued to so fu
classes in that colossal empire, that tho sources
it has to draw irom lor its captains are very con
tracted indeed. Notwithstanding that schools for
pages, engineers, otlicers of artillery, and sub-
olllccrs of the guard have been established at at
Petersburg and notwithstanding that the prin
cipal of these Institutions, the "Corps de Cadets,"
numbers upwards of seven hundred pupils this
deficiency has been and is sorely felt. Bv a
recent decree, various new rules luvo bueu laid
down for the entrance of ollieois into the army,
and In theso inducements have been held out to
young men leaving the high schools to accept a
commission. They win tie received as non-com
missioned otlicers for throe months without pass
ing an examination; nt the expiration of that
time, if they aro properly qnaliiiod, they will be
promoted at once to the higher grade. Youths
from th middle schools undergo a probation of
six months; and other voluntesrs, of wliaicver
origin, noble or plebeian, will receive a commission
lifter one year's service, utter having been thor
oughly tested by the ordcul ot a board ol milP
tarv examiners.
"In addition, however, to the standing force
raised by conscription aud maintained by tho
Government, the LV.ar has another and no ignoble
auxiliary in tue semt-savago feudal militia ot the
uossaeks. mis wild trioe a race ireo ana mue
pendent to the heart's core, and martial by
Instinct pay no taxes, regarding the ground on
which they pitch '.heir tents as tneir own fee and
simple. To enjoy it peaceably uud uumolestcdly,
hovtever, they consent to pcrturtn military cr
vice to Uussia; but even this service, as well as
the extent of the levies, Is regulated by treaty.
Two in every fivo hundred is about the average ; I
but lu critical times, when danger is impending,
every nuiii betwien the ages ol ilfieen and sixty
is bound to take the tiold and do battle in behoof
of. the 'father of his people. A hundred and
menty thousand Cossacks Cossacks of tho
Euxltie, Cossacks of the Don, Ural Cossacks,
CoBiieks of tho Caucasus, Orenburg, Cossacks
aud Siberian Cos,ak8 it is estimated, stand pre-
paied in their irregular way to ii,'bt the enemies
of the C.nr. Tbty are, as a rnlc, scmi-savago aud
undisciplined, knowing nothing of the arts of
civilized life ; their courage is that of the barba
rians; whilst their warfuro is conducted with
iurocious cruelty wherever the) have tho power
to commit atrocities.
Tltli OEUMAN CONl'llbllilATIOH.
'In the heart of Kuroin; lloumlcrs a ponderous,
cumbrous monster with two heads. Its body,
like that of Eucciadus, covers u vast area; but so
unnlc dy is it, so disjointed arc its limbs, so in
cohesive its parts, that though leviathan in si.e,
it has little teal power, it i cuiiea tne i.crrnauic
Confederation. Its actual stioi'gth lies in its two
heads, which uro as large in bulk as tho rest of
the body itself. However, the two Heads have
uo unity ot idea, no common purpose of action,
no siuit eness et aim ; and tue c .nso quence is mat
that which, in a stale of moral cohesion might be
omnipotent, is, from its iuti.nta partitions and
divisions, dilapidated aim ve..K. ins tue ounuiu
ol sucks tied up with a rope or sand. With
more than half a million oi men at Its instant
command, tho Federal D.et is icebler than fewit
.erlai.d, and takes alarm at every turn of
F.uroi ean politics, every iu-ti-' oi wings ot tuo
French or llut-slau eaijlc. liy the act of Con
gress of 181 "b the contribution of each of the
tmrty States and the tour tree towns composiug
Germany was fixed at one pei ceut. of the popu
lation, according to tuo census or mat year, wuu
it u nieces of cuunuu for every thousand men;
onc-stveventb of this complement being cavalry.
In 1HM, nlier tho war una uenmarx, out or
which the Germans emerged with somewhat tar
nished laurels, the foice was increased one-sixth,
and at the present time stands at a total of ouil.uoo
men, divided into ten roru d'armee. Austria is
the, largest contributor, her quota oeing i is.uon;
Prussia follows suit with 13.1, WOO; Havana takes
tho third place, aud brings otf.ooo troops into tho
Held; then come Wurtvuiburg with 2J,ui,
Hanover WUU vsi.uuu. oaxouy with zu.oou, auu so
on, down to liease-lloiuburg, with Hs .ijJ men
and Si artillerists, and Lichtensieln with its con
tingent of VI, all told. With very little strain,
bowuver, the nuiajiors of the federal forces could
bn railed to 7u0,oun men. Ine real power aud
command of this tessellated force being, as wa
have observed, in its two beads, tt will bo worth
while to inquire into their military strength sept
lately. THM AUBTIUaK AMD ral'SSlAN FOROKS.
"The Austrian army, as bolng the more nu
merous, deserves first notice, bo jealous it the
Viennee Government of rendering any account,
fiuauclal or otheiwire, to the nation, aud so gar
bled are the statistics when they do appear, that
it is extremely dlillcult to speak with conlideuce
of the exact numbers. Fer many reasons Aus
tria is interested In letting Kurope, as wen as ner
own people, Imagine that her military strength is
less than it actually Is. Hence, olucially, her
army, according to the last report, was computed
at M'J,uw men rana aim nie, auu. i.wu uoiscs ,
but trustworthy, though private sources, set it
dewn at 476,000 men and uo.ouv norses, wuicu is
probably nearer the mark. Like the other armies
of the Continent, the Austrian force is raised by
conscription, every yonth of twenty being subject
ii ihA rjt . hunsiiitrcs. aowever. a suu m uuau.
are furnished by the Govereineut ; and from the
sums thui gained fund li raised for the ptrjiose
of giving bounties to soldiers whose time of ser
vice vihiru, by-the by, is eight years hai ex
pired, to Induce them to re-enlist.
"In so aristocratic a country as Ans ria.lt Is
not surprising that the majority of otlicers ah mid
be noble, cr belong to noble tstnt les. un'rin'
srtlllrry and engineer corps atlord any opening to
the sons of ibe wealthy pi. iietan classes. So s r ing
is the delnge of 'lune tdooit' in this quarter, tha'
the muster roll of Franc Is Joseph's a mv Includes
less than ln.t princes, .'.no counts, tt'.w barons,
470 knights and 'iiKMi untitled barons. Ills, how
ever, a ttriklng come sion of intellectual apit'iy
that these princes, counts, barons, knights, and
untitled bun ns rc-icn the arduous posts of the
rre the pests tt a' require deep and vigorous
mentnl tinining-to the class they despise, l or
this n n pat none Ind ff. remf, impolicy, ami nc
rnre Id enss, however, a day of retribution will
inevitably runic. It isn dangerous waiknes to
intrust the salient nultils of detense Into the
haliils of thoe whom the Austrian nob'esso rli
not attcmp: to iIi-biiisc they look down uion an I
ccnteipn ps an inli rior ordi r of brings.
In l'rnsia tho on.' mi. itloo. of the arm Is on
a ditli rci t and more lib rsl foo'lng. Aecird n r
o the rcgu'siions of 1HI 4 . cvprv man is bound to
receive imlltniy Instruction and join the army;
and though no substitutes are permitted, exemp
tions are pretty t'n eiy ills ributed. The men are
enrol id when they attain their twcn ietli vcir,
and n rve for live years two year and a htlf in
the arinv, nnd two vctirs ami a ha f in the reserve
Could Kii g Wi.liatn overcome the prejudte- s of
Ins parlh mi nl sgninsi his ne pclieine ot nnllt ,ry
reloi ui the period of live yenri would be cxton I d
to feven ; but his House of t' minions is stu'ilnrn
and will hsvo none of his iiumvati ins, cither
military or financial. When tho Prussian soldier
quits the reserve at twenty-live, ho enters the
l.andwebr or militia, In which he remams f ir
liineyrnrs; and closes his military career by be
riming i mliodied in the l.atidsiurin, a f irec psrelv
('elu sive, and which is never callel out on
foreign service. We have mentioned exemp
tions li e nobility and clergy ciiv this privi-
cro;nnd voungmeii ot education wrr will pv
fer their equipment arc allowed to serve only una
yiar, if nt the end of that lime they pass a pro
scribed examination.
OTIIKH KlItOIKAM Ml Ml l.s.
'So much for the organir. ition ol the arnii'-s of
the four gieat Powers of tho continent. The
armies of the o'ltcr kingdoms of F.urope are soon
disposed of. lliey are loriued very much on tho
ssmo principle ; and one and all, like the larger
1'nwirs, maintain their forces on a looting out of
nil due proportion to their population. Spa n
boasts an army of 1 jn,iHKi men, procured of coin se
ny onscription. lurkey wields no less a number
than 460,1 m o. 1 his large force drains imnieasiir i
bly her precarious revenues, and it scarce y
diminishes the evil that the troops are babiiually
kept two or three years in arrears for their pa-.
Tho Gillian's forces may be divided Into four
branches the .Vi.-'im, or active army; tho li'Hif,
or reserve ; the auxiliaries ; and the irregulars. I ho
stall of the ltcilif, or reserve, have lull pay, and live
in the towns and villages among tho soldiers, who.
thongh on leave, are nevertheless not discharged
from service. These men tho otlicers collect and
drill once a week ; they must also report them
selves annually nt the headquarters ot their re
spective corps, where they undergo n month's
cxcrci'e. Tho auxiliaries aro simply the contin
gents furnished by the tributary provinces Wal
laehia, Moldavia, Servin, Uosniu, the Horeg -vina,
Albania, and F.gyptt but those are not very
numerous. The Irregulars constitute a inure for
midable division ; and some of these wild, undis
ciplined hordes Tartars from the I) hrodja and
Asia Minor will bo probably remembered by
ninny an English otllcer who served in the Cri
mea. Coming from tho ha-t to the West, we
find peaceful 1'ortugal making an rtliirt, amidst
the cultivation ot its vines, to maintain lii.ooo
men ; manufacturing llolgiiim to support Iiki.ii hi ;
and o iiimorciiil Holland to pay the cost of Uo.otnj
men.
" Italy that youngest amongst tho kingdoms
of F.urope maintains three hundred thousand
men in lelf-dcfonse alone, ready armed and
equipped, beiau-e the policy of a 'friend and
ally' is equivocal and selfish. Three hundred
thousand men feeding on tho resources of a now
country is a heavy burden indeed ; but twice
three hundred thousand would be willingly and
uumurinuringly borne to realize that dream of
the Italian patriot, Italia una indiviritritr.
"In tho northern countries Denmark, Swe
den, and Norway for example military service
is enforced on exceedingly light conditions.
Ilravc, tough, and hardy, and Iv ing out of the
whirlw inds of the political hemisphere, the Gov
ernnici ts of these kingdoms scarcely deemed it
necessary to carry out a very strict system of
military training and exerclso. Denmark bad,
it is true, a traditional foe in the German Con
federation; butsho laughed at rather than fearod
that huge double-headed megatherium. The
forces she kept on foot, previous to the rco.-nt
war, amounud to 2:,000 men; but those were
speedily raised to 50,00(1, as soon us the Aus'rians
and I rutsians commenced their march towards
tho Eider.
KIX'BCITINa IN K01IWAT.
"In Norway every citizea passes through a
military training, either in the regular army or the
militia. In the regular army, which is raised
partly by conscription, partly by enli-tmeut, the
service is for live years in tho Infantry and lor
seven In the cavalry and artillery. On the other
side of the Dovretield, again, a different system
prevails. In Sweden, the coispription, which has
only been introduced since 1HI2, is exceedingly
unpopular; and of the men drawn, otie-tei'th at
least cbla n substitutes at the easy price of from
S-.'.O to fc'Ha. The conscription class Is culled the
lleiaermg the most popular service, however, is
the wufVu, or national troops. These are paid
and niaintauicd mostly by the landed proprietors
of the country and partly from revenues of ccr
tuin Slate dosnuns. Each soldier, besides a small
annual gratuity, baa bis torn or cottage, with a
fiiece of ground attached, which continues his so
ong as ho remains 'attached,' which not unfre
qiientiy extends over a period of forty years.
Then there Is tho Varfuaile, or enlisted troops, to
which belong the royal life-guards, hussars, and
a great part of the artillery and enginoers the
average term of service for theso is six years
and. lastly, there is the militia of Gothland,
which, I.'.1'8 tue Indcliu, is all but independent.
It WOUld not De mir mi uiuu osi no lauu irom
this comparative list, especially as the organiza
tion of her army, like that of Grout Britain, pos
sesses special and peculiar features of its own.
Switzerland, In fact, disclaims the Idea of having
a standing army ; her constitution prohibiting the
existence of one within tho limits of tho Confede
ration. However, not to leave the commonwealth
without a system ol detense, every one is expectou
to be trained to arms, and neatly every one is
to trained. Children from the age of eight are
regularly instructed at the upper and middle
schools in military exercises, undergo speela'
examinations, and aro frequently paraded and
reviewed with all the pomp and eclat of veteran
iroops. YVhcn they have gone through their
inlutitry exercises, ana nave oecomo expert in me
use of the rifle Wimbledon has witnessed some
of tho excellint shooting of theso gallant an I
keen-eyed sons of the Oberlaad theyoung lens
practise gnnneiy, two and four pounders being
supplied by the Governmsnt for that purpose.
The service is divided into four classes-the Hun
(temuttuq, federal army, com prising men between
the ages or twenty ana tnuiy-tour capaoie oi
bearing arms to this each canton contributes
three pir cent, of lis population; tho 'army of
reserve," composed to the extent of one half per
cent, of the population of those wh passed
through the llutulitutunnr ; the Laiuluehr,
or militia, in which every man between fortv
one and forty-live is bound to serve; aud the
I.aiuhturm, or Army of Detense, in which every
Swiss above the ago of forty-five is enrolled,
and in which be remains until age incapacitates
him Irom further exertion. The total amount of
this patriotic force like the Spartans of old, ovcry
fswiss feels ho lights, when be does fight, for his
institutions, and therefore lights with tho purest
feelings of patriotism is 3'JO'Jt) men, a large
number for so small a commonwealth. Only the
i,1nilintit;ua. however, is on active duty, and
the sen ice of these Is light and eusy. Sineo their
existence as a lederal body, the wiss uuvs
earned as tlieir own the motto of tho English
volunteers. 'Defence, not Defiance.' The policy
of the Government has invariably been unaggres
sive, and rarely has the army oi rswitzoriauu
been called into the Held. Tho arrogant claim
ol the late King of l'rossia en Nerchatel was the
last occasion on which the Swiss spirit was
roused; but a show of popular Indignation suf
ficed to pull out the ambitions of a l'ourt.ilos and
the pretensions of the crowned llolioni illera.
hiuthu Auur.
"Constitutionally speaking, Eugland has no
permanent army. It exists simply on the per
mission or suirerance of Parliament. In the good
old days, when our fathers loved and fought for
freedom, Englishmen were jealous of the power
which a standing military force gave the sevo
..in ,..,.,,, n, tin and they iruarded themselves
and their children against the possible tyranny of
such a body ol men iy every measure tuey coum
d,.vUn. The Hill of KighU surrendered the British
army entirely into the hands of the Parliament,
and without the vote and sanction of the House
of Commons, not a single soldier could appear in
ai i.ratMta. Kvarv vear tha Government has to
submit to this scrutinous body the number of
men which, according to tue estimates oi tne
n.nandr.ln'hief. will be reouired during the
ensuing year for the protection of the country and
Us foreign possessions. If Parliament chooses to
think the estimate too large, it draws its pen
through the ligure and reduces thorn at its
nlpHKure.
" Tha total strength of the British army at the
present day is 148,42 inea. These troops are
scattered about in every part of the world in
Africa and Asia. America and Australasia, in
India and China, at the Cape of Good Hope and
alone the Oold Coast, in Canada and the West
Indies, in Ksw Ztalaud and British Columbia, so
vast and wide-spread are tho colonies and dernsn
drncirs ef Great Britain. In addition to this
r solar arrov 7.VUW of whom are icrvlng, it
should lie resnembend, lu India thero is a
nnliua force consisting of iipw ar l of lM.OOd
men, liable to so many days' training in tne
ceurie of the year. Nor must we loso suhtof
that young army of cllir.cii-tmops who have
enrobed themselves fi r the defen-e of tb" conn
tiy, snd whse numbers are daily iacressing.
Already tho volunteers mnster 13:i.()t)0 strong;
and all of them, wi'h the exception of some
'JO.tiOO or 30,000, Lave twea prououacoil by
Colonel McMurdo to be cfllcieut and ready sol
da rs"
'licfo'e concluding this paper, it will he worth
while to Htiiov a little what may he railed the
'aiitl luetic of 'war;' and by way of aiding us In
this tssk let us consult tho following table la it
the population and revenue of each CounUv are
givi n in round nun-hers of course as oll as
tin siieiiHh ami expense of its nimv.
"As already rein. irked, standing armies arc a
material evil. Hy this tub'e wo see that in mice
ah ne no less than 4,mki,hh able bodied mm arc
siibtrac'ed from tl e honi st at d clvili.ing in lus
trus ol life, and devoted to u profession of Idlo
i es In limes of pea' e, and of slaughter and rapine
in times of war. The cost of th'H eoloss il lorcc
Is i s'imaud-aiid the estimate Is cotisidcra dy
iii'.dtr the limrk at above IMI.Oi'ti.iKiO sterling,
l'nt i vi n theso figures by no iiuans represent ttie
true ci'st
I'cwn.'.i. t I " a'-'nn A'v A'-' if. T'f-n
Aiisir a .'..is 4.." lal.ni.nn l. "I
If'LII'.l .. (.'IIIMII ll.'MO I. nOl'UO HI
le.iiiirk.. Jim nil .'ill I -o .isrt Vo. 'Si
I rata e :':..ii II (mi 7'..insi t,'.lie-,n H.'iiixi
i.i ' it. sms .. 4 . in n.i. .a .', ;;.n;i
(.1 ill lllill. IS.SMMII) 1 I- ll I ;i',t Ki.USI li',imi'
iiriic l.is.ii Ih.ii s'lj.tKi 7 0
Ibtlsid... tiain.'io f.,.iHl S'.siiiusi ltinlnii
II, ill '.'IBie.'dl ,'Iii.ihO Jtif'.'.etO 4,11 II ml I
l'"ri k'.ll . :i..'isii1l I'., Mil .1, HI, isO I'.iiHMSI
I'nt In.... 1s.4m .ko yes iH'il I ' 's'.e SI .'i fri ,i I
hn.-ia..,. 7.i'siito 1,1'S'i.si 4. '..On into 17.4ni,no.l
srmn iii,:mi,n v i.M.nio 'iicsm.ini .t.iisi.ii'j
Siisnh n A
Ntrssiis. s.eoii.oisi 1 -a; issi smit.'tvt i.iiiiinm
Mlerl ml 'J.iHi.ioi ;i. i- 4x s.l, i si i.ilmi
'I urev.,,, :ii.iii' ,i(lii 4- :i, lno V.'.'SKi.nsl f.,ism il-sl
Tills'..
,0l 0
4('.i.lHSl l.ll4.i,'l
jC-si, ti.l.lMI
"We have the sums as laid down In tho various
budgets, and drawn Irom the available income of
Hie country. But were we to add the loans upo i
h at s which have been and arc being con ractod
to maintain theso 'uniformed obstructions' to the
progitrs ol the world, we should h ive a terri'ilo
and npi ailing tola! indeed. As it is, what a
li igbliul ii.ciiliiis upon iho healthy development
ot society is this vast otgiiiiiauou of stagnant
energy I w hnt a menace to ihe peaceful daily
pursuiis of the quiet ciitzcti ' Look atiroid on ttie
lace of the continent at the present moment,
and see how il tvrunniscs over tho liberties of
mankind, v tide il fats up the resources of oven
tlie wealthiest kingdom, threatening nearly all
with poverty slid bankruptcy. F.very nation, In
Uar of its neighbor, maintains a force totally
iiicunipinihle wuh its ri venues; and as to a
nisjotiiy id tho states, the forces itioy do keep up
lire icully inadequate for their deft use. Yet the
mania for vast aud expensive armies and arma
ments increases instead of diminishing, and ttie
chief study nowadays is how to make war more
hoirible and destructive."
pLEKK'U OFFICR, COMMON COUNCIl
V PniriPKl rill. rectnlir 7. ISU14.
In purttisnss sf ths ani.eiuil rosolutlua, Ui AOumluf
but, id mill
"AN OltlilVAMf'E
CRrtTINO A IaiA N Til I'aY liaxrAJw rrCTS!!-
I'llH IN TIIK V K.Att llsM. A N 11 fKKY lol'B Y E AKS, "
Is tier to P'iMished, In avcsirilaues wilQ lh asH gf Aiiam
bly, fur public Uiforiuslavu.
WJI. f. BMAfX,
ClArk. of liuinmou Cimia-
AB OUIiIsfANCK
ntFATtK') A l.i'AS 1" rT rFRTAIJt
HII II IKNCIHS) I'T I MF. YK. VII ISM,
AND IlilVlnl'H YtLSIIH
tortflon 1. Tfis hii I anil cViuuuuo Councils of ttit Oil;
Of l'fitlsiilitila do oi dmn
That the nlsvorot I'rtiudeli'hla be and tie li hereby an
ttioi1xl to borrow no lh sredll of tht city, from time to
time, inert sunii ot money ai way lie nwossarc rVr tha
pavintnt of urh Srftrlsnrtei as now cils., or fvhlra msy
eiitt on lite first day of Jsnusry, lso.v. Id Iho ai'sroui
tlons to Ihe leverll df rarlinenU of Ihft oily sovcrnnisst.
for Uie year sUililecii hundrtd and tasty four, or for jr
vlotts yean, not e&eerdlns In trio wbole ihe eem of two
millions flTS biindred UioutaDd Collars, for which lnto
rvat.not to eiC'-ed the rale ol lis per centum per annum,
hall be paid half yearly, on the rlnt days of Jauaary
and July, at the office of the I'tty Treasurer.
The orlnrlttal of laid loan shall bo Davable and said
at tlie expiration of thirty years from the date of the
slrof; and the etrilflcstea Uierelor, In the aauel Strin ot
mm oerllflealfsi U City Loan, shall be letued In sues
Skounlt as the lenders may require, but not liar any fr na
tional part of one hundred dollars, or, ir reqiurod. Is
aioouute of Ave hundred or one tbouiand dollars; and It
haU be eipreaaed In aaid eertiflcalee that Ihe aald loan
theieln snenUoaed, and the Uitoreat thereof, are payebtt
free from all tanas.
Kectlonl W bvi eror any loan Shan bo made by sir t as
thereof, tnrre shall be by foree of llila ordinance aaeinaUy
appropriated oulof the lneine of the corpurale ealatei
and from the sum railed by Uiat.on, a linn i"rnlnilo
pay the Inlereit on laid oertlfleate ; and the farther mn
ot tlsree-lenllii of one per centum on Uie pa
value of perh eerUfleetei io lnued iball bo appro
prlated quarttelr out ui said Inoome and taaei to a alnS
Iss lund,sU!rli fund, and Its acreuialaUoni, aro bomliy
eipirtaljy pledfod Sar the redcnipUoa aud payiaentof eaJd
oeriillcaiea.
BFSor.rmoie
To pnMtth a Ixtan Hill to par reflotencios.
Keeolvrd, 1 hat diet.' era lie author.ced to puhlnh la two
dally newspapers of this city, dally. Air four weeks, the
ordnance pieieated to I'oouuou CV)UBd on Tburiday,
tnessrnta-rl. ISM. enU'led
"An Oidmance t'nsallus a Loan to payOertaln Doflclineie
of the year l(s'.4, and previoiil years."
And da laid Vrk. at lite lUtid meeilns of ('nun all
after Ibe elplratlou of Aair wee-hi bom tlie dm day of sau
pnhlleitloti, ihall preient to tbli t'ooncS one of eaoh is
paid newipai era lur twery Say lo wiilcb Uis same esial
tulTO beea tuada. U S 4w
JAUl'IIirx- AND COL1OKA.DO
GOLD MINING COMPANY.
OlIAaVIkID UT BTATK Or rrHBSYXy ASIA.
CAPITAL. STOCK. 91,000,000
SOO.000 Shares Par Tstlsie, 99.
Freeiideue-JOHN B. ANDKKSON.
Xirvei49irei
TYicmil A. IcoM,
V. B. aaeaaa,
WUItani . rroemaa,
Sobers r.K laa,
John M. KUe,
UourleelMIUWoj,
James . Mane,
T O. afeDewoH, Bajvtaburt.
Joha W. Hal, de
JiibB Brady, So
W. W. Wylle, Lanoaetes.
1 0. BciaK Ooksrade.
r. v
SOUTI1WOUTII,
Sesareeary aud Troajartr.
01TICE. Uo. 423 WALinJT 8TBEET,
BflM Xo.
Aaskentteatel epeeknens have beoa ftatmi from soma
of Sbe Oempea s lodes, and bars beaa auajresl by rro
Ibiaors nootk andUarreltwali Ibe most ayaleryiBsreeeats.
BnbeortpUoa Sats aro now open at the OOVm of the Uocb
paay. and at she TTeaearer's OlBco (Inkrnal Brrenoo).
Mo. etf CsOT Rareet, rarmers' and aleetiaaies' Hani
beakuavf. To oiifUial iWiiHI ers as so per atuurs Bar s
Smiled amber taf share.
tlcewUrs,paapiete, or mmvaiattoa san be obtained M
ul ueSea 0 tt.l Cimipaaj, alW Mil lTlh Lait. UU-la
r' 11 k it e c 1 r ji o c i t r
MIN1NC1 COMPANY.
CHAVUIKRE DISTRICT, CANADA F.AST.
L. I. CHrrrENDEIv, President.
OFFICERS.
Fi-tiovtrnor Jamo Pollock, Wrejlor U 8. Mint, l'hlla
ddl'lila ; Hon.W U. lloorbead, I'rosldeut t'hllaitilplila ami
frle Ballruad Company; C, H. Wn.ii!, Ki., of O. 11.
Wrlttht a Co , bankers; llsary Slieldim, '!.. of Blauton,
Sheldon A l o., NowYorki W. B. Hatch, Ksn-of Kalr
banks A Co., Vow York; T. U.Bantlus, K'l , of T. U.
Hunting a Co., hew York 1 L. E. Cbltteudua, lau Itesliisr
I'. 8. Trrasuiy.
(0,MS) B11ABKS f AB VALUE, i0 EACH.
BUIIslCBirTlOM I'BICK, $10.
Property, 11,770 Acres, all Kuown to be Rich in
Uold.
20,000 Shares of Stock OiTerod fur Subscription.
6D0 ounoea of par OOI.D from the Company's property
may be seen on application at the onto ol (J. B. VTrtfht A
Co., Mo. Ut S. Third street, wbore aapi, prospectuses, and
all Information may be bad. Ths lauit report from tb
licoloililof tk Company annoance Ui alcovry l flT
new and vary rich quarts lodos.
Tbs Official Report of It" Uold Cotmaliiloners of Canada
will soon b published, sUowtnf yer lx HuaaVsatssvat
fiiy rAwMnat Vtlfrt, at cula rales, f Oold has beoa
reoenlly aUned la the Chaadlere Ulstrlct. priaclpally apoa
the Oompany s properly.
A limited nsmlter of Ui Shares of ths Capital Stock star
be tabswtbed for at the Ofllc f
Ce U. WHIC1IIT at CO..
,v V. 14 . TUIBB (treet,
Hts-rmwet QtitsosUtithsJehanse
p0TmTITO-H0UaH AND BCHOOt DB9K1
Kj ae to easier, a sfceeef.ARTliiBa.rtat,
U-tJ
liMOWsiB ruowatasT.
KCOHD-HAMD COTTOM
BAM-
UUU h. as ""V
svua t. Ball ar a o
IOK TO YOU II INTKUKSTI!!
V U LC AN
OIL AiVD MIKING COMPANY,
or
WEST VIRGINIA.
CHAUTKUKl)
T tiih
HI ATP'. OF rh.NNHYIVANIA
CA! ITATa, Uf aiOO.OOO.
$1 -00 r K Tl K II ARK, FULL V A 1 D J
No Kumh-' A -'- I '!-.
TIIK KBTATKM OF IUIH ('Oyi'ANT
Are lo (irt in the hvnrt cvntr of the ctt-fit nil din-rU t of
Wt VirF'nU.ard Imllr t woalth of oil (rrrttlr iiTpMif
Intr lh rtiiutil OH wwl rrjlon of rfinyWnta. Th-r
ny D-prUa
OVKk :tf ArKFW,
All In (tt imp.' Urn itgimlntcl hy n ftnlnrnt I'lilU.lrt
phl Inwyur, and in nountVs lnillpu( lr j, Im tMl In the
will limnn HiiruloK Hprinf ami Gristt K an v-La oil
diMrkt.
1 Int. The Htl'artl Farm o( tht Old Humtnu Rprlnf
rpTln, fontatninR ot no hundred acrci. In rttp -roi
lmlty t tMt wttatc, on every ilde, are iltuated tho m it
nroeful oil well In Wet Virginia, and within about
one and a half miU-t In located the widely celebrated
"l.fwelljn" and "Ktcnial Centre' wclli, Uo former A
which flowed fully
I'll UK t TIIOrANli (SnX) HA UliEI.S Of Oil,
rr.s oay,
Hf'tpR ihe Krentent h n A lt yU- of nil e m anown, and
y i on.ldernblT aurpan.luir, b-'h In iiuantUy and nnnlit j,
Uie nnluct of any two well In remtatvanla.
Hecond. 1 hrce thousand (.1000) acne In twotitate In
tht centre f ttie oil renlon of the (treat Kanawha, alonK
whose enlne letiKth oil il hell Ted itt eaisl ia tiiimotuc
detositii, at aside from the actual dt-Totopmcnta for oil,
the evaporation at the nHKhljorlnc Malt Wnrki la etTtieted
bj tultliiK the rrtrulcuio einl.lca from inLUrri)n
rervolrt of nil.
1 lie CVmpany .(Uri hare been leeurtd at really low
prlcei i,$l,C(0 In all), and aro deeird direct from original
owuert to the tucV.huldeii of the Vuhan Oil aud Mlnintf
(Vuipany.
Ibe value and Importance of the Corrpany' property
may he Inferred fr ra the fact that leai4 fur adjoining
liiiida.wlih lar-o riyalilei of oil. have been lold fur a
buiiui grcatarr than the le simple oust of the Company's
mi At a, and If osteinied advantageous to the stockholder!,
It le helltved U.at hut llt:c dnVflu'ty would be experi
enced In It at-lim a portion of their territory at houui and
royally greater U-ao the cost of tlie whole.
TDK Vl'LCA OIL AKD MINIKO OOMl'ASi?
Ia nrsanlard and will t conducted solely with tiW vteir of
afford I iif a iootm of inarms n en t bualnaaa prosit to those
InMrefctedi and hi ordr to place the Outnpany'a oil la the
aiarket at tho earliest moment, vigoron oporattona will be
tVrthwlt bffiD.
As a lourue oi additional profit to stockholders, and
ooiUaa.odatlott to the ftdjaoaat priduesrs, tt lo pto(MeU
ta erect a largo refinery at sucb point and lander aueh
M pice a ai tho Directors may determine will Insure lis
larsoet rrtnrm.
One hundred and twenty flve tliousand tiaM1 r
stoak only will ba aold, and do further aubecriptroai
will be accepted at any price whatever; the retnaJtitiig
Tft-IOl aharee ttand pledged to he equally divided belweoa
Ui original aubscrilera at such a time ai tho Oireetura
may deem most advanteeoas to the lutereot ol tlie
Ot nipasiy.
The laanieiifo profit to tM dorlved from earnest and suo
oessfal woiklng (a shown by the fact that a tlngW Com
paoy la this year pay In to the atuokholJera ($1,000,000)
one nillllon of dollars In oaah dividends, best dee ahaud
aome reserve for additional dvelopmeato.
The lahstantlal IndocemenU which tha Tuloan Oil and
Mining Company ofTer to those desirous of receiving an
Interest In a source of wealth that la mow itartllag the
whole world, aro of a character that BLKiit tho yraroal
eonslderatlon.
To persons Interested or not Interootad, avery lafbrma-
UoneuLrernlnf the est a tee of the Company, Its workJntra
and prospfcU, will bo freely tiron, and detailed maps and
charts will ae cheerfully shown.
abiciiptlon to a limited amount of tho stock (if not
alrtaity fa km) may boEubtalud at original price of f l 00
per share.
HENRY SIMONS, PresiJent,
U. 8. NATIONAL WAUOH WORKS.
WM. H. WEIZ3, Treasurer,
Of W. If. WEKK8 A Co., White Lead Mauufaulurori.
J. L, "WIlLOUgHBT. Stcretarj,
orriOE:
TV. l:.t Street.
15 Ji at
INDIAN SPUING OIL COMPANY.
OFTIOE, No. 152 S TOTJBTfl Street
rKBStllFWT,
JOHN KK it'll AM.
SRCaHTAUT AND THKASIIRIR,
JOHN C. BAVKKY.
DtaatToai.
Jrlia leieham, i Hamuei A llarrlaou,
Haaiuel Mnaa. I Julia tUbeoa,
Mark llalilxrauia. I W A Aruo d.
TtMKisaaW.Halle)r. IaKI A. Woelpper.
Joba 0. aafacT.
C APITAL STOCK, rto,O0O.
tH0,(M ib.ru at tl each. eU.OTO iliares reeureea b
lb Cmnpanj for a working capital.
Tnaisyy hmJO securad la fe alaiple on of la
awiel valuable oil-producing- paroela on tbe Jtsiberta Kana.
ai rnacb crk, Tuaii'o eountj, fa., auoul four tnllas
fiB riantlia.
Tlx traet coatalni annul !l acre, with a river la frm
faearir MiO feet, and baa superior railroad facllltiea, lb
railroad fiomalrailrlll o Oil CHy runnlus through tu
property, Uan It there II a eeiebraled Oil Hprlnf , Ihe
produet of which was former! uied by the ludiam for
adl inal purpoie.
Th Company have out well ItO feet dnep, lirodJclnii tlie
LoaTleil Lubricating Oil, wlikh li worlb at Urn preaunt
ttiuet Jo per barrel t and a Hi it are now preparlns tlie
neeetiary oiachlnery for working tbli and other wells. It
U aunlldenil eipoctix), early la Ui rear, to pay a larg
aiouUily dlfldcnd to the gtocAholdera.
A Uuiite4 oaniber of itiarea will b sold at th original
erloe ot Oa Dollar per iliaro.
(tubeelibarl, oa enuarlog their oaruei, will l required to
pay 50 per oeat. of tin aubicrlptloa prlee, al the balaaeo
oa th delivery of tha cerunraie, aay janaary 1, 1,
Appttcatloni for Block may b m4 at th oftlc of lb
Ooaiisany, Mo. Hi 8. rouHTU Slreot wbeisj sptclmeut
f Oil from this Company's well mar be eeea, and
any iBfonaatioa MaUr to th srjperty nay be ok
lajutd, U-U mwilUt
pOALi OIL..
AKD OTUBft IBOOarOSATBO OOUPAMIU,
aw be aSe at tnweit tl vita Wtfk
LMutrsritia rW or snx'K,
l-tLAJisraa aooas,
si'ox i siiciras,
D4'. lar.su Bom, Aw. A. A.
A Seal aaeeftanaet mt aaveanlee oa baa fee eareAaaera M
aaaeatkeaa. ayai(i UleeaUOetiieeo
V. 6. PESST, luAJudaUttvaBg BUtioaOT,
' n-M-Hr I. V. saaaaar rOTBT aaal B AOS .
QUJk.lVL.Ii.rt 32. CLVBB.'i4
BEDDING WAREHOUSE,
AT X. U K. ELKTBKTK 8T1EKT,
U-Mts tvAsa.ra.
pKTKOLKUM
Oil, STOCKS.
W. A. II A MILL,
No Ui; WuliiiitH:ri-ct.
K B RA1K-AII the irauiug dnidtixl psyln OH,
Mo, KB.
WAbTEIi-l'artiee wuh imra tl in Sficnn. to f-rm
oiilnalnri In I CVmpany, whose nel rrreipti, l tbr pr
ir nl time, (ay nity per cent, en it.o purcliaie money.
AI.SO-OKUIINL mmsi ltlf TI0N received lor Ihe
prnler rait of tholl eit 'otn.anli noe nrsanlzlnr, nndr
tit dim lion of geullrnien of raprrirnc and unit .nilm-d
t. lulu g Call ar.d fit a rtrrolar. U JI t
i;nnsvlvania
IMriRIAI, OIL COMPANY.
oi'i irr, No. no 8. fifth ft., riiiLAiiA
CAI'ITAI,, 2,0iK,fK)0 DOLLAIW.
Adetv HIIAKI.a, AT III! E
urn (. niri kin rmrt: kih kcli, paid htik k
Itt'Nt'l'VKl (Ilpl'ltl, tirt.tnt).
rnaatiiKNT,
ALFXANDKR K. McCLV'Ri:.
PIIIRlTOIia,
A. K. .f 1.1'HF. JllllS M. rriMKKOT.
TIIOMAH A. SIHTT, Kl.iallA W. HAVIS,
11. K JAI'KMAN, I'KrRIt 11. HMAI.l..
J. ('. IIOMIIKUHKB.
SHCKKTABT,
JAMES m. si:i.i.i:ri.
TRFAarHKR,
aUSUA W. DAVIS.
Tbii Company has thrre diirerrnt ua'ia of land mw
prc-dtietng oil, and ample revenues to guarantee rcvular
diTld. mil.
The thr. e tracts with welli on them are capaMe of e
tenoUc drvclopmtnt, and the Company havf five eniiiu'l
and the Datum ready lo iiroicciite tho wora.
II hai l'Jfi arrei In fee on Allesbeny rlrer, linmcdlllv
orpoiltf OlM'liy, wllh 110 ndi rtrcr front, and 7. rndi
front on Lay'l Run. Thle band la now wortli Ilu0,00ox
elusive of th Oil right.
Il hui IfO acrei In fe In the Cherry Run dlilrU I, lniire
dlati ly ad olnlng Cherry Hub Petroleum Companr, and
leaiei ir about to be exes'iiled with two itrong parttri to
link well! on leate on Hill tract, tbe Company to reeelve
half the OIL
It has two Iractl of land on Oil Creek, aaoh producing
over ten barrels per day, and one tract on the AUtsghenv
rtrnr producing ten barren of hoary Oil, worth ;l per
barrel. All of thai tracts will be promptly derrloia.l,
and they ate lU-teiied OU landi. :
It ll otganiatsl on a certain baill to pay divttb-ndi from
the Hart. Hi revenue! from Oil alone are more thai.
Uttlrt pfr ettt. per artnam on Ui capital; and nev
vells are about lo be lunk on leaie, without coit to Ihe
Company, and one-hall tbOrocoed will belong! lo U-.e
I'ouiiiany.
The Company hai $?.O,0f 0 of Hi own capital lu reierve
belonging to Uie Stockhohleri, and taking It altogether il
r..olirccf for eertatn dividend are ao approarhfd fty
ony other Ott itvck now in the market at even double the
original coti.
The officer! of Uiis Company mean ta proieciil the de
velopment of theie lands lucst onergrt'OAlly, and tliey hava
entire confldtnee that tiny will ilcld very large dlrtdcn.il
on th capital stock.
Bubicrlptlons will b received at theofflcs of th Com
pany. 11 Kl 6'.
rp
" 11 E
CLOUS T O N
OIL COMPANY.
CF WEST VIRGINIA.
One of the best and most promising Investmonts before
ti e publle-Plv Leases on BIO lUJKNIMO tr'llKO RON,
KH1IIT WBLLB on th'm.lora prod nclng, and good show
of Oil In tbe others. MOItllAH LBAMkm AM) WBI.I.H,
a standing Htone creuk. 117 acres la feevnesr the UK,
III I MM) H1EIS j8. Also 1100 io aa In fee, known as
Uie SAB II PKUVINCK FAUH.on Yellow rek, a trlba-
Ury of Uugbee river, iaa) acre bottom land. Tke Company
la geitii g Twenty llatreli per day, have four Knglnai now
n th ground, ai.d seven Wells almost completed, with
how f Oil In all of them.
All of th above property la la WlktT COUNTY.
Call at th oftloe of the lll.UB CRBEK OIL COM I' A NY,
Mo. 4U7 WALNUT Bireet, and gel a prospectus.
SUBSCBirTION LISTS NOW OPEN.
100,000 SHARES, PAR $10.
BUBBCKirrioM tbick, a run buabb.
WORHIKU CAPITAL, 8 '2 1, 000.
U M fmwMt
(J A K I)
VULCAN
OIL AND MINING COMPANY.
The itraltMftirwara bnilneis like mannerwllh which
l hi. Company hai been organized, and will, aa long a th
uaCersltord hare any voice or taUuencein It! uanage
ruenl.molt cortalnly ke condocu d, has excited the hi-
1U of ivial emerprliing contemporary companies,
wtose ellorts are very cb-arly more d Irec tod toward irect-
Ingialeiof stock, and depreciating this Company loan
dor. than of any manlfeit doilre to develop Oil to rsloi-
bnrie their stockholders.
Th Vl'LCAN OIL AKI MININO COMrAWT was
started onder the conviction that at least on hoaorabl
builnois organlralion woald receive a cordial reception.
Tbe Coupiny a reception is an eminent iaecis; that sao-
'ess appears to have envenomed Its contemporaries. As
this Company appea a direct to th reflective bustnsss
men of th comiuuilv. who, as a dais, hav never ben
lound amorg th Investors of our ooutemporarlea' s:ook,
nd tberfote, as no custom Is taken from them whatever,
no good res son can be conjectured far such an auaeoesaary
agitation ot nil.
loth public w would frabkly italelhil tnauouipany
:ilti in fee simple (J100 acrei), coit Isl.OdU i the apl al
luck Is dlrl.'eil Into 200 ooO shares, at tl eaeh, full paid.
IVi.nfO iharea of Block omr will be sold, and no mor at
any prtc whatever. This amount sayi for our territory ,
and laavii a ossh working capital or t H ,ouu. tbii remain
ing 76,l0O shar staud pledged to be eouelly divided pro
rata betw.cn the erlglnal or present suhiorlbers. Th
Company's eitales are in the vary heart of th rlcluMl oil
district la this country, if you Ilka oar straightforward
plan of dealing belter than paying a few corporator! an
citortlouate rat for a little around on an ascertain Inte
rest, w should b pleased to have your subscription at
one; If you do not. plenty of other cbanoosar preeinled
to Invest your atone.
nilTRY SI-IOSS, Resident.
(U. 8. National Wagon Works.)
11. H. WEEKS, Trefcsnrer,
(01 W. ti- Weeks A Co., Wait Lead at auufaotuiera.)
H-M-lt COMPAM Y'8 OFFICE, '
Wo. t84, WALNUT BTItBET,
rro CAPITALISTS VAXTABLE Oa TKfiV
1 RiToaT.
Tlieee deeireos of intertna Into sa Oil Ooeapsay aw fcs
eoar.s mi ortanlaaaW, aa rtainavl partiea, are lufurmeB
tbal thai ar a lew share ye le be Bupsssad of in a ooms
ttaayct aaaaeaiwatabl rluartlll, at ta rat ml llsKat
ca.
The pTsjveftr IsliwalaA Tw0 aftl run. a4 oeeutees
ot alaty-aveaaaawa.theaTavtTpocuono wklok at IMea
Skle l.rrllory. Oa tke baiauo ml the Bravest y, ertalak as
aplauS, Is aa aaejadaave ml ml, aaa aat Bmealava, WSaah
la mnek e.ed la ibl ngloa.
Tan propen v la ot ate avsart aWvasSUVa Tw. kit I.
rvaa Sog eai are ,i as. aaA Ilea arU aa Ik ttsvajt iMl
stall.
n.eiaasaXaMOasakaaarua aeoi.uaaarT a areas.
eoea li. ....wip ai . i r . ,
U St Baaaaaary aaj Iiaasiun1,
.1
'J II E DRAKE
PETROLEUM COMPANY
OK rUILADKLrilU. r
( AriTAti, .... fft.OOO ooo
100,000 SHARCS, PAB $10.
950,000 Ceh Working Capital.
PTJBHCIIIPTION PKIOK, 'i SO.
rBimitlRNT, '
T. HA8KINH DU PUV,
Prealdent f rhe Catawba allroaA Compa-ay.
vica raastDRNT,'
THOMAS r. WaTTciOM,
Of tte Hardware Crm of Traltt A Co., Nu. ti Market tt
ntiAscaaa,
KAMUF.Ij WORK,
Caf Wort, MeOoueh A Co.. Bankers, So. M H. Third strwrt
DiaaeTous,
T. Tl A MKT MB DU TOT,
THOMAS D. WATTBOK,
K. B. KICnARPS.
ea Cruaijt4rwat
WM. T. SMKkRBUD, Insarans Ajrent.
OKOROK P. WAT,
f lai Hry Uoodi Arm of J. T. Way A Co.,
A. W. I.Btsa;JRla,),
Cashier Maiica Cbnak Bank,
KDWA1D SIlIPrEK, .
Ttje property of tk Xirak Petroleum Company eona'sls
of two uaots of land, on of two kandred and flftly-aval
asre and one of iws hnndrek and slxty-flveeoroe.mem
an all fire kuadrad and twelve acres, la tern, M lb CaloV
wellBranek ofOU Crsrk.
Th property baa bea rltleaJly exaraSaed by a Con
talM appolntad (br that parp.ii. and th terrttorj ro
owread, In their Jn-Vmenl, to be flilly loal to tluSaa Ol
Ore--, along wbleh the largtvet oil weJU ml Auwonrasl
kav been fonnd.
Tb lands reiemb'e those oa Oil rrk la very partlca-
lar, and tt Is believed, from th larg Dombr ef eal
prhigs Bi close proa Imlly, thai valaahl weals will b
osnsaad on both the tract!.
Tke manaaement kav already lenrd several un
sad augased a eomnetont Buperlntendoai, wKa a Tasw ta
ammedial and rirgtlo development.
A targe portion of these tracts la bottom, a admlrakk
adapted for borlrif .
kwvaral aompan as ar organised oa lands Imraealaiekf
adjoining this territory, amoag wbloh are lb Bngi aad
CreaesHlt Oil Companies ot Philadelphia.
In presenting tke Drak Ptrolem Company to lb)
pohlie, th Director! ask tha their acbwa luoald be a
amliMd, and labicrlisuous mad to tb Btok la rail fallal
as to tu preeaeit and prospective valu
T. nASKIKS BO PUT, Frees den.
TflokliS D. WATrSOM, Ylee-Preeldnt.
1AMUBL WOUK, Traasnrer.
BeibscrlpUon be received at the Banking Home sat
WORK, kfeCOUCU A CO.,
M-T-tf Vo. S6 B. TBIetaf Saveaa.
pCOSPECTUS'
or TUB
KANAHA AUD HUGEE3 EIVEB3
OIL COMPANY,
ri ti
OFrK'E:
No. UOS . FOTjnTII r3tieot,
rUIL.ADEL.PHIA. i
Capital Etcck,
$1,000,000.
raksiDBtrT, ' .
C. A. WALBORM.
U1EBBCTOKS,
Wkt. ml. aUBDALL, J. X, EI1XJWAT,
WM. V. MeOBATB, KUHUA W. DA TIB,
W. H. HEMBLC
TBBASUBBB,
J. E. RIDfJWAY.
BUBBCRirriOHS BBCKIVBXI AT THK OFTICB OF
TUB COMPAMT, Mo. 908 B. FOUBTH STBXBT,
ALSO AT X. JOS CHHBBfUT 8T. ,
Divided into One Hundred Tboasnnd Shares of
Ten ($10) Dollars sach, of which Twenty
Tbuiuand 6 hares are set apart to be sold
at 9- 50 per share, making; $50,000
Working Capital, to be expendad
In developing the lands and
paying the necessary ex-
pcaios of the ,
Cumpttiiy,
Th yroptrty of thli Company eoa.liU of the tmo iluiobs
sad penistnal lel of between 100 and 11 HO acre, mt land
la Wod and Wirt counties, Weit Virginia.
ltos. 1 and t ar In fe simple, an contain akoot 170
acres, situated at Kaaawha Mtation, on tho MortkWMtara
Mailroait, aboal 10 miles above rarkecsburg, Va , wlw
SbaKanawha river, tb Parkariburg aud Btauntou turn
pike, and the Morthweittm Railroad Company coos u
geiker. if
Tpon Ihll property II lltnatrt th Kanawha Btaaioa of
the Northwaaicrn Kallroad Company, which la th most
IdvaaUgeoeii point of shipment for th oil produced lu to
region of th Kanawha and In iriouiarle.
Xo. I. Ii a tract of land perpetually leaicd from James
Aoblnien.andcentaiai nut leu than 600 acrei, end d
ias jlos. 1 and 1.
Ko.4. Ii th celebrated Itoblnasa traet, under a pe's.
lual lean, and coatalua M acres, situated la Wirt cunty,
about 'i mil above th former tracts, ou tb acuta aid
of Uie Hu.ui l river and noar lu confluence with th Ka
nawha, and ka a boring froat oa Xoek raa of aboat tw
sulla.
Tk royalty too paid on thos leases Is one-eighth of
the net proceed after th Couipaay being reimbursed for
sxpuuit and outlay la producing th o!L
.IcoM tk Iraet, oa Ui Kanawha. 1 th celobrated Burn
ing Bprlag, on acar that ou the Hughes ar many pro
ductivewsUs. i
At ta Janatlca of tBess two itresras wlH b tbasat tk
oil etl-prt4kaeuag leer 1 lory In West Virginia. ,
Tkallfle titaatioa mt this lead ITrJa a kswijur lerrt
Serr of al leaal aevea gailcs sa Use tw riven aud lsW
IrlkaUrtM. 11 CMuUu-l
JJHI CLAHIOS OT22 OILOCliTAaiLI.
a. t . y'
orricB, tu VALKn vtbsxi.
i . , ! v 'I
umoib tveoa),
WILLIAM F. "OHKLL,
' FBAausarm.
' ' t, ajlMPEOM AFRICA.
i tt gf '
' r
'.an

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