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The evening telegraph. [volume] (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1864-1918, April 06, 1866, THIRD EDITION, Image 6

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Rejoinder of Hon. Rcvcrdy John
son to the Speech of lion.
Lyman Trumbull.
Mr. Johnson ssld that In the discussion of tho hilt
before the Menate, thougo the nncatlon u not strictly
Irpal one, there were queailona ot po Icy to lie considered-
questions ol expediency. The objection
which the President makes to the bill, hi returning it
wit bo it hi approval relates aa well to the expe
diency of tho measure m to It allotted unconstitu
tionality. The purposes of oiothlns the President with
the veto power were to guard his own department
Italnat encroachment by any other t to guard the Htotot
ayalnat like wlluencc, and to guard the Individual clil
Sena also
In addition to these oblects, one of the purposes of
the convention was to guild against Inexpedient and
Ill-considered legislation, looking to what had taken
place In the ongresa 01 the Conlcueracy, and to what
iiad occuired In the several State Governments. Hie
members of the Convention ot 17HJ were satisfied that
It was just as necessary lor the punllo weal to protect
the country attalnst Inexpedient legislation, or almost
. a, necessary .as it It to protect It against imcousUtu
"Coha .le"',,""n
It has Ti( in heretofore denied by tome, and doubted by
others, whether the l'resttlent la justified, in using the
power except upon constitutional grounds. That princi
ple was ured by the leading members ol the WhI?
party at the head of which a ood Mr. Clay, wnan they
became very much dissatisfied with the exercise ol that
power by the then President of tho United Mates, Cent
ral Jacston. 'ibe fact wm callti to tie attention of Mr.
Ma lison, and lie expressed his opinion oil it Id a letter
written with the ability which alwaya marked his
writing s, (luted on the 1 ft Hi of October, In 14.
Mr Joliu-oa bore quoted irom the letter refer rod to
and continued :
'Ihe honorable'tremheT from Illinois (Mr. Trnmbull)
aeeme to suppose that he finds as vand objections to the
exercise 01 tbls power by the President in tnls Instance,
in the tact that the bill passed received tbn votes o
more than two-thirds ot the member ol each House,
and he cited In support of that doctrine a speech de
livered by the l'rcuhlent when he was a member ol this
body, In 1HM and lnU. 1 he Senator, perhaps, was in
duced by what he read from that speech to bniteve that
the President stated tbe principle to be that a bill
passed by a two-t. Irds' vote could not constitutions ly
bosuhjected to the veto power. It he had rood the lat
ter part of the same senteuoe he would have louud that
the Piealdont intended no am b thing.
Tbe foundress of the doctrine expressed In that
nprech cannot be unebtloned. Mr. Johnson, when ho
was a member ot this body, merely said that the tact
that a bill was passed by the majority rendered neces
sary lor the purpose ol overruling a veto, was a reason
why he should very cautiously apply the power tor
Jta exercise, but so lar from its being necessary, in the
Judgment ol the Senate, as It certainly was not in the
mind ot Mr. Johnson at the time, mat a bill being
passed by that majority placed It beyond tho veto
Tbe honorable member's (Mr. Trumbull's) answer to a
question which 1 put to him shows that, in the judgment
01 the Senate, the veto power was properly excrement
and a bill which, in that Instance, had been passed by
xuore than twc-thinls 01 bo h Houses did not nut become
s law, as many who hud voted lor the bill changed
their votes under the ititluciice of the President's veto
message. .Now. Mr l'resideut. In order to hnd out
xactiy whether it was proper ibr the l'resideut to dis
approve of this bill, It becomes necessary to ascertain
"v. l b precision whut the bill is. I he honorable member
Ironi Illinois (Mr. Triiinbtiin insists upon It that ihere is
no section in It which Is not dearly constitutional. Ho
maintains the constitutionality 01 the first section upon
the ground, first, that It Is merely declaratory ol what
a law Is; utid. second, that 11 It was not declaratory, It
was a law which Congress had a rlnht to make, because.
In his judgment. It Is in the power 01 Congress by law to
dec are who shall bo a citizen ol the L'nl.ed Slates.
'Ihe hononmle member reiened to a case reported In
6th Peters, the decision ol' Chief Justice Marshall, for
the pur pore of showing that a titizen 01 tbe United
(states who has been naturalized, and who resided Iq
any t-tate of the United Mutes, cos a right to go Into
the courts of the United States. The honorable mem
ber clearly, as I think, misapprehends the decision to
which he relers. The question helore the . ourt was
-whether It appeared up, 01 the face ot the pleading that
the party foing Into the court below had a right to go
Into that court. Under the Constitution ot the United
Hates, and the act of17H, which was passed to carry
out its provisions, the Jurisdiction of a courc of the
United states, wheie It was made to depend upon the
character ot a party, was given only In cases where the
party plairrtill and the party defendant wetV citizens ol
dillerent Btatea, and tbe question beiote the court was,
-whether It appeared on the lace of the declaration. In
the part cu ar case, that the partv plaintnf was a citizen
et a State, and. aa such, entitled to go Into the courts ol'
the United State'.
The langunge of the declaration that bo was a
naturalized citizen of the United States, lesldlng iu the
Htnto 01 Louisiana and the Court came to the conclu
sion that that averment was equivalent to an aver
ment that 1 e was a citL.en 01 Louisiana In the absence
ol anv thing to the contrary, but that Is not the ques
tion which the bill present. He became a citizen under
the naturalization laws 01 the United States, and the
authority ot Congress to puss such laws could not be
doubted. The cUoctof the exercise of that power was
to remove the disability arising from lorelgn birth
and to give him the capacity of becoming a citizen of
one of the States. When tho declaration therefore,
averred that tho original disability, alienage , was re
moved in that Instance by the party having become a
' citizen under the naturalization luws, the only other
' jucbUou upon which the erne beiore the Court tnrned,
w as whether ho was a chiton of a different State irom
the State iu which the other partv resided, and the
Court decided that the averment of a residence In a
htate ot one who was averred to be a citizen of the
Uul.ed Mates was equivalent to an averment that he
'was a citizen 01 astute. I suppose nobody could well
bave doubted it, or will now aoubt the correctness of
tliat decision.
This bill, in Its first section, makea all who were born
In the United States at any time and who arfk now
living, citizens 01 the United States, and assuomoitl
xens, also of the States lu which thev may respectively
reside, and comers on them all the rights belonging to
those who h ave heretofore been considered citizens of
tbe l.nited States and of the States in which they may
reside. Kow, Mr. f resident, you are not to be to. d that
tbe only express authority conferred upon the Con
gress of the United Mates in relation to citizenship
that is to say, in relation to the power 01 converting
one who is not a citizen into citizen Is the authority
to be toand in the delegation to Congress of the power
to pass unllorm laws upon the subject of naturalization
Ihere Is not a single word In the Constitution wulcn
gives to this department ot the Oovernmeut, er to any
other department, the power to dec are who stial bia
citizen, and what is the effect of the exercise of that
power? Whut was the design of the power, ami what
lathe operation of the power, when it is executed?
The design of the power is to remove disabilities
arising irom tbe fact of alienage and nothing else.
The operations of the power Is to place the party whose
disability at Isea from alienage, and is removed by vir
tue of the naturalization laa, in tne same condition
' -with anybody else; but whetner he is to be considered
aa a citizen 01 the United states by virtae 01 theie
moval of the disabilities consequent upon hig taking
advantage 01 the naturalization laws, presents an en
tirely Uhlerent luqniry and, perhaps, 1 cannot make the
Tiew which 1 shall otherwise present In my own lan
guage more clearly to the country than by reading an
' opinion in the Died t-cott case; not that opinion pro
ounced by the majority, which has been so olten. and
su 1 think so shame. ess y perverted, to the disparage
ment not only or ihe majority ot the Conrtwho sanc
tioned that opinion, but o the very admirable lawyer
by whom the pinion was pronounced : but the opinion
n Mr Justice Curtis in which he differs troin that of
the majority an opinion marked by learning to as great
aa extent as any opinion ever pruuouueed by any judge
t that or arty other tribunal.
The question which in that part of the opinion be waa
discussing was whether Dred Scott was a citizen, enti
tled to aae in the courts 01 the U lilted Mutes ? a ma
jority of tbe Court deckled that, in consequence 01 ihe
blood which was supposed to run In his veins, by the
plea that iu the African blood iescendud irom his Afri
can ancestors he came to the United states a slave, he
could not becon e a citizen of the United States, ilr.
Justice Curtis held that the Constitution 01 tbe United
' 1 Mates assumed that Citizenship may be acquired by
nativity. 'J hut Was tho common law that Is, the law ot
1 the civilized world that he who Is horn In acountty,
and not made a a ave at the moment he ia born by auv
municipal regulations, becomes by virtue ot nls birth a
citizen 1 but lie by no means hold that the consequence
of his beings citizen 01 the United States by virtue of
his birth made hiin a citizen of any State ot the United
- - estate.
Let me read a sentence or two from his opinion. It
'win be lound in the llithof llowurd. lhat paitof the
opinion to which I reter Is on page 6U7.and others.
Alter having stated, and no doabt stated correctly,
, . . that, at the time of the adoption ot the Constitution of
she United States thete were five Ma es in which per
l sons of color were entitled to the right 01 suffrage, and
In which, iheieiore, they participated in the delibera
tions of the States by which the Convention was
. , authorized, and aiterwaids lu the Conventions of the
, .. neverai states by which that Constitution ibtelf was
sanctioned, he came to this conclusion. He savst
"My opinion Is that under the Constitution of the
United States every person born on the soil or a State
who is a oiihsen of that State t lorce of Constitution
or laws, ia a so a citizen of the United States." Now
.; . auark the qualification, "It Is not the nativltv that lin
parts the character of citizen or alien. There must be
added to the tact of nativity tbe other fact that at tbe
time of bia birth be Is by the ('onstliutlcu or laws or
tbe State a citizen ot that Stale, aud the two things
swded. birth sod citizenship by me lawa of the State, he
becomes by virtue ot the twos citizen 01 tne United
States." lr there could be any doubt that I correct, y
Interpret that part of the opinion it would, be speedily
removed by subsequent portions of the opinion, to which
1 will ca 1 the attention of the senate, lie says the first
section of the second article or the Constitution uaea the
language:" A natural born citizen." it thus assumes
' that citizenship uiay be acquired bv birth. He then goes
M to tate ''Ths Constitution having recognized the
-' rule thai persons born within the several Statea are
citizens of the United States " ana or four things must
fee true. Sow what are they? . , . .
' ' I 1 win read tint, lhat the Constitution itself has da-
y J j err! bed w hat Larsons shall PI shall t ot be ciilsfcns of the
. United Stateai second that ll has empowered (lougress
j-"1 to do set third, that ell persons born within the several
Ulates are alilzens of tha United States t fourtn.tbat.lt
la referred to each State to determine what tree persons,
born within lu limits, shall be citizens of such State,
aud tiwebj citizens el ths United Stales. I shall not
read everything he saya In relat'on tolthrea of the alter
natives, hot only a portion of it te save if there b
such a thing as citizenship ot the United states acquired
by him wi'hln the State which the Constitution x
prvssii recognizes, and no one denies, then these lonr
alternatives embrace the entire auhiect, and it only ro
n sins to select the one which Is true.
1 bat ihe constitution Itself has defined citizenship of
tbe Untied Slates by declaring what persons horn within
the several States si all. or snail not bs citizens of tbe
I nlttd States will not be prrsen'ed It contains no
such declare ion. He may dismiss the first alternative
as v Ithotit doubt on'ounded. 1 hat Is to say, the Con
stitution has not stated, or to nse the languaire Of his
opinion, tbe Constitution has not described, what native
born persons Hhail or shall not be citizens.
1 he proposition, to use his own language, may h dl
nlsed as proportion wholly uniounded Well. If
that Is not true then is the other true? If the Consti
tution docs not ot Itselt declare wno are to he citizens of
the -tates, and thereby citizens of the United Mates, la
there anything In the Constitution which confers upon
Congress the power to do the same thing? Let us see
what Justice urtia miys about that. "Has it empowered
Congress to enact what free born persons, horn within
the several Mates, snail or shall not be citizens of the
United Mates? It such power exists, then the consti
tution has empowereC to ongress to c rate privileged
clasres within the Mates which alone shall be entitled
to tbe franchises and privileges of citizenship. Tf It be
true that the Constitution baa enabled Congress to de
clare what fiee persons, born within the several statea,
shall he citizens ot the United Statea, it must at Die
same tltnn be admitted that It i" an unlimited power If
this niblect is within the Jurisdiction of Congress, It
must depend whoilvon Its discretion."
'Ihen he proceeds Immediately afterwards, In very
clear and lorclble language, to say that the Constitution
comers no such power on Congress. Now 1 will reads
part 01 what lie says: "Among the powers expressly
granted to longnss Is the power to prescribe a uniform
rule of naturalization." It is not doubted that there is
a power to prescribe a ru'e lor the removal 01 disabili
ties consequent upon lorclun birth. It appears, then,
that the only power 1 ranted to Congress to legislate con
cerning citizenship la confined to the removal or disa
bilities of foreign birth. Sow, .'eavlng the Inquiry
wheiber there is In the Constitution any express autho
rltv conferred upon Congress to legislate nt all In rela
tion to ihe statute of cltliensblp, he proceeds to Inquire
whether theie exists any implied power to establish it.
Hs ssvs whether there be ant thing In the Constitution
from which the power ntav be Implied will best be seen
when we come to examine the two other alternatives,
which are, whether sll tree poisons horu on the soil of
the revt rai S ates, or only such ot t hem aa may be citi
zens C' '! rt"Pvcilveijr are thereby citizens of the
United Statea lie says t'ui lt r tne, lt"ilVO Is,
in 11 ty jnoenieni, tne true one ; mat is to Buy. mere is no
power expressed or Implied which confers upon Congress
any authoiity at all to.declare what free persons are to
be considered us Citizens, becaus. of their birth, within
the i- tate, exc pt suth as, to use his owu language, that
Is true only ol such as may be citizens of each State, and
because ther are citizens of each State by virtue of their
birth under the Constitution and laws of the State of
their birth, they become citizens or the United States,
and he say a that that alono contains tho truth. Un
doubtedly, as lias been said, It Is a principle of nubile
law recognized by the Constitution itself, that birth In
the soil 01 a country both creatca the duties aud confers
the right of citizenship. That Is ibe doctrine rolled
upon by my friend Irom Illinois tHr. 'irutubull).
it must be lemenibered that though the constitution
w as designed to lorm of tho United States ot America
one Ciovernuient. to which loyalty and obedience irom
the citizens was to be given in return tor protection
and privileges, yet the sovereign Statea. whose people
were their citizens, wore not only lo continue In ex
istence, but with powers unimpaired except so far as
they were granted to the National Oovennneut. and
among the powers reserved to the States was that ot
determining what persons wf o should, and what per
sona who xliould 1101, be cltlztns, having come to the
conclusion that the power waa not delegated by the
Mutes. 'I he other conclusion is consequent, upon thai,
thut it lemalns at it stood lteiore-a power belonging
exclusively to the Stains respectively.
cw, Mr. President, what is the consequence of that
doctrliio, if it be true, and I think I may challenge my
friend trom 1 linois to disprove It. ihe authority over
citizenship under the Cons ltution of the Utiitod states
is not tietcgatcu 10 1 ongress, except in one particular
instance, and that not one which Intended to make
the party in whose lavor tne power niiiiht be exercised
a citizen of the United Mates, merely lor tbe ouruose of
removing .thei disabilities which a law of ( ongress can
remove, consequent upon his loruign birth and lorelgn
alienage, lhat was a quest Ion In which the whole
were interested. It was a matter of general moment.
It related to a common object, lor which the Constitu
tion Itself was adopted, and in which foreign nations
were concerned ; because no one State hud the
power to legislate upon any subject upon which
a lorelpn citizen mlirl t be concerned It was deemed ad
visable to invest a power which might otherwise create
dillicu.tli s and Inquiry to the whole in a Ciovernmeut
to which the lnteies.s and gaiety of the whole ia com
mitted. Hut the removal ot dllllcultics under the natu
ralization laws uld not create a citizen of anv one Mate,
'that power in tne words 01 Justice Curtis, remained
as it Mood before tho Constitution was auoptea. exom-
eiveiy neiont'ing 10 tne Mutes themselves, nowwnat
does this bill propose to do? it says that every man
born til tbe United tatea. whether liorn as a slave or
not. Is a citizen of the United States. It la not
confined in I s operation to tiose born subsequent
to tbe abolition of slavcrv In the united Mates
but applies to all, to whoever was born at any
time, tuougli in siaverv Is to be considered a citizen
by reason 01 the fact of bis being born here, snd thai taut
The state may have declared at the time of his birth,
if be was born ot a slave mother. 1 lint he was a Stave.
Ihe Constitution and laws ol the State which deolared
It are disputed. Ibey assert that no descendant of a
colored mother, whether she was tree or not. shall be a
citizen by virtue of hlsblnh. And vet my friend from
Illinois nnu tne congress or tne c uneu Mates in pass
ing this bill have declared that those who are boin in
a state ot slavery, aud who were never citizens ss long
aa that condition existed, who were prevented from
oeing citizens py 111c 1 onsuturou 01 tue Mate in wnicii
they resided, w liicli has never boeu changed, shall, bv
force of this enactment, be considered as citizens of tho
united Mates, and tiierclore citizens lor all purposes,
how. 11 it be true that whether birth la to give citizen
ship ol the United States, depends upon the lant whether
tue party porn is, ny tne laws 01 tne state in wnicn lie
Is ho 11, a citizen of thut State, I shoud like to know
where Is the authority to Interiere over what a Mate
has done in tbe pu-st, ia doing lu the present or may do
111 the luture, or how it oan be accomplished under the
constitutional amendment, which 1 will notice altera
while. Now, tbe lionoroblo member from Illinois (Mr.
Trumbull) disposes ot tne president's objections to tbe
first section ol the bill by saying it is merely declatory.
u en, 1 Know 11 is not uucoinmou tor 4 leuisiauve nouy,
where dlilereuces of opinion exist in re atb u to any
Sioposltion, to remove them by declatory legislation,
ui that is not the purpose of tlilB section. It pro
esi.es to l e ptissee in the exorcise ot a positive and
absolute power to change tho law, not to declare what
ihe lew was the power to muke a law.- It assumes
or otherw ise there would be no occasion for it that
hlrtn alone dors nut confer cliizeiishlp. and assuming
.hut uo citizenship couid exist in consequence of birth
alone it declares that birth alone, in spite of State Con
stitutions and State laws, shall comer citizenship.
.Now, w ith all de erence to the opinion of the honora
ble Chairman of the Committee of the Judlclasy Mr.
'j ruiubulij, li seems to uie to be a proposition aa clearly
erroneous as any propositlou can be lu relation to the
Constitution. The Mates were sovetelgu before the
Constitution was adopted, and the Constitution not
only according to 1 ts very terms, doej not protesa 10
con er upou the C.overr uient of the United States any
sueb power, but, as tar as 1 ongress is com erned, pro.
lessee only to comer on that department of the Govern
ment a particular delegated power; and so conscious
were the trainers 01 that Instrument and the great men
ot that uay, to wtoiu lis sauaequeut perfection nuslett.
that thev all went upon the theory that no powers were
couierred. except such as were expiesaiy granted, as
might reasonably bo Implied to carry out tne powers
expressly granttd so anxious were they that, not ss ta
iled with ru ylng upon a principle that only teleguted
power belonged to Congress, they, by tne tenth amend
ment to the Constitution, declared that the powers not
delegated by the Constitution aud not denied to ths
States were to be considered as reserved to the States
leepectlvely or to the peoole.
Standing, therefore, upon the nature of the Govern
ntent itseu, as a Government of enumerated powers
specially delegated; standing upon the express pro
vision that everything not grauteu waa to be considered
aa remaining within tue states, unless the Constitution
contained some particular prohibition ot auv power,
what doubt can there be that it the state preserved tbe
power to declare who mignt be their citizens before tha
Constitution was adopted, that that power remains
now as applicable and as exclusive as it was beiore the
Constitution was adopted; and tbe bill, therefore, pro
poaea 10 change tbe whole theory of the (lovernment.
T he President, therelore, aa I think, ia right in aay lug,
and 1 go lurther than he does, be Is right lu expressing a
doubt whether Cougiess has the right or power, audi
att iin with all deetence to the bettor ludgmeut of the
Senators who voted tor thla bill, and tb honorable
( hainuan of the Judiciary omniltte tiiat It Is per
fectly Uear that no sua 1 power exists alls attempted to
be exercised b y the bist section
I bold with Mr. Justice Curtis, and bia opinion has
never bteu questioned, that citizenship of tne United
Statea consequent upon birth iu a Mate is to depend
upon the mot w hether the Constitution and laws of
tho State mu&e the party so horn a citizen of the State.
ow, what la the next section, or what Is the remain
ing provision of the lirst section f Sot satisfied with
declaring or assuring that they had tho power to de
clare, thut all persona nut subjects of any foreign
power born in the United States, and having the right
ot such persons to uepend upou the fact of their being
citizens, the bill goes onto provide what rights shall
belong to them. .Now what Is that for? Is that doela
rutory to citizenship nhlch.saya the honorable member
(Mr. Tiumbull). carrion with it certain ruthts? What
rights? He read Ui the Senate iroiu tbe 1st of Kent,
pagetA a passage which, he wll pardon me lor saying,
has nothing iu the world to do with the particular ques
tion before us.
The passage which he read merely state! that every
nation was bound to plot, ct I owu citizens. Why.
certainly It is. If it has the power. The Uoverutiien t of
the United States baa the authority and Is bound to pro
tect the richts of any citizens of the United States In
vaded by anv other uai ion. Whv? Btuuu ih.si.iu
have no Jurisdiction extra ferrltorla' because with re- "
lereuce 10 foreign nations lue oiaies nave no place at
all. That relation subsists, and can only subsist, as be
tween the toielgn nutlt na snd tbe General tloverntnent,
and because that re, a Ion can onlv in that way subsist
It Is tbe duty of the Culled States, aa It is the duty of
eveiy nation, to protect its own oitisena. Hot how Is
that made 10 prove hat citizen ot the United States
who is entitled to the aame protection of tne Govern
ment ol tbe United Stutss U to be considered a clilseo of
any one State?
whsi are these rights? Tha bill converts him Into a
citizen by virtue ef hi birth, w hich I have endeavored
to show tbe Senate could not be done unless tbe Con
stitution of lb State where be Is born made him a
citizen or that State; and It goes on further andaavs
that auub eltlzeua. that is, citizens by force of this
wogiesaional le(lsla'lon. ol every race and color,
Wit taout rniiurd lo nrevlona condition Of Slavarv. ato .
shall have the same rights in every HtaM aud terrl
Uiry.to make and eu tores contracts, to sue, bs parties
and give eSldeuee. 10 inherit, purchase, sal. bold, snd
conviy real and pe'nJ property, and to the roil aud
.iuu weusut ui au laws eau piwcsuuisa 101 me as
ennir el persons snd property ss Is enloy.d by white
petsons. how, Mr. President, If thete be anything
that might be considered as true, that waa true in the
past. In the Constitution and lawa, It was that trmt
everr one of these rlshta. or to speak mora correctly,
over every one ot the subject to which these Mhts
are made to attach, the Jurisdiction of the states were
exclusive. . , .
The honorable member from Illinois (Mr Trambnlt)
stems to lorgft, ssl think, what la the real character
ot our Government and our institutions. Thla bill, in
my outnlou. strikes at sll the reserved rlgn.s 01 the
states Von may leok In the statuto booke, and I am
sure the honorable member Irom Illinois wid agree
thatauch la the I act. You may look in the statute
books ol ths United Statea In vain tor the purpose of
finding that any time irom JllrJ up to the breaking out
of Ibis Kebelllon. sny body ever proposed In Congress
by legla atlon. to regulate, by aectirlng nrothciwise, the
ril-hta wbkh are re erred to in thla section.
Alter dwelling further on thla eeot Ion. Mr. Johnson
paased to the provisions or the bib which define tho
punlsi mem for ths en oreement of distinctions on
account 01 color, by State Judges and othera. It would
abolish all State iawa, be said; and what ia the case In
wblcb this clause Juris llctton ia vested In the
( ear 1 a of the United statea. Of all casea, civil or
criminal, ado, ting persona who are denied their rights
in a State Court, and any such person against whom a
enlt may be brought lor any cause whatever, may
appeal to tbe United Slates Courts. Any ot those
agmta or sub agents, tor fit ere aie hosts ol fb.m pro
vided torby the hi 1 who may kl l a freedmsn, who Is
endeavoilng lo ptotect what he considers his rights, is
not to be tried in a State Court, but In a United Mates
Court. Here the bill goes titx n the theory that there Is
bnt one Government. Winder, robbery, and many other
oflensea which no ono ever dreamed of living In any
but a State Court, are to be trauai erred to the United
Statea Courts.
The honorable member refers to the act of 1790. which
has nothing st all to do with this, the punishment pro
vided for ky that act related to aulta and oltenses against
the foreign ministers who were accredited to trie Gov
ernment, and an offense against them wsa an offense
against the Government, lhat law was based upon Hie
aame principle sa we provide lor the punishment 01 those
who utter talse coins, etc. it is Incidental entirely It
is a pun of the law of nations, snd not derived from any
municipal power whatever My honorable tr end ask?
w hose isult Is It that eleven Statea are not represented
here? He certainly doea not ask this In an ad caplaif
ium style, aa be animadverted noon that as refetring to
the President. Unsays their hands are reeking with the
blood ot onr lathers . What bave they done ? Ihey have
abolished alaverv. Some of them have even eons turther
than the honorable member bimse t, and though tome
01. them !;av lougbt on tbe field of battle, they can take
that oath asconaclenilously as the honorable member or
myself Congressional legislation Is necessary. It Is
said. We' 1, they applied here in the month 01 Decem
ber and it la now April, and It may bo unill July or De
cember. As rumor has It they are dlsloval,
I can go into the State ot the honorable member him
self, and find bundreda ot men just at dlsloval as any In
thote Mates that Is, ttls oyal in the modern accepta
tion of the term. A abort time ago It was disloyal to
oppose tbe President t now it is ills, oyal to support falm.
It is only lo.tal to uphold Congress
Tbe Supreme Court haa recognized these States as
being In the Union. It has for weeks been trying cases
from them. It la apprehended that mischief will result
If they are admitted here. Mischief ot what klnd-of
a partv character? lhat is the only mischief taatl am
aware of that can reiuit
W hat is the occasion of this Are? Does sny one sup
pose tiint the lights ot the black man are not as sal e In
these statea as in any ot the loyal States? Go into Mis
souri, the State ot my Irlend on my tight (Mr. dender
sonl. What do on find there? That men cannot pray
In public without taking an oath; where ministers are
taken out of the puipit- Cirtam'v that Is an Invasion of
private rights aud 1 Invite my friend to drait a bill to
protect the citizens ot Missouri. Murder and robberies
brutal, atrocious and unheard of are constantly occur
ring in the loyal Stales ot the Kast. but mv friend does
not think It necessary to Interiere with the authority of
Congiess thee.
1 hove nut ono word more, Mr. President. Mr friend
adverts in ruthcr severe terms to the President Tbe
1'rcsMent states that in his opinion the bill la unconsti
tutional, and, thinking so, it was his duty to interpose
bia objections. It he hud not done so be wouid have
been lnlse to hla plighted talth. As to any suspiolon
of disloyalty against him, his whoe political course
disproves that. lnlHOl I was hero, but not a member
ot the Setiuto, and I heard him, standing In the
midst ot tht se who were plotting to desirov the
Union, inwotds that burned, denounce their attempts
at rebe lion,
Mr.KveiScvada) Will tbe Senator allow me to ask
bint a question?
Mr. Johnson Certainly.
Mr. lye Did he not at th e aame t lme admit the right
ot secession ?
Mr. Johnson Certainly not; quite the reverse. The
most prominent public men who advocutcd It was the
lute lamented President Lincoln, in a speech in 1K-17,
Mr. iiye Mi. Meplieua certainly did not advocate It
Mr Johnson I am not sneaking of Mr. ntephena but
ol the President 01 the United Mates. My Irlend from
Nevada Is not olten wrong, but he hss certaiuly
made a mistake tills time. The President, in his own
Siate of Tennessee, again perilled his lifo In defense of
the Union. He -wants It restored and should we not
come together once more, and glory lu the heroic deeds
of each other?
Mr Trumbull Mr. President, I did not hear pottectlv
the opening remarks of the Senator. 1 understood blin
to flay thut oil persoLS born in tho United Sta oswere
not citizens.
Mr. Johnson I maintain the opinion of Judge
Mr. Trnmbull That waa tbe opinion of a dissent'
lug fudge, ltut, Mr. President. I have tha opinion of
another gentleman, one who stands at the head of the
bar of America at the piesent time. I read irom a speech
delivered less than ninety days ago: from the speech of
no less a person than the Senator from Maryland, Mr.
Mr. Trumbull then read from tho speech in question
that all tree born colored persona were citizens, and,
since slaver; waa abolUhed, that all colored persons
w ere citizens, and to establish tne fact without dispute
It wua necessary tor some legislation by Congress Mr.
Trumbull next relerred to the act of 179(1. atlude i to by
Dim esterdav. The "cnator claimed that that act onlv
provided for punishment of a violation ot international
law. and be would ask. waa a right secured by tbe Con
stitution less sacred than one secured by international
law? Mr. Trumbull claimed that the act was a com
plete precedent for the second section 01 the bill under
Mr. Johnson said b was rather aurprlsed that a gen
tleman so clea: -beaded as tbe Senator should bave fallen
Into the mistake ot supposing that there was any Incon
sistency lu the speech referred to. and the position just
assumed by him. He certaiuly did hold thai all persona
born bete were citizens of the United States. Hut this
did not entitle thoiu to tbe privileges of oitizenshlp in
the state In winch they were born. Over the question
of State citizenship the Sta es heldcomplute sovereignty,
and It was not in the power of congress to comer tho
right ot et'.te citizenship, n citizens of the United States,
'J his bl 1 assumed such a right
Mr. Yatescil.l said tha,, under the slavery amend
ment, he entertained the opinion that frreedmen were
entitled to the same rights and inrivlleges as anv other
citizen of the United Mates, The authorities quoted by
the Senator irom Maryland, only held beiore the adop
tion ot the siaverv amendment. The Senator from
Maryland bad offered an amendment to the Fieedmen's
Bureau bill, which recognized his (Mr. Yaus'i position
as tha correct one.
Mr. Trumbull said tbe speech of the Senator, from
from which he had just read, waa de'lvered on this very
bill. That Senator, with thirty others, bad voted lor an
amendment declaring all persons cit zena excepting In
dians not taxed; but In hla speech the Senator went
farther than this, further extracts wore then read by
Mr. Tru mbull.
This company continues to write on Fire Iiitkt only
ItB capital, with a good surplus, Is aaiely invested. ,
Losses by fire bave bet n promptly paid, and more than
$500,000 ,
Disbursed on this account w nhln the paat few years.
For tbe present the cflice of this company will
remain at
Put within a few months will remove to its OWN
Then aa now, we shall be buppy to Insure onr patrons at
such rates as are conslatent with safety.
j 11 v at Art t.iiatr,fii
11 On. MA( K KULAK,
JOrttl li KXAPP, M. D.
hi IAS VKlikKh. Ju..
TIT0MA8 CRAVEN, rresldent.
ALFKED 8. Oil LETT V. President and Treasurer.
JAM1 8 h. ALVOLD, Secretary. 1 l'J $
1 I li D 1N8UBANC
No. 160 8. FOURTH street
Cbar.er Perpetual. . Authorised Capita!, (too 000
r am-up 1 apuui, fii"'."tin.
Insniea against lots or damaire by F1KK on buildings,
either permanently or tor a LIMIT HI) period. Also on
Ml K II AN DINK generally and Houaeho.a Furniture,
(Ui& ur cuanny.
James Brown, V 0
Charles A. Duy,
V m. D. l ewis,
nullum h. Hullock,
Mm. N. Needles,
John D. Taylor.
j nomas armoot, Jr., 1
Lemuel Coffin, I
J. Hlllborn Jones, 1
John U oodside, .
M m'. 0. Longstreth, !
J. N. Huaiilmon.
BROWN, President I
A liUT. vice-President I
THOMAS NK1L80N. Secretary.
Q A It P E- T I N a S. . ;
In ftoia and constantly receiving-, j
31t!tv8m Ko. 120 KortH THIRD gtrooi.
'WiLsftsoTon. Del . April 8. 1816.
Final and clo'lng salts ot ampins (ioyeruineut
Will bo fold at WILMINGTON, Del., on
Hill'AY. the 13ltl of April,
FRIDAY, the 20th of April,
Fill DAY, the 27tb of April,
SEVENTY MULES on each dav ot sale.
On the last day of sale. April 2tb, n addition to
tbe l 11 es, there will lie sold
Tbe esnccln.1 attention of iurchaers is invited tt
tbe above sales. Farmers and others needing good
Working Animals will find it to thetr advantage to
attend, as many Rood bargains may be bad.
jiDimais soia singly,
Pale to commence at 10 A. K.
Term1 Cash, in United (States enrroncy.
1W orrlpr nf ttrevnt Itrnrortiee fAnoral .1 AMES A
EK.LN, in charge 1st Division Q M. U. O.
IJ. H. UALL.AUtir.lt,
4 BlOt Csptatn and A. Q. M.
J 0ncB o Assistant Quahthrmaptkr,
W Af-p-nsoTc m, L. C, March 14, 1606. )
Wll be sold at public auction at Alexandria.
Va., on TUESDAY, April 10, 18fi6,
2 first-class Locomofvo Engines, 4 foot 8J-lnoh
sangej cylinders, 16x22; weight, 26 tons
4 1'asai nirer Cats.
10 Box J-reigbt Lars,
; 2Ntock Cars.
4 rinttcrm Cars.
0 Small l nick Cars.
21 'trucks lor Freight Cats.
1H paiis Wheels on axles.
i m Fumpinp Engines,
1 M!i'!'iary Engine.
12 lirndersOn 1 umps.
UO tons trconii-boDd Railroad Iron (good),
A large ciuBbUty Pf , ,
Frogs, 4 I fhaini
Nails, aihu!b,
Switch F.xtpres, Axes,
lar Couplings, Picks,
Har Iron, Wtoves,
huringa, Files,
Nuts, Bpcrm Oil, etc.
20 lluildingf), from 10x12 to 210x40 Ret.
Lot ol C fl.ee l urniltirr.
Contents ot 1'rmting Office.
A large quantit) of new fcbelf Hardware.
1 Herring Sale.
1 iSaloon Car, 4 feet $-lnch fan go, elocrantly fln.
lshtd and lurmshcd with thick walnut, trimmed
with gieen plush ; double tiuvk, with broad tread
wheels. r-alo to commence at 10 A. M.
'1 etnas cath, in Government funds.
8 16 I'm lOt Bvt. Brig -(jen., A. Q. M.
WHIfcKY, WlNEi,, ElU.
Medical Fckveyor's Officii,
Washington, D. C, March 21. 1806
Will be fold at Public Auction in this citv. at tho
Judicinry Square Warehouse, back o( the City Hall.
on w iMti-uii , tne mu uay oi Antii next, ut iu
o'clock A. 51., tho following articles of liospiiul
fetores and Lkiuors, no longi r required tor the use of
tho Medical Department of the army, viz. :
Arrow Root IO.OijO lbs Dessicated Po(a-
Barley 10 000 " I toes 100 lbs
Corn Starch lOOttO" i Mixed DofC do. 1U2 "
Cocoa Cnocolate 10,000 "
Whisky, (juurt
Cinnamon, i owd. 1.000 "
bottles 20,000
Whisky, in bU'.B ,
gallons 8,900
Sherry Wine,
quart bottles. .40,000
Sherry VV ino,
in Mils 60
Farina 20.000 "
Tapioca 10 000 "
i.xt. oi reel 2U,ooo
t onccnt'd Milk. .0 000 "
Ginger 1&5 "
Ext. of Collee. . . , 8,702 gal
lit ana coo lbs
Pea Beana 2,800
Dottles iu,uuu
'1 he above articles will be sold in lots to suit Dota
large and small puichascrs.
Five (5) days will be allowed to parties In remov-
lnf their property.
catalogues ready dv tne otn prox.
Furccon and t uryejor, V. 8. A.
C. W POTFLER, Auctiontor. 8 22 23t
Navy Department, I
Washington City, February 28, 18G6. J
There will bo sold to the highest bidders, at Publio
Auctico, at noon, tho 12th day of April, bv the
Ordnanco Ollictr ac tie Portsmouth Navy Yard, N.
II , one hundred and eiehty-fivo thousand nine hun
dred and sixty-nine (186,U") pounds NAVY POW
DLR, as iollws:
181 600 pounds Cannon Powder.
29 219 " Ritle "
26,160 " Muxket "
The?e Powders will be divided into lots of one
hundred barrels each
terms, one-ball cash in Government tnnds, and
tbe remainder on the removal oi the Powders, tor
w bich a reasonable time, but not more than thirty
days, will bo allowed, tbe purchasers, however,
to make every exertion to remove the Powders
sooner. ,
' n. A. WISE.
8 1 tbml2t " , Chief ot Bureau.
lR010tSAL-S. SEALED l'KOl 08 ALS, IN
JT duplicate, will be received at this olhce until 12
M., Si OA DA Y, tbe ltitb day of April, 18US, lor the
delivery ol 6000 head of BEEK C ATTLE on the hoof,
for tbe use ot captured Indians. Ibe cattle to be
deliveied to tbe A. C. S , for Indians at Fort Sumner,
New Mexico.
Ibe first delivery to be on the 1st day of July, I860,
and to consist ol 600 head of cattlo; the subsequent
deliveries to be in such numbers and at such times
as may be required by the undersigned.
Ibe cattle must be from three to live years old,
and must weigh at least 400 pounds not (their weight
to be aeoerfaiuea according to manner laid down in
tbe Subs. Rcgu atious ol 1863), and to oe of the best
marketable quality. No Stags, Bulls, Cows, or
belters will be received.
Whenever, in the opinion of the A. C. S. lor In
dians, at Fort Sumner, tbe cattle presented do not
lullil tbe conditions here set forth, as many as do
not will be rejected. Ten per cent of money due
contractors will be retained until the contract is lui
filled. Two responsible persons must sign each bid,
guaranteeing that it the contract is awarded to the
party or parties therein proposing, they will enter
iuio ample bonds ior tne laithtul lulttmout of the
contract, and when the parties thus oU'enng as
sureties are unknown to the undersigned, their
ability to reimbmso the loss to tne United States,
which would accrue in case of failure, must bt
attested beiore a magistrate or other officer em
powered to administer oaths.
The parties to v horn this contract Is let will be ex
pected to till the contract themselves auv sub-iettiug
of the contract will be considered as a failure to com
ply with tbe contract, and the contractor will be held
responsible thorolor.
Endorse on tbe envelope "Proposals for BeeJ
Cattle, at Fort Sumner, New Mexico '
Captain and C. S and Brevet Major, U. 6. A.
Cfflce 1 urehaaing and Depot C. S , District ot Now
Mexico, Santa ie, N. M February 7, 1860. SI 'Hit
STOCK. Harness, Saddles, Halters. Kelua, Lead Lines,
( ollars, Wapon Covers, Shelter louts. Portable Koriies,
etc. etc., very cheap. A lot of entirely new Oftlcora'
Buddies, only tit). 1'lated Bit Brldlo, 8'il. Wholesale
Bnd,e,"U PITKIV A CO.,
4 8 lm' Xo. 339 North FRONT Street, l'hllada.
A R N E S S.
NESS, 2, 4, and 6 horse. Also, pails ol HAR
bought at the recent Government tales to be sold
at a great sacrifice Wholesale or RotaU. . Togetbor
with our usual assortment of
No. 114 MARKET Street.
Of all descriptions, . .
Ot all descriptions, ., .
Always on hand,
Always on hand,
Uo. m MIEBNUT Street,
Mo. 640 CHKHNUT Street.
One door below t-eveuth street
One aoor below Seventh street,
Tbe most liberal discount allowed.
Ihe most Uberai discount ailowad.
No. 519 CnESNUT Street,
Beg leave to inform the publio that they havo now
open their
Foreign and Domestic Manufacture,
Which they oiler at prices corresponding with
We offer the above In all widths, with bardorj for
Ball and Stairs,
Also Imperial Three-Ply Carpet
Extra Superfine Ingrain.
Canton Mattings,
M (('all urns, Crease & Sloan,
No. 510 CHESNUT Street,
1324 lmrp
J. F. & E. B. 0RN E,
No. 904
3-4? 7-8, 4-4, 5-4, C-4,
J. F. & E. B. ORNE,
No. 904
J. F. & E. II. ORNE,
No. 904
500 .pieces
J. F. & E. B. ORNE,
No. 904
3 20 3mrp
Manufacturer), Importers, aud Wtiute
ale Dealers la
. MATTINGS, Etc, .
Philadelphia '.
8 6 8inrp
" . i
Ararow opening a fall aaaortment ol !
Foreign and Domestic Carpets.
Thft gooda will U told at tha LOWEST CABU
PKICE8, to coire.pono with the FALL Or GOLD.
No. OlO AROII Street.
J I (Okl'ANY,
8lhf Klf. 1 HII.AIk.M'HIA. .
CARGO, To all parti of f be w ,,
FBKlonT '
On Good by Rhrvr ( anal. Lake, and Land rtlagat
llpanaoi the I'nlc.n.
. FlftK IKBUBAHCta , . I
On Varrhandlae tiwrrallv. , .. .
On Plorca, Dm, Ung Uouac,tc ,
Knvetntwr 1, lHWI.
$100 000 United Bute, ft pr eent loan, Tl....f)5,000-0
TroaanfT Kolea iu a no
100 OCO Slate of i ennaylvanla Five Per cent
Loan on au ,
M.OflO State el Fcnu.ylvaola blx Per Cent. '
Loan SUM' !
125.000 CUT of I'bliadelphla Kut Per Cent.
l oan ,, ., U2.81S M i
20,000 FfnucylTanla Kaliroad First Mort-
gate l'rr Ont, llnnda W. 000-00
2A.000 Penn.ylTanla Hatlroail hrcond ilort-
gane Hlx I'pr Cent. Hnnrta..., 23,760-01
U 000 TV eatpru I'mnavlrnnla Hal road Mort i
f go Hla Per Cent. Uond S3.1J
15,000 Sharps Hlork Uennantown Oat
Cfmpan. principal aud Intercat I
Sno ramped by the City of I'UUa
elnlila ij jj7 ga I
7,180 1 nar.'a Stock renner-Tauta Hall- ' 1
road omnany , I MO'4 1
8,000100 Sharra block North Pennaylranla .
,r .K"llr"rt Compan, 1U50 00 1
o.OCO Deposit with LnlU'U Htntpa Ooveru-
ft,.raa.n;en,-.,H?,Jec,'olcn.n,,T8'c!1 O.OOODO
JO.l'CO State ot Tenncaace Five Per Cant.
l-n-nnr Lo V"", V 18,900 00
liO OOLoana on l:onda and M ortffaue. fliat
Hen on City Property 170.70O-O
l,C3U,EiOFar. Market ralne -m m 00
Heal Eatate W 00 00
lillla rocctvablp lor in nraiicra made, lii.013 Jl
Balances dup at AkpiicIpb. Prr-mluma
on il trine Pollcira Aocrnpd lnte-
anu oucr oeuia aue tue coin-
l r"
Scrip and Stock of sundry Insurance
and otlier Companies, $ Ui. Kstl
mated value ,
Cash In Banks $55,9 R
ta.h In Drawer 678 4S
40 81144 ;
66,638 87
Thomaa CD t,
HamoAi d. stokea.
J. F. I'anlatanL .
Henry hloe.o,
WUUanl t lioaltoa,
tiuiiu v. xiavia,
J dmnndA. Ponder,
Ibeopbl.na Paulding,
Jon H.Penrofe,
Jme rraqnair '
Henry C. la loit, Jr.,
Jamei C. Hand.
William C. Ludwlg,
Jnnepa II. Seal,
Oeorge C. Lelucr,
Huh Cralfj.
Ti?nri(pf 1 iirritn
r.unaiu KarnnRtoD, .
ii. iijiiua iirooxa.
Jacob P. Jones
Jamea B. McFarlantti
Joshua P. Fyre,
Speneer Mcllvaln,
i 13. nemDie, fiix-Honrgi
John D Tjlor.
n. nttrner. r'usfjurw,
T i nu..k .
THOMAS C. HASP, Prealoent,
xiwnw t . iM'ti C. D. TIU. V ce Fiealdent.
HKNKT LTlBrSN, Kecrefarv. ,1218
Assets on Januarv 1, 18GG,
ea,500,85rJG. .
treuiiuni :..:::::u5.wm
eil,4C7 53.
110 000.
Tcrpetual and Tcm porary PoUclea on Liberal Tern
Charles W Ttunnlr..
Tuiilua Warner, '
Snniucl Cnint,
Ceorne W. Klcbords,
Isaac Lea,
1 dwaid (!. DsIa.
George Falea,
Alfred Filler.
Francla W. Lewis, M. D.
I'otnr Mr ! I
N. HAM Itk Pm.Mn.
JAB. W. uSH.faam
No. 133 S. FOURTH Street
Annual PoUciea leaned analntt General AcoIdenU o
deacnptlona at exceedingly low ratea,
insurance effected for one y tar, In any aam from 8100
to 810 .000, at a premium of only one-half per eeuu. aocu
ring the full amount Insured In case of death, and a com.
penaatlon each week equal to the whole premium nald.
Short time llckcta for 1, 2, 8, 8. 7, or 10 days, or I, 8, or
6 months, at 10 cent a a day, Inaurlng in tbe sum of S3000
or givlnn fjis per week 11 diaabled, to be had at the Gene,
ral Oflce, Ko. 183 8. FODETH Street. Philadelphia, or at
the Yirioui Railroad 7 Icket offlcea. Be aura to purohaae
the tickets of the North, American Transit Insiuanca
For clicnUra and turther information aDplr at tb
tomerr"nyfflee' 0TtUXT f lhe '"'OorlaedAgentsolS
Li. WIS h HOCPT President.
JAWS At. CONRAD, Treasurer.
CLHOWN, Secretary.
JOHN C. BILL ITT. Bolicltoi'
. . DlbLClOKS.
L. Ebnonpt. late ot l'eunhylvanla Bali rcao Ccb ran
M. b-!:-. of Ju. W. Baldwin a. Co.'a. 17
bamnel C. Palmer, t aabier oi Corunie cia
Klcliard Wood, Me. 8( il Market afreet.
Jamea M. Ccuiau, Ho. C23 tlarkei auree
J. K. Klnpaly. Contlnenial HotnL
H. G. Lelaenring, Jvoa. 247 and H0 Dock '
BaniuelWork. ot Work. Met outli A (J
George llariln Ko, S2i Cbemut atiea
Lilo and Tiust Co.,
lncorpoiated nvtlieBtate of FennsvlvanlaT li"
I'Jd. Irkft, lltl K( L1VJ-N, ALLOW INTERKdl
DSPOB1TH, aMj i,U K18 Ah b U1TIKS.
r.UWA Kl) c
Ramnel K. t hlpley,
Jen niluli HHCkei,
Joabuall JUoiria,
Kichard CuAhnvw
Henry Kalnea,
T WlHtarlirown,
Uivuaru Wood,
i. nor.es b . i uniu.
PAMUr.L B tslIlPLKY, PicBldeut
Ro LAND 1' ABET, Actuary,
No. Ill S. FOURTH Street.
So. 2i4 WALMT Hireei, oppoaite the Kxcbanre.
In addition to MA BIN K and I. LAM INhC UANCB
thla Conipany insurre irom loas oruauiage by FlitK, on
lit eral ieipa. cu buildings, merchandise furniture, eto.,
for luil id perluua, aud permanently on buildings, oy
Oepoalt ot premium.
1 Ue oniuan y uaa been in active operation for mora
than hlX'iV i KK. during which all loaavs have beea
promptly adjusted and paid.
John L Hodge,
al. H. Mabouey,
Jot . T. Lewis.
William H.Grant.
L'obert W Learning,
1 1. Clark WLai-on,
Bamuel Wilcox.
Uiwrenoe L.awis, jr.
David Lewis,
heujuuiin letting,
Xbowaa H. Powers,
A. tt- McHenry.
1 duiond I aatlllon,
Louis C, Norns.
WUCUERJta, President.
Bamckl Wilcox, Ke. rterr.
. 828
Incorporated ltoft Charter Perpelual Jsio. 810 WAi
K I T Biret-t, opposite Independence Square.
Thla I'i.h.iiidt. tavorab known to tliaoommnnltTfnti
over forty yeara, eontluua to Insure agalnat loss or
damaKe by Ore on Publio or Private Biuiillngs, eltliaf
nernianenty oriora uiuiiea nme. Also on Furniture,
5 locks ot Goods and Uerchandise generally, oa Utieral
Hiocks or o
. r.nlul. InittfllW llh . Uh. a I W. . Lm
J Urn v 1 .-rw..-. - ai if , DuriMU. . uuu. m.
Invested In tbe niost careful manner, which enable
tnem to oner to the ins area an udoabted eeeulty la
the 1-
Daniel Rmlth. Jr..
Job a Parereux.
I'homa Muilui,
Ilmiry UwU,
J. GllllniikMin TsU-
filexander Benson,
raae Haxlebnret,
inomaa suioma.
uaniei nanani it.
HAN1K.L SMITH, J't, President;
Wiuum O. Ckowsu, Beojvteuy. )

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