OCR Interpretation

The evening telegraph. [volume] (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1864-1918, December 04, 1867, FOURTH EDITION, Image 1

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The Secretary ofthe Interior says: Experience bu
vnrgmted Military cliunues In the ujodeoi disposing or
Ibe public lamia. Credit on sales h is been lon since
abolished. The right ol pre-emption originally Con
ferred ouly by special enactment, has become a per
manent pari of our system. At. a later period the
bomeatead policy was engiafled upon it. In no re
spect bas the wisdom of (Jungrens been more strikingly
displayed tban In the adoption of general and uuf
form method of public surveys. Until they are ex
tended over the soli, the proprietorship thereof re
mains Id the Government, This policy oilers a
suaiktd contrast lo that of the natlous which esta
blished colonies within our limit, and secures to the
furrhaer an Inrtlsput ble rpghl to a well-defined
rart. Notwithstanding our selllemeots have pro
gressed with a rsildlty unequalled lu the history of
unllous, few serious controversies have arli en in re
gard to titles emanating from ibe United mates. Our
present system is so simple and eUlcient, so well
adapted to the wants of our population and the Inte
rests of the service, ibat It Is not susceptible ot much
improvement, fctucb modifications as were needed to
periect It were alluded to in my last annual report.
Ho necebslty exists lor making at this time more
peoial relerence to them.
Urn lug the last fiscal year 7,041,114 50 acres weredls-
Sosed of. This quantity exceeds that disposed ol
nrti g tne previous year by 2.411.800 acres. The cash
recelpia of the oUice from sales and fees of various
kinds amounted to $1,847,861-52: a sum greater than
that teceived the previous year by more than hall a
Bnllon dollars, During the last fiscal year and the
quarter of the present year eudlDg 30th September
last, 650 Indian patents were Issued, embraclug H SJ4
ores, under the several acts of Congress relatlug
thereto, patents for prlva'e laud claims In Califor
nia have been Issued embracing 4.3S3.3WJ acres. Con
trai ta bave been entered into for surveylug and
marking the northern boundary ot California, that
portion of the eastern boundary of Oregon wnlch lies
One south of the confluence or Owyhee wltn Snake
river, to the northern Hue ot Nevada, and the north
ern boundary of New Wei Ice. It is recommended
tLat appropnatlous be made for the survey of the
northern and eastern boundaries ot Colorado Tern
' tory and the northern and eastern boundaries of MO
TS'! a.
The last soldier of the Revolution who was on tbe
r ei slou rolls at the date ot my last annual report has
since died. By special act of Congress two other .
vetersns of that war have beeu placed on the rolls
at tbe rate of live hundred dollars per annum. Ol the
widows ot such soldiers there are on tbe rolls tbe
names of nine hundred and nluety-seveu; of tbese,
one hundred and nineteen were married prior to 1st
January, 1W 0.
Of wa'S subsequent to the Revolution and prior to
tbe Rebellion, tbe number of pensioned widows and
orphans ol soldiers was one thousand three buodrel
and ten at the close of the last fiscal year.
The total aggregate ot army pensions Is one hun
dred and tilty-ihree thousand atid ninety-three, at a
total aouual rateol sixteen millions one hundred and
forty-two thousand seventy-nine dollars and ninety
seven cents.
The whole amount paid during the last fiscal year
to luvalld military pemlone.-s.thelr widows, orphans,
and dependent relatives, was eighteen millions, three
hundred and one thousand seven hundred and Hi teen
dollars and twenty-six cents, which Includes the ex
pi nsea of the disbursing agencies.
On the 80th of June, 1W7, on the rolls of the navy
Seoilous, were tbe names of one thousand and fifty
tur Invalids, at an annual aggregate of elghty-iilue
th ussnd six hundrtd and liny-two dollars and
twenty live cents, and one thousand three hundred
and twenty-seven widows, orphans, aud dependent
relatives, at an aggregate annual rate of three hun
dred and ttve thousand seven huudred and forty-two
dollars and twenty-five cents. The amount paid
during tbe last fiscal year to navy Invalids and to
widows, orphans, and dependent relatives of otllcers
and seamen of tbe navy, was three hundred and
eighteen thousand two hundred aud lorty-oue dollars
ind twenty cents. . ...
Tha tniat anLufel amount of pensions of all classes
Tens sixteen millions tour hundred and forty-seven
tbouHund eight hundred and twnty-two dot ars and
twenty-two cents, and the amount paid was eighteen
millions six hundred and nineteen thousand nine
hundred aud fifty-six dollars and forty-six eeuus,
which Includes expenses ot disouriement.
During the year eudlng September 80, 1867, there
were admitted nine hundred and hity four applica
tions lor bounty Und warrants, tequlrlng one hun
dred and torty-elght thousand nine huudred and
alxty acres of land to satisfy them.
Tbe Invested navy pension fund now amounts to
thirteen mill Ions of dollars, and there is an uninvested
balance ot two hundred aud twenty-nine thousand
two hundred and forty-six dollars and thirty-seven
cents, Ab the Interest on the Invested sum tar ex
ceeds the amount required for the navy pensions,
Congress provided, by act approved Marco 2, 187, for
tbe increase of the pensions of meritorious disabled
officers, seamen, and marines. The Secretary of the
Navy has favorably reported seven olaims of this
lass. There is au urgent necessity f ran Increased
appropriation for special investigation to prevent
frauds upon lb Government lo ooialnu.g pensions.
The amount saved to tbe Uovernmeut by suoh inves
tigations has far exceeded tbe expenditures In con
ducting tbem, while tbelr chiet value arises from
their preventive Influence.
Our Indian relations have assumed a new and Inte
resting aspect. Tbe steady approach of emigration
to the grounds heretofore devoted to the ohass.and
the rapid progress of the railroads pointing towards
tbe Pacific aud traversing the country over which the
Indians from time immemorial have roamed, Impe
riously demand that the policy of concentrating them
upon reservations should, whenever practicable, be
adopted. Until recently there was territory euongh
to supply tbe demands of tbe while rao, without
unduly encroaching upon tbe dlstrlots where the In
dians subsisted by bnntlog. This condition of things
no longer exists. Christianity and civilisation, with
the Industrial arts, are spreading over the entire
region from the Mississippi to the Pacltlo. The In
dians are In possession of vast tracts ol country,
abounding In precious metal, or rich In sources of
agricultural wealth. These Invite the enterprise of
the sdventurous pioneer, who, lu seeking a home and
fortune, Is constantly pressing upon the abode of the
IByUan Inevitable law two races, one civilized and
the other barbarous, are being brougnt face to face.
The obligations which rest upon the Government ex
tend to bulb. Ksch is Justly eutltled to protection.
Our duty requires ns lo eevlse a Sj stent by which
Civilisation, with Hs;ttendaot blessings, may be fos
tered and eitemted. and at the same time protection
fee secured to the tribes.
The estimated number of Indians Is about three
hundred thousand, spreading from Lake (superior to
the Pacific Ocean. Those east of tne Mississippi, with
few exceptions, are on reservations; so also are the
tribes In Kansas north of Ibe Arkansas, and those
located between the western border of Arkansas aud
the country known as the "leased lauds." Treatise
were negotiated last wlnter-wltli the Kansas tribes,
and submitted lo tbe (senate for its constitutional
action. If ratified aud In good laith executed, these
tribes will be provided with homes, where they will
Boon become self-sustaining, as they hve already
adopted tbe habits of civilized Ills aud beojids rami
liar with agricultural pursuits. They will then re
quire from us little beyond protection against the In
trusion of tbe whites, at. d the faithful performauoe ot
our stipulations.
A consideration ot the proper policy to be pursued
In respect 10 Ibe wild tribes presents moie ditllcult
questions. As long as they cling to their nomadlo
habits, and subslHt by hunting aud fishing, enoroacb
roenl upon their bunting grounds and It does not
seem possible to prevent it will necessarily lead to
hostilities and a devastation of the frontier settle
men ib
The tribes within onr borders are capable of civili
sation. The past furnishes gratifying i)7uoca mat
well-dlret ted and persistent eiloils to that end wi.l
in rewarded wlih s access, it is, uowever, a wun
Ot time. Tbe arts of civilisation hut slowly dis
placed the primitive tastes 7.u liablis of our own
rl,cSi . i nUBl b" with the Indian: hecanuot lna
xneaialeiy ty,, trar stormed from the hunter to tbe
t'Tuier or mechanic. There are intermediate states
through which he has to pass. lie should be gradu
ally won from tbe chase to a pastoral life, and,
under Us Influences, he will ultimately aoqulre a
taste fur agricultural pursuits. '1 he first step in the
process Ol Improvement is lo localise the ludlans.
The same district should not ba appropriate! to the
ssvase and the civilized, nnr should tribes blweeo
whom hereditary feuds ex at be brought together,
as U wo Hd be followed by disastrous results
NO objection Is perceived u planing the civilized
npon contiguous tracp; on the contrary. It is expe
dient to do so. and. as soon as their consent cao ba ob
tained, lo subject them to theiaiue svstem of govern
ment and laws. But such a poiliy? is wholly luapoll
cabie to the wild tribes: they require, iu propornou to
their umbers, much more territory, and can only be
governed and con'.rolled. and trained lo habits of In
dustry, on separate and widely distinct reservations,
selected In view of their ad tatlon to grazing as well
as tillage, and amply stocked by Ibe Government wltn
large numbers ol cattle, sheep, aud goal, 'i be Indian
will discover that a be.-dsmau's life affords a belter
aad surer subsistence than a preoa-iousdepeDt1e .ee
uuoa the chase. A desire for the acquisition ol Indi
vidual property will soon spring op. aud should be
gratified by appropriating to each adult a Imbed
ju.mlly ofland for bis exclusive aae. A title tbeiew
saesid aatered letum.aad Xaraalus an.ua jar-
nlsher). He will then lei.rn to Cultivate the soil. The
mechanic art will follow Tne sctn nliuost-r, and,
above ail, the mlaslonu.y.wlih the "leanings and hopes
Of religion, will crow a and perpetuate the work.
I be unoccupied country went or tbe Missouri Is Of
such vast extent that large regions, If properly
selected, at points remote from the great lines of
travel, may be reserved without detriment to any
public Interest. Long before the tide of emigration
wl 1 resell them, they can, by an equitable arrange
ment with the Indians, be reduced to tbe diroensUius
required by the actual want of tbe agricultural
The selection of suitable site and the removal ol
the Indians to them cannot be accotm lished In the
short time allotted lo the commissioner appointed
by tbe act of Co nereis of July last. Twooomiuiaslous,
each consisting of not less than three persons, should
be appointed, and adequate means placed at the tits
posal of the Secretary of tne Interior for theelliclent
completion of tbe work. No consideration ot the
time er expenditure likely to be required should be
u tiered to defeat an object of such surpassing Impor
tance. A guarantee against the useless consumption
of time or money should be found In the character of
the persons selected. The cost will be very Incon
siderable compared with that of a war. Had a tithe
ol our outlay In military operations against the In
dians during the present year been honestly and Judi
ciously applied to purposes of peace, the necessity of
a rewort lo force would have been avoided. It Is more
humane and economical to subsist Indians than to
fight tbsm. A wire and Just policy will soon reneve
u from either necessliy,
Tbe salaries of the Superintendents of Indian
A flairs and Indian Agents are Inadequate. Increased
compensation would enable tbe Department to
secure the services of men of undoubted capacity and
integrity, and lend to remove the temptation to oo ra
mi t tbt se frauds which, before and since the trans
fer of the Indian Bureau to this Department, were
and Still are Imputed to officers performing duties
and Bustalulng relations to the Indians such as de
volve npon this class of publlo servants. I -take
pleasure, however, In bearing testimony to the abi
lity and fidelity of many now In the Indian service,
home of tbone of the greatest merit bave announced
their Intention to resign on account of tbe insuill
clency of their pay. Loss to tbe Govern men', and
serious wrong to tbe Indians would be prevented by
an appropriation fjr the employment ot siwoial
agents to Investigate and correct, at remote posts,
frauds and abuses, which cannot be properly dealt
with by tbe Instrumentalities now subject to the order
of the Department. o. H. BKOWNING.
The revenues of the Department during the flsoal
year ended June sn, 1867, were ti5,2ii7,u(l's7, to which
should be added amounts drawn fiom the Treasury
under the acts making appropriations lor carrying
"free mall matter,' n60,0un: and amount under the
pedal appropriations f r overland mail and marine
tervice between New York and California, foo,660;
steamship service between Ban Francisco, Japan, and
China, 4l,6t-67: and between tbe United mates and
BruEil, iioe.ooo (Including ioo,ooo on account of ser
vice performed during the previous lisal year); for
new mall routes, flbo.000: and to supply deficiencies.
i,S0.(hxi; making the receipts from ail sources,
V78.G98 64. Tbe expenditures of ail kinds. Including
the' foreign mall transportation, and service for wblob
the above special appropriations were made, eay
tl 1K1.6WK7, during tbe same period, were I9.2&,.
483'4, showing an excess of receipts over expendi
tures Of 748.21U-OS.
Tbeorulnary expenses ot tbe Department, not In
cluding mall transportlon provided for by special ap
propriation, were 18,048.8l6Tv; and the ordinary
receipts, Including the amount drawn nnder appro-
iriauon ior carrying free mall matter, were
18 1.17(287, showing an excess of expenditures of
1 W 6,7 89-B2. which bas been met by the unexpended
.aianoes of former appropriations. No annrnnrfatlnn
for the past year Is therefore needed.
Tbe receipts for postage, as compared with tbe pre
vious years, show an Increase of 6 per cent., and tbe
expenditures an increase of 251-10 percent. The
amount of revenue concentrated In the depositories
aud draft offices was (s.l64,72S'ls; collected by the
Auditor, $2.117,113 66; retained by postmasters for
compensation and office expenses, (6,814 156-65: and
remaining In the bands of postmasters, awaiting col
lection, (661,028-60. -
The ordinary expenditures for the year
ending June 8U, I860, are estimated au.... (24,200,000
Add ior overland mall and marine service
between New York and Oaillomi. ........... 900,(00
Bteamshlp service botween ban Jr ranclseo,
Japan, and China......... (00,000
Bteamshlp service between the Uuitcd
Hlales and Brazil..... m 150.000
Bteamshlp service between Ban i ranclseo
and the Baudwlch Islands...... 7J.C00
To supply a dellolency In tbe service be
tween the United States and Brazil In the
hscul year ended June 80, 1866..... 12,500
- $1,6 7.600
Making the total estimated expenditures... (22,87,500
The ordinary receipts. Including tbe stand
ing approprlatlou of (700,000 for carrying
free mull matter, are estimated al., 18,700,000
Aod amounts of special appropriation for
California, China, and Brazil malts, and
lor the deficiency above named 1,562,500
Bhowlng an excess of expenditures of. $5,575,000
Deducting the undrawn balances appropri
ations lor tbe department, amounting to. 1,000,000
Leaves tbe deficiency to be provided for
from the geueral treasury 1,575 000
It will also be necessary to make the usual ocu
appropriations as follows:
lor overland mail transportation and
marine service between New York and
llsillnrnl. .........
Mall steamship service betweeu Ban Fran
cisco, Japan, and China
Mail steamstilpaervlce between tbe United
Bute and Braxll.n... ...
And lor deficiency ou account of seivloe be
tween the United States and Brazil during
tbe flsoal year ended June 80, 18s
Mall steamship service between Han Fran
cisco ana the Sandwich laianna, , tl
Daring tbe year, 871,599,605 postage stamps of the
value ol (11,678 807-44; 668,160 plain stamped envelopes,
representing (190,688-60; 16.W2,7W stamped envelopes
bearing printed cards aud requests, representing
(494,712-60-, and 1,857,76V newspaper wrappers, valued
at (37.166, were Issued. An aggregate value of
The Issue of postage stamps, compared with the
previous year, shows an Increase of about 85 per ceut.,
whilst the issue of stamped envelopes has Increased
almost 81 per cent. This increase la at tr lbs table to
tbe Introduction of printed buetnens cards and re
quests for return If not delivered, without additional
cost. The Issue of Ibis class of euvelopes during the
year was Increased 1 08 percent, over that ot 1866.
The prediction In last year's report that the cse of
such envelopes would tend largely to reduce the
number ot dead letters has been verified. The sta
tistics given under the head of dead letters how
that Ibe number has diminished nearly one million
dur tng tbe past year, aud that this gratliyiog result Is
attributable lo the ose of envelopes with a request for
the return to the writers ot unclaimed letters directly
from the post olUce addressed. It Is estimated that
fully tiny millions of these envelopes were used
durlug the year, the department supplying about ooe
thlrd ot the cumber. The sales of postage stamps and
stamped envelopes during tbe year amounted to
(i2.9t8,i;4 12, leaving unsold in the bauds of posiinas
tS'S IG2.92878.
Kxperlmenls are In progress with a postage stamp
printed on embossed paper, which seems to attord
good security against fraud. The fibres ot the paper
being broken, canceling marks almost penetrate, so
that tbey cannot easily be removed without destroy
ing tbe stamp. Tbe adhesive properties are also pro
moted, and other advantages secured which com
mend the Invention to a tovorable noilce.
The length ot routes has been Increased over tbe
piecedlng year 22.824 miles; the annual transporta
tion, 7 144.875 miles; and coat, (1,705.812; towhlcu add
increased cost for rat way postal clerks, route, local,
and other ageuis, 8241,171; making au aggregate of
$1 , 946,078.
1 be rendition of the overland and territorial mall
routes are luuy auu oieariy set lortn in me tvpwt,
and very careful tabular slatemsuls Of the rates of
pay and weights of mail ou railroad routes are given.
Compared with the records kept before the Uebel
llon, the service on Ibe southwestern route exhibits
a marked Improvement, both with regard to speed
and regularity, tbe average time In eacb direction
being reduced about two hours, and the proportion
of trips performed la tbe schedule time being lu
creased from about one half the whole number then
to nearly five-tenths now, reckoning the schedule
time at tnreeand a-half days, until the 16ih ot Juue,
and at three aud a fourth days after that dale, going
south, aud at three and a-haU days fur the whole
period going north.
There are now In operation In the United states
eighteen ra'lwsy peslal routes extending In the
aggregate over four thousand four hundred aud
thirty utiles- upon eight hundred aud seveuly-nine
miles f which twice daily service is performed,
making a total equal to five thousand three huudred
aad fourteen miles ot railway postal service dailv
earb way- Twelve, twenty-four, and elten forty-right
hours are saved In Ibe transuilslton of all the mails
passing over these 61 uO miles.
At the date or ibe last annual report. Junction City,
Kansas, ms miles weal of Wyandot's, and 418 miles
eat ot St. Louis, Missouri, was the farthest polut to
wl k ha continuous railroad line front the eastern
Cities lAB.Mll lh. mm,mm '. ,1 Af M,1 a IftO Jl I hL-
lug, east of Oiuaba City, Nebraska, In the Hue from
Chicane to Ksarasy, This gap bas siuoe been filled
p by the completion, of the Chicago aud Northwest
em Railroad to Council BlnA's. Iowa, on the eastern
side ol the Missouri river, opposite Omaba. and Ibe
Union I'wcillc Kallrnad (the Plane route) has ben
extended beyond Kearney IOT miles to Cheyenne, at
the baesj of the Rocky Mountains. AID miles went
or Omaha, and luis miles West ot Chicago.
Illinois. Tbs Junction City or Rmoky mil
route Unlon Pacltlo Railroad, eastern division), has
also beeu extended 163 miles to Hay City, making tha
length or the railroad routes west of HI. Louis 7I
miW-s. Tbe mails are carried dally on these routes
west from Wyandotte and Omaha, and on the Pacltlo
side the malls are conveyed twice dally between
Hecramento and Cisco, a distance of 94 miles, uner
contract with tbe Central Pacific Railroad Company,
The lines are thus extending east and west to meet
each other: the aveiage prngiess on tb ITatte route
the past year, Sundays excepted, exceeding one mile
per day. A continuation ofthe wnrk with like energy
will verify the promise ol the railroad companies by
the year l87o to span the continent.
The aggregate amount ot postage npon the correa-
fonrtence exchanged with foreign countries was
2,441,242 62, an Increase of (152 028 x2 over the previous
The number of letters exchanged wlthforelfrn coun
tries (exclusive of tbe British North American pro
vinces), was Io2!i8 284,of wn'ch6.8l2.4(U were sent
irrm end 4 7.8; received In the United Suites, or
this number 9.442 ill were exchanged with Kuropean
Countries, an increase of 877.2tn as compared wit the
previous year. The estimated number exchanged
with tbe British Provinces was 2 8",tet, making a
total of over li.ini .000 letters exchanged ia the malls
with lore gn countries.
lollowlng the notice given by tbe British Govern
ment lor tbe termination of the postal convention
or 16th December, 1818, between the United States
and the United Kingdom, a preliminary basis of a
new convention, reducing the International letter
!ostageIrom twenty-four lo twelve cents, and establ
ishing moderate charges tor sea and territorial
transit of correspondence in closed malls, was .
sgieed npon between this Department and the Bri
tish Post Office, the leading features ot which were
stated in the last report. As the details of this new
convention were yet to be discussed and formally
adjusted with the British office, a favorable oppor
tunity was presented to establish enlarged facilities
or mall communication with reduced and uniform
rates of postage to tbe continent of Kutope-
Tbe conventions with Belgium and tbe North Ger
man Union also establish a reduced international rate
or ten cents for letters transmitted by regular I nes
of nail steamships plying directly betweeu any port
of the United Stales and any port In the north at
IE ti rope. .
Tbe principle ot free transit for correspondence
trat emitted in close malls is adopted In the conven
tion with the Netherlands and Italy, aud In each
ofthe other conventions veiy low transit charges are
A postal convention, with simple provisions avoid
lig postal e accounts, has also been concluded with
the Colonial Government of Hong Kong, China, a
copy of which Is annexed.
The arrangement between tbe United State and
Canada tor tbe mutual exchange of registered letters
has been extended to registered letters exchanged
with New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Kd
ward's Island, respectively.
The mall steamship service between the United
Btatesand China authorized by the act of Congress
approved February 17, 1865, was commenced ou the
1st of January, 1867. by the departure of the steam
ship Colorado from San Francisco, with the malls for
Japan and China, and two additional round tr'ps
have been performed between San Francisco, Yoko
hama, and Hong Kong, by that steamer, departing
from San Francisco on 8d ot April and 4lh or July,
and delivering returu malls at that port on 16lh June
and lstb r-eptember. respectively.
Tbe Great Bepubllo and China, built expressly for
this service, have been placed npon tbe line. The
contractors expect to have tha Japan, the third
Bteamshlp building for tbe Use, ready for service
about the 1st of July, 1868; and tbe fourth steamship,
not yet named, but now on tbe stocks In a state ol for
wardness, wlh likewise be ready lor service In Janu
ary, 1889.
The postal convention between tbe United States
and Venezuela went Into operation on tbe 1st of Oc
tober, 1866; and the Government of Venezuela has,
thrtugh Its minister, proposed to this Department
tbe establishment of a direct line of mail packets be
tween the two countries, tbe expense of tbe service to
be divided equally between the two Governments,
T he propriety of authorizing this Department to unite
with Vetiezaela In establlBhlngsucb a lineon the battle
proposed Is respectfully reteired to the consideration
of ongress.
The uumber of post offices established during the
year was 1H85; number discontinued, Sill; decrease of
olllces. s '18; nnraoerof post ollloea In operation on
thesoth June, 188, Including suspended otlices In the
Southern Slates. 19,389: total number in operation on
tbe soth June, 1867, 25,162: number ol offices subject to
appointment by tbe President, 837; number by tbe
Postmaster General, 24. 1-26. .
A large majority 01 oflioea discontinued are In the
Southern States, the service at which was suspended
by the Postmaster-General In May, 1861, and were not
In operation thereafter, but not regularly discon
tinued. These offices were reported by tbe Auditor to tbe
appnlntmei t office as having tailed to make returns
for five years, aud their discontinuance recommended
as necessary to enable that olUcer to cloee tbe accounts
of U e late Postmasters on the books of h s office, and
for that reason It was deemed advisable to formally
discontinue them.
The free delivery ot letters by carriers has been In
operation during the past year In forty-seven ot the
principal cities. The number of carriers employed
was 94J, at an aggregate compensation ot (899,93181.
This mode of delivery continues to grow In publlo
favor, as Is Bbovn by the Increase of postages on
local matter, the reductions of the number of post
office boxes, and the large decrease ot advertised let
ters In several of tbe cities where the system baa been
more efficiently conducted. Experience, so far, Justi
fies the belief that It will supersede tbe present sys
tem of box delivery, Increase correspondence, espe
cially In large cities, and not only pay its expenses,
hut yield a revenue to tbe Department.
Tbe whole num her of money order post offices now
In operation is 1224, of which 461 have been established
since the date of the last annual report. This increase
bas occurred mainly In tbe Western and Southern
States, where tbe facilities of ibe system tor the
transmission of money appear at present to be most
needed, Kxcess over expenditures, (26.260'Bl.
To forge or counterfeit a money order Is made a
penal off ense by the act of May 17. 1864. But one In
stance of thla kind has happened since tbe establish
ment of the system. A late postmaster abstracted, In
June last, fiiiy-two blank money orders, especially
Iirepared and numbered, from the book which he de
Ivered to bis successor, tilled them up in tbe usual
-manner, so that they appeared to bave been duly
Issued on several postmasters lor small sums, aud
forged upon each the signature of the postmaster.
Payment of twenty-nine of these forged orders to tbe
aggregate amount of (1822 was obtained on presenta
tion. Tbe fraud was speedily detected, and tbe
gallty person was recently convicted of the crime of
forgery at tbe United States Court at Cleveland, Ohio,
and duly sentenced to three years' Imprisonment
and bard labor, and to pay a fine of ttve hundred
By existing law a postmaster at a money order
offioe Is uot authorized to issue an order payable or
himself. Hence monev order olUoes caunot at ore
sent he established at tbe stations or sub post offices
lu the large cities, although in some Instances these
stations luinlsh trdlnary postal facilities to a larger
population In their v.clnlty than that of many con
siderable towns. It Is evident that the couvenlence
ol resident within tbe delivery of such stations
would be sensibly promoted If tbey were al
lowed to purchase and receive payment of
money orders at these stations, instead of being com-
felled, as now, to resort for such facilities to the oen
rel post office of tbe city. The latter would more
over be relieved, to some extent, or a great and con
stantly increasing pressure of applicants for the pur
chase and paymeutot orders. It would also prove
useful In tbe sparsely settled States where tbe county
town usually has a money order office, through which,
under tbe prot osed modification, small debts oouid
readily be paid lu any part of tbe county by means of
money orders Issued aud payable at the post office in
the county town, which Is habitually visited by resi
dents ol the county.
It Is gratifying to be able to state that notwithstand
ing the Increase of expenses ofthe Department, grow
ing out or the Increase of compensation of clerks,
agents, aod employes of the Department, and Increase
In the extent and expense of the mail service
throughout the country and on the sea, the disburse
ments were not only kept within tbe estimates for
18t7, but there remained an unexpended balance of
over seven bucdred tbousand dollars to be applied
towards the expenses of the current year. So great Is
Ibe constant demand for It or eased mall service by
the people ot tbe Territories, aud to supply the neces
sities or the older Stales, aud so important la It to put
luto lull operatiou tbe service lu the States lately In
volved In the lu-helllon, that a considerable detloloncy
Is estimated lor the year 1869.
Jl cannot be aniiomai.i kkt the revenue of tbe
Department derived from the sale ot stamps auu
stamped envelopes, and from sources Independent or
specific appropriations, can equal the a-acewary ex
penditures or the Department, while tbe service is
being constantly Increased, at great cost, to meet tbe
wants ol the people In sparsely settled Territories.
The laster tbe new Territories are peopled aud their
material resources developed, the greater will be the
postal revenues coming back to reimburse the depart
ment for outlays. . . ,
Until the whole couutry is well settled by a stable,
producing, thrifty population, It caunot be aasnmed,
with certainty, that the Post Office Department cau
become self-sustaining. New channels of postal
communication are opening everywhere, and neoet
saty expenses grow faster than legitimate revenue
Increases. When tbe waste coun'ry becomes belter
settled, aod the facilities lor mall transportation
lucreaaed and cheapened, as they will be in a
very few years, the luerease of reveuuea aud
comparative decrease of carrying expenses
will entirely chauge the relation of the taxes aud re
sources ol the Department and, at Ibe present rale of
pohtage, It will not only be self-sustaining but lurulah
no Inconsiderable revenue to tbe Government. There
Is no appropriation of publio money which brings
back, directly and indirectly, so large a return to the
Government and the people as that made In aid of
the postal service. Only one otner department of the
Government gets backareveuue anywhere near Its
expenses In return lor the outlays of publlo money.
Under the new postal couvs'ntlous with foreign
countries, and nude the contract 1 ecenvl made fur
Atlantic service, the lsre balances aralnst the De
partment, which have burdened It 'or eo many ynnrs,
will he entirely wiped out. a- d a very handsome re
venue derived In aid of Us finances.
The exhibits of this report show a remarkable In
crease in tbe importance of the foreign mall service,
aud the Increased care and watchfulness required of
those In direct charge of it.
Thesnbject of connecting tbe telegraphic system of
the country with the postal service has attracted
public attention, and It resolved, to some extent, the
consideration of my predecessor. It bas recently
transpired that the telegraphic system of Great
Britain has been put in charge of tbe British P.ist
Office Department. It is a matter of very great im-
Iiortanrs, and us propriety and practicability ought to
ie thoroughly Investigated by Congreris.
The Post master-General calls attention to the gross
francs perpetrated oiwn tbe department by violation
ol tlie franking privilege, la almost all parts t -.he
country. Theno mmil franks of dlffsrent me-nbers
ol Congress are freely used to circulate obscene books
and ps pern lottery slrculars, business cards, etc. and
cover ail kinds ol buslnes and domestic oorresnon
deuce of persons not authorised by law to frank mall
able matter. Unless something Is done speedily by
t ongress lo check this serious raisoulef, tbe annual
ei propr atluo to cover the transmission of tree mat
ter will have to be Increased from seven nnndred
thousand dollars to at least one million ot
dollars. To avoid the continuance ot this serious
abuse In the use of f he names of members of Con
gress without their knowledge or consent, he airain
urges that the law be so changed as to require the
written signature of the person exercising' the frank
ing privilege upon the matter Irankeil.and, to relieve
the heads of Depuriment aud Bureaus of great labor,
that a franking clerk be authorised by law lor eaoii
fleparimeutof the Government, with the authority to
frank all matter pertaining to the -department for
which he Is so appointed.
Jt Is to be hoped that Congress will relieve labor
and shlp-bul!dlng materials of taxes and impositions,
so that ourown ships may be built ourown waters,
to bear our commerce and carry our malls. As long
as subsidies are paid by oth 1 Governments to aid In
establishing and maintaining lines of ocean steam
ers lo and Irom Kuropeau porta, giving them trie
rommaud or the carrying trad .with comparatively
little com petition. It Is dne lo the citizens of the
United Slates tuat like aid should be furnished to
American enterprise. This can, la bis Judgment, be
very properly and profitably done by subsidies 10
lines of steamers already established a a considera
tion lor carrying the ocean malls.
Tbi National Banks. Comptroller Hulburd
Informs vs in bis "port that there are now six
teen bundled and thirty-nine National Bank in
operation. Since tbe organization of the first
one, which occurred June 20, 1863, ten of these
banking associations bave failed. Their total
liabilities amounted to $4,650,100. The circula
tion -will be paid In full, so that the publlo will
suffer no loss. The Comptroller considers it
almost a matter of surprise that among so large
a number of National Banks there bave not
been more fall ares. He adds: "If the failure
of ten banks among six hundred and seventy
three banks of the Union during the past four
years bad been three times greater, they would
still, in the aggregate, not equal in magnitude
the recent failure of tbe Boyal Bank at Liver
pool, or the Commercial Bank of Canada, insti
tutions which were supposed to be conducted
npon the most approved system of English
banking." ' ' ' !
1 I
The Navy Department. The expenditures of
tbe Navy Department were over f 12,000,000 less
during the last year than for tbe preceding fiscal
year. Secretary Welles remarks in bis report:
"165,000,000, besides meeting the extraordinary
expenditures of the heaviest, branches of the
service for three yean, must be regarded as evi
dence that the business of the Department has
been conducted with economy, as well as thai
care has been taken by those entrusted with the
disposition of useless publlo property to realize
the nearest approximation to its value; and is a
financial exhibit exceedingly gratifying to the
Tbe Official Canvass Complete ,
Albany, Deo. 8, The Board of State Can
vassers convened to-day and canvassed tbe vote
for Blate offloers. The following are the official
footings: I .
Secretary of State. ' : I
Nelson sa e seeaaeea 873.029
McKeon. 825.0!hJ
Nelson's majority.
' " Comptroller,
1 '
sse.ssse .
: Allen Majority.-...,
dates...... s eetMs)s aseetw
Bristol's majority.;....
State Enaine&r and Surveyor.
Richmond .........
Richmond's majority...
A Uorneu-General.
Van Colt ,
Champlain's majority
Canal CommUttoner.
Fay -
JAflTPDIOPdeoeeee see ens see
Fay's majority. frr....T-. ....
Intveotor of State rritont.
De La Mater......... tHMMHMtMtMVMIMItlSIHI
Scheu'a majority
Judge of the Court of Appeal.
O rover
drover's majority -
The New fork Uajeralty Election.
The following are the figures reported of the
New Yorsr city election yesterday for Mayor:
Tue registered vote.......................... 13ti.ll4
The total vote cast MH 101.228
Hoffman's vote .. 62,Wl
COd'S VOt6tH..H...IH...IMHI,IH.IH. NMHKH 23,832
Darling's vote J8.4U5
Hoffman over Wood 40,01)9
Hoffman over Darling 41,416
Hoflman over both... 21,ttJ4
Tbese results show ibat Tammany rales tbe
roofct; tuat Mozart tiall may be prouoaaoed a
defunct Institution : tuat for al leuxt
anoilier yeur or two the taxes and spoliations
are to be as they bave been, and that oulv from
Ibe Benerul snaking up of tbe Presidential
election can make a break In tbe spoils and
plunder cornblnai ions and their wneels wllbln
wheels of tbls metropolis.
Fatal Accident Ci-lsman, the Murderer.
St. Louis, Dec. 8. A horrible accident hap
pened at an early hour tbls morning. A French
man named Joseph Labe, wbila under the
effects of liquor, tell from a third story porch,
corner Uroaiway aud Otbillon street, and was
Instantly killed. II had been employed oa the
new Mississippi river bridge, and leaves desti
tute 1 Hmily.
Chrlsman, who is to be ban tied on Friday
next for murdering Edward Boss and Moses, bis
son, last summer, in the Columbia Bottom,
under peculiarly atrocious circumstances, exhi
bits the same stubborn indiuerence which
characterized him during the trial. He is
incredulous as to being hauired, and th'nks his
sentence will be com muted, though the Governor
bas declined to interfere. He denies the murder,
tuouph tbe evidence was overwhelming, and
says the devil entered the house and committed
the bloody deed. Preparations lor the execu
tion arc nearly completed,
Mr. Dickens Second Reading at the Tre
moat lanle.
Bobtoh, Dec. 3. Mr. D.ekens' second reading
was given this evening. On this occasion tbe
audience had the happiness to make the per
sonal acquaintance ot several men and women
of whom the world has heard much, among
them Copperfleld, Bteerforth, Pegnotty, Ham,
Micawber and Mrs. Micawber, Pickwlcc, Bob
lawyer, and Sawyer's landlady. Borne faint
knowledge of these the world has bad throueh
what has been written and printed of their acts
and thoughts; but this evening they were
actually present, and will in fature be known
and remembered more by those traits of
voice, manner, and grimace, that were an
actual experience of tbe senses, then by the
more elaborate pictures of them in the chroni
cles of tbelr lives. Taken altogether, pei haps
Copperfleld is the most successful of the pieces
read. - It is the one with the larger range ot
sympathy in it. In the others tbe very accuracy
of local color and the picturing of class or per
sonal peculiarities tames them; but the tone of
Copperfleld is so broadly natural that it will
be lelt wherever there are homes and lovers.
Pogpotty will be understood wherever routth old
men love their dashing little girls, and Micaw
ber wherever there are unthrifty mortals who
believe themselves wronged by society.
It needed apparently a piece of this
broad spirit to fully draw out
the bearers here; for thoush their appreciation
of the reader's power and recognition ot it was
genial and ready on the first reading, they were
far from having their sympathies cairied quite
beyond control. Tbey were very decidedly
themselves, and applause aod appreciation were
more or less broken up as to the Pickwick party
and other peculiar people; but Copperfleld fused
all in a common expression of exquisite plea
sure. Through the earlier chapter detailing tbe
Pepgotty history, the impression, though not
demonstrative, was nevertheless deep. David's
dinner party and his pigeon pie had the first
effect of the livelier sort, while Mrs. Micawber's
declaration that uhe would never desert Mr.
Micawber, given as it was with what
could not bnt have been that faithful
creature's very air and manner, awakened
laughter that cleared away every cloud
from the chill atmosphere of Boston taste.
It Is observable that a Boston audience takes
nothing for granted. Other audiences would
let a man start from bis reputation; this audi
ence requires him to start even, and make his
reputation nnder its very eyes. He does it,
too, and thus his triumph is all the greater,
and all the more positively the triumph of his
art and skill as a reader, and not his name as a
writer. . The house was crowded with the
beauty, fashion, and culture of the city an
audience much quieter in tone and style than
metropolitan audiences universally are. N. Y.
JJirald. . . . i
Hepert of the Ban Francisco Chamber of
Commerce Committee- on the Acqalsl
tlon ofthe Sandwich Island.
Ban Francisco, Deo. 8. The report of tne
committee appointed by the San Francisco
Chamber of Commerce on the Sand wlcb. Islands
treaty set forth, first, that any strong naval
power fortified on said Island would hold tbe
key to tbe commerce of Ibe Paoirio Ooean:
second, that France, England, and tbe United
States are striving for their possession; tblrd,
tbat a treaty appear to be best, U uot the only
way of preventing any hostile power obtaining
tbem and of securing them to ns, and tbat it
will f fleet tbe object desired; fourth, that the
commerce of the Paolflo const and of the United
States will ' be; benefited Immediately and
largely by suoh a treaty.
From the Paclfle in Fifteen Day.
We are assured by tbe Directors of the Union
Paclflo Railroad tbat tbe railway from the Mis
souri to tbe Paclflo will be completed in 1870, se
tbat in three yeur from tbls date tbe time from
New York to Han Francisco will be less than a
week. It is hard to realise that ao great a dis
tance may be accomplished In so short a time;
but the results thus far attained by the Union
Pacific Railroad Company are suoh aa to In
epireairongeonfldeucein the fulfilment ;of Its
f Homines. Thus we find that the road la now
d complete order and active operation for 625
miles west from Omaha; and the practical
benefit to be derived from this fact will be well
illustrated to-day or te-morrow by the receipt
of foreign mails which left Ban Franolsoo only
fourteen day ago. When the time usually
occupied in the transit of mall and passengers
from that city to. thla I considered, the 1m
mense advantage offered by this railway route
are apparent to every business man, Even a
saving of a single day will determine the mer
chant's choice of route for the sending or
bringing of mail or freights; and when, as In
this case, the railroad running from Omaha to
the Rocky Mountains efleols a saving of more
than a week in tbe time between the f aolflo
and Atlantic ports, Its value to the. meroantlie
community can hardly be calculated. From
tan Francisco to New York in fifteen days Is
an achievement worth celebrating. v. Y.
limes. ....
Major. De Kay Alive.
We have received the gratifying Information
that the gallant Sidney De Kay, wounded, it was
supposed mortally, In Crete, was doing well at
last advices in the military hospital at Athens,
and appears to be in a fair way to recover an
mutilated perhaps to do further generous ser
vice In the cause ot his adoption.
Russian Railroads. During the last three
years 750 versta of railroads nave been con
structed in Russia, while a further length. . of
2277 versti ha been oonoeded and awaits con
struction. The total leBgth of Russian rail
way now opened to the publio is 4325 verats.
Tbe Russian Government, between 18G2 and
1867, expended on subventions, works, sur
veys, etc., in connection with railways, a sum
of $1)0,553,660. The contemplated transfer
from the State to private individuals of the St.
Petersburg and Moscow Railway has not yet
taken place. There can be little doubt that
the construction of an extensive system of
railways in Russia wonld be a great benefit to
that vast empire. Giants have tendenoy to
grow torpid at the extremities, and it ia im
portant to quicken the circulation of their
Growth op Gkbat BnrrAm. In 1801 the
population of the United Kingdom was
15,902,322; in 1811, 18,103,492; in 1816,
19,520,488; in 1826, 22,575,495; in 1831,
24,135,422; In 1836, 25,406,281; and in 1846,
28,002,094. Then came the years of Irish
famine and extended emigration; and in 1851
the population had sunk to 27,393.337. In
1856 it had recovered, however, to 28,011,034.
and in 1861 to 28,974,362. In 1862 it had
further riBen to 29,204,983; in 1863, to
29,395,051; in 1864, to 29,666,316; In 1865,
to 29,768,089; in- 1866, to 29,946,058 and in
1867, to 30,158,239.
Doos isr tub UaiTxn Kihoikw . The tax on
dogs in England was assessed on 301,281 ani
mals in 1856; in 1886 the number had in
creased to 358,472, and 79,281 dogs were re
turned by surveyors of taxes as exempt. Be
tween the 6th of April and the 31st of July,
1867, 656,977 dog licenses were taken out;
367,775 were granted by stamp distributors,,
and 229,202 by officer! of exoue. In Scotland
36,365 dogs were assessed to taxation in the
year ending the 24th of May, 1866, and 44,655
were returned by surveyors of taxes as exempt;
between the 25th of May and tbe 31st of Jul,
iWf (8,481 f licence! were granted.
The European Markets To-Day..
Barn Ins of a Church on Long Isfend .
Legal, local, and Financial Intelligence. .
Kte, ; JCte., Etc., Kte., Bce. Kto. .
Noon Report of Market,
Londok, Dec. 4 Noon, Contois, for money,..
03, ex-dividend; ; United States Five twentlef "
71 7 16; Erie, 7; Illinois Central, 89J.
Fbauxjobt, Dec. 4 Noon. United 8tate
Five-twenties, 76 8-16.
Livbbpool, Dec. 4 Noon. Cotton quiet ami
steady, with sales of 8000 bales. Breadstuff
The Hammonla Arrived. Out. .
Soutdaiipton, Dec. 4. The Hammonla baa.
arrived Irom New Tors:. ,v
Dnrning of a Church. ', '
' Bavekswood, L. , I., Dec. ,4V Tie ' Astoria
Episcopal Church of this place'was burned this
morning. The loss is unknown. .
; Markets by Telegraph. ;
Ww Tork. Dec 1 fltocltd strong,' Oblo&jre and
Rock InlaDd, M.V: Reading. VAH; Oamon (Jonipany,
4. V,: Krle Ratlroud. 71N,t Cleveland and Toledo, 1W4;
Cleveland and Pittsburg, 8W Pittsburg aod Fo't
WayDe, K7jJ; Michigan Ceatral, lloi MicuVan SonlU
em, 81; Mew York Cettral, Illinois Oeouatl..
134f: Cumberland preferred. 127: Missouri m, S7?J
Bndson River. M-i: U. a Flve-lwenilen, IHffi, log: do.
lbt. 104; do. 1866, lu6,?; Ten-forties, loiK; Beran-th r
tlra.106. Money, 7 percent. xonanga, losx. 0old.
137i, '
MxKTrKo op thb Agbicpltubai. Sooixtt.
This mo rnl MR tbe stated meeting of the Agri
cultural Society v as bold at tbelr room, corner
of Seventh and Walnut, President Biudie la
tbeobalr. .
The minutes of last meeting were read and
The President stated that be had received a -letter
from Edward Miller, enclosed In wnlch
wns a specimen of wheat plucked by hi son at
Mose Pass, at the bead of the Hereford1, a
branch of the Arkansas, seven thousand feet
above the sea.
Several agricultural reports of Oetober were
Mr. Morris stated that Owen Sheridan, aa old
member of the Society, was deceased.
On motion, it was resolved to Insert his death
on tbe minutes.
Dr. King stated tbat b bad received from Watson
county, specimens or tbe Potato Rug whioh Baa com
milled sncb extensive ravHges on tbe potato lo lowa.
Tbey are travelling irom West to Knt at ibe rate of
about seventy rolies per annum. They make their
appearance In June in Incredible numbers, and at
tselc the rotate plant wbn It Is three or lour Inches
high, eating tbe leaves and destroying me plant. Tha
peacb blow being a later variety, ba not been au
lacked as much as others.
D. w. Hemine was elected a member ef tbe
f oclety. v ,
Mr. Morris stated that the experimental farm for
the eastern part of tbe 8tate bad been purchased and
located In Oxford township. Chester county, fort?
miles from the city, on tne Baltimore Railroad It
contains one hundred acres, and ooat Slg ooo.
Mr. Ingersoll nominated tbe present olUcera, which
are as follows: Precklenl. Craig Riddle; Vlci-l'resl-dents,
Charles R. Harrison and Chsries R. King; Oor.
responding Secretary, Sidney . Fisher; Recording
becretary. A. K. Kennedy; A'slstant Recording Hcre
tary, Thoniat M. Coleman; Treasurer, George Blicot
Kxecntlve Committee, David Landretb, iiarrv In
jersoll, Samuel Williams, tt W. Harrison, and John
Maccowan; Library Committee, David Laodreih fL
Biddle, and Oeo'ge Blight; Librarian. John Mac
gowan, to serve tor lb ensuing year.
Dr. McClure read the following report: -Oentlemea
Since we last met much bas been stated in tbe
papers of tbe prevalence and fatality of a Inng die
ease of cattle In lb various and distant parts ol the
country, totelher with the announcement or It In
curability, at least al tbe bands or the cow doctors of
IbeaU'ected districts. On this subject I have a word
te say. and to which I would respectfully Invite Ibe
attention of tbe press reporters, as the remarks are
connned to tbe cases amongst us animals furnishing
diseased meat and unhealthy milk. Your attention
Is now Invited to tbe disease as It exists In the Iowa
of Concord, Delaware county, Pennsylvania, tllus-
J.r.Vi?i.V.,i.57,.lbe mOD ot IntrodnctloD Into
dinereot part of the oounlry. how avslemailoallv
and effectually the disease is nurtured and pro?ag?u3
and rapidly spread throoghoat the length and
breadth of tbe land, making Its sdmuI.m 1b
the District of Columbia" and Poth5?
heretofore free from the affection. n wiii
also show tbat sick and exposed animal
are sold in the markets of our cliy, aod all this la
done to save expense ef medical treatment and ta
satisfy a semen nature, and henoe the cry against the
poor cow doctor the dust that Is raised to cover the
nnbellby carcase whilst It la being dressed for
market. A farmer want a few cows, goes to
market and get fonr or live, on of
them a little out ot sorts, are driven to
tbelr new bomes slowly, occasionally righting
with other cattle over the roadside fences, and when
bom they are put Into a bald adjoining the next
farm, where cows and cattle are al pasture. The
sickly on spoken of Is In two davs dead. Home of
thoie animals exposed along the roadside are taken
sick; seine die; others are sold to butchers; and the
remainder are sent to market te be sold aod booght
by other farmers for dairies and stock purposes II
requires no very vivid imag'natlon to picture tha
Heel upon tbe health of both man and lb ox tribe
Considerable dlsrusstrn then took place aa to the
relative merits ot tbe Jersey and Guernsey breed of
cows for milking purposes and the product In butter
Tbe prevailing opinion among the members seemed
to be in favor of tb former. It being a more hardy
animal. Adjonrned. '
Rial Estats Sals. James A. Freeman,
auctioneer, sold to-day at 12 o'clock, at the Ex
change, the following;
1 share Philadelphia Library .3u
Hall interest in a three-story brick dwelling,
Sixteenth street, above bbippen, lot 17 by
78 feet,.... 12000
Ground rent ot $i2S on lot, Johnson atreet,
neat Ureen,(4rmntown .,,JJ. 13025
Lot, corner Flfly-fourlh street and Cedar
avenue, lot) by 1)2 feet... ..., 1275
Lotot grouud, Somerset and Memphis street.
(8 bv DO feet , 1000
Lot or ground, Tulip, William, and Mem phi
streets 12900
Dwelling, Mo. 1816 Brown street, lot 18 by 78
tee 1 .., fltoe
Jtwelllngs, No. 1814 Atmnr street, lu the rear Sil7fi
Tbree-story brick residence, Ho, 226 flue
street, lot 18 bv"l loot 111,800
Three-storv brick dwelling, Mo. 1211 Almond
street, lot 18 bv 66 leet fssoo
IlELriso thr Womkn. Miss Rye writes to
the London Times that "there are in the Bri
tish Islands nine hundred and seventy-six
thousand nine hundred and thirty-one female
domestio servants." An incident is told which
shows the Btraits to whioh some of these per
sons are reduced:-Last ahr"
women came here, ''"Cl.f'
and from different V?S
whom had broken her -er
f TB iteown from the Kortn, found her
heA ta su a state of distress and desti
Jntlon that she had to be carried away at once
to the workhouse, where she now lies very
seriously, if not dangerously ill."
TowuT evils of this kind in New York
new charities have been opened. No doub
there are many oases of want here, similar t0
those whlvh Uh Rye describes.

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