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A JLo VOL. XV. NO. 3. IMIILADKLI'JIIA, WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 4, 1871 DOUBLE SHEET THREE CENTS. FIRST EDITION GOVERNOR GEARY. W I B MESSAGE. Our State Affairs. Uotsiiled XeW?v. rirJArrciAi. crisxiATioitfs. THE CONSTITUTION. 33 oA'ision TVe,os;s;;xr.y . She Iwcw Apportionment. Our Great Resources. JVi'C 'XVmtV Xd 11 sixmo.. The " Heathen Chinee." Troo)s sxt ISlcctioiis. An " Unqualified Bisapproval.' The American Centennial. Philadelphia the Place. Special DespaUh to The Evening Telegraph. Hakiusitho, Jan. 4. The following i the annual message of Governor John W. Geary, transmitted to both houses of the Legislature this afternoon: To the fienat '- and nun-" lirpres- ntaliroa cf the Oimmomcciili k of l'cnnili'niiift. Gentlemen: An all-wise Providence has per mitted you to assemble uti ler :iiv.u nstaoees te manning profound gratitude to the Great I.a vglver of the universe, our acknowledgments aid first due to Him whose hand lias not grown vvevy iu Bbowering blessing 1" profusion upon the people in every department of imiu.lry. and crowning their toll with richest rewards. The circutustiuo' s under which you commence the duties or the present aesalnn a-e imio.vl auspicious; and at no former period In our history Inn tin re been greater cause for felicitation upon" Mm inestimable blessings we enjoy, mid the hapiy and prosperous i)ini4liim nf fm urnut unit irrfiiviiiT t 'ivti ill mi uiin I h The meeting of tint General Assembly is a'wa.vs a matter of deep lutciosi to the people and per haps never more so than now, when an unusu i amount 01 uuct-roiii y Kent-im it',;itMi ion win occupy your attention, and questions of the highest Im pel tuiiTe are to lie f iscussed an determined upon. V ainn fvnal vimn iniliidtrir nn1 f.i r l fti i n ...... ... the performance ri t lie important work before you will win you the proud title of "the working Legis lature." Amid such circumstances our attention should he directed to a careful review of nil the most Im portant and essenthti interests of the Stnte; and in the exercise of that discretion which the Constitution has confided to the Eec.u tive, I proceed to communicate s ich Information and to recommend to your consideration such mea sures as are deemed necessary and expedient. As Urn in order and most Important, 1 will pre sent a carefully prepared and precise statement of the financial condition of the Co.uiuon wealth. FlnnncPH. It ail'ords mo pleasure to congratulate the peop'e upon t lie satisfactory condition of the Treasury. s.tcry (leiimiui urori it ror ordinary nnd o'nerex pt ns s has been promptly paid, and the pubic, del it materially reduced, which has inspired such public confidence in r.r.e s 'carries or tne commonweaitu as to cause I hem to command the highest premiums in tlie market. The operations of this department will lie presented to you more fully ami In d-tail in the reports of the Auditor-General, State Treasurer, and commissioners of the Sinking Kutid. The fol lowing statement evliHilts t lie receipts nut (lis bursements for the fiscal year ending November 30, it;o: RECKIITP. Italanee in Treasury, Nov. 30, 1 5'50 . . . . t!.400,S6J-49 Crclnary receipts during the llsoal year ending Nov. be, ltsio b.csofitYsw Total In Treasury during year ending -NOV. so, 1-7U: t7,737,4J5'7.i IilSIlCItSEMENTtf. Ordinary eNpeiisea paid Curing" the year ending Nov. 30, lhTO '2,S66.S32 09 Loans, etc., redeemed 1, oj,li-nr interest on loans l,siii,8ll-J7 Total , . balance in Treasury, Nov. 30, 18T0. . . 6,414.522 91 i,30i,94-jm rrm.ic debt. The public debt due on November 30, lfe)9, was f 32, 1 1,540fl5 Deduct amonnt redeemed by Kinking Fund Commis sioners during the fiscal year ending November 30, lfc7u !, 002,321 -31 Amount redeemed by Trea mirtT (timini; tlie same Lime. 100. 687 'It Total....? l,70J,fi7905 Total public debt November 30, 1670. . .t3l,lil,681) i The follow iriB statement shows the nature of too YudebleduefcS of the Commouweaiiu .November JO, jisTii: Funded debt, viz: lAmountof overdue loans 707,n',0 33 J Do. payable In JS71. int. o p. ct.... 2,7S,-iveuo M Do. do. 6 do.... 4, 731.300-00 Do. uo. 1S72, 6 no.... z.-Meo llo. do. 1S77. 6 do... 7,RBW0I) Do. do. 1877, ft do.... 3,677,70) 00 J)o. do. 17S, 6 do 305,000-lM) Do. do. Is79, 0 do.... 400,000 09 lio, (10. 1SK2, do.... X.13N.9SO-0O Do. do. Hl, 4M10... 112.010HI Do. do. 1S2, 6 UO.... 9,273,0'.0-O0 30,');,700'33 Unfunded aeut, viz: lielief notes in circulation fW.CSi'oO Jniert'bt ctrtitichtes ouiutaud- iuK n,os r,i Interest certificates unclaimed 4,4lv3o linnuKtic creditors' cerliU- dtcs 'i ina.w.ioi Total public debt, Nov. 30, is70, as above Btated 131,111,161 M ItKOnCTION OF THE 1TBLI0 DEBT. .... . ... t loitv tlia tntal in. i in tne uiieeun ot hi nuurj, vv ... . . ..... A .,, ..u ,1,1., autumn ml nn Vveu (moored ami luur thousand four linudred and r li e llnllHI H UU l betuynievru tciu oiuwo mim t n. I ...... K.', u.l lTlk thABiliilAf HIV milllOIl up ,,ui i iiriji u", ioiv, bu.u ve tiunnreo ano niueiy-iwu muunauu odvcu uuu fed and forty-seen dollars and eighiy-seven teuts as been paid. The reduction during ite year eLd- lrg November 80, 1S70 Is ono million seven hundrd and two thousand right hundred aud seventy nine dollars and five cents. The average reduction per annum ror the hut fourjears is one million six hundred and forty eight thousand one hundred and rigniy-seven dollnrs. Invleworthe raet that prior to the Brst of July, 1R12, nearly eight million dollars of the public, dent will bo due, ami in order that the (Jomnionwcaltn may continue to meet all Its obligations promptly at maturity, 1 recommend Hint such provision be nn le by the Legislature as will authorize tlie Commis sioners or the Sinking Fund to sell all the asset that may be in their possession, and apnly the pr. ceeds to the extinguishment or the debt; or, at the option or the holders, to exchange them for the out standing bonds of the Common wealt n. The Indebtedness or the Slate might be pild lu the foli wing mntner: As already shown, It was on November 80, 1S70, about thir y one million dollars, rrom which amount, ir ihe said assets, $9,rin'i,mn, be deducted, there would ten atn unpaid t'Zl,!Oo,Oiio. After which, estimating , he revenues and expenditures to oon'iuae as at. present, the entire liabilities of th a Stale could be liouhlit cd in about eight years. If this mode of pajliig the. Suite debt should he re garded as unnecessarily rapid and oppressive, then a niovenieht to revise and modify taxation may meet with much more geueral favor. Our debt Is now held lirmly ny those to whom It U a great bene, lit to have so secure an liivesriuent. A certain reduction or one million dollar per annn n on it would, pernaps, he more satlsiaotory to them and to the people, than to strive to pay It oir so hastily. In an endeavor to rorce thioirs under the presot mode ot taxation, thee ts great, danger of driving eapltal away from our manufacturing et ntres. The landholder has been exempted Iron tax.is on his land for State purposes, and the burden stnftel noon the active, energetic, and enterprising portions of the community, who have always had their full share to bear. The fanner Is at ease, and runs no lick! whilst the biihiness man, merchant and manu facturer are the motive power of the community, upon which tim farmer himself must, in a greiit n eahiire, depend ror a realization ot his lndustiv. A more liberal policy towaids those engiired in 'ner i nt lie. inaniitacturiiifr. railroad and mining pur suits Miould bo adopted. Unless these inter ests are fostered and kept In full op'-ration,' all clnt-feB of tne people will suil'er. They are the very llle-blooo of the State, and should not, la nay wav, be chilled or impeded, by overburdening tTiein witn. taxation lor the Immediate payment of the entire State liabilities. The foregoing recommendations, In my opinion, embrace the true p-tllcy of the Commonwealth, an t ir adopted will, doubtless, receive a hearty re sponse and endorsement from the people. The tax-payers demand that, all their social, industrial, commercial nnd lluancial operations shall bo relieved from the burdens of any mere taxation than may e necessary ior me (rrmniai payment Ol r.tie debt, us is lnt above Indicated, ami to" defray the frugal expenses of the Government, liconomy and reform should no longer be advocated as glittering gene nilitles, or mere abstractions, without meaning or intent, but as vital, living realities CoiinlltutlonHl Convention. TVur jiars' e.xpeiience as an executive otr.cor has given me abundant op poitimity ior careiui observation upou the wort.iii's ol our fundamental law and the legisla tion id the Male. This experience his strongly lin piehseo me that there 8'iould Do a thorough revision of the S'ate Constitution, with such ameulmeujs as the vvisi.onioi a convention assetuo.'ed lor that pur pose would iiiitloubiedly Bugg-st, and au enl'glit ( lied i iiblle. bclitliueiit demand. 'Ihe iiutiority fir hold big such convention Is Irund in ihe feennd sectlo.i of tne ninth article of the CoLst mtion, and is doclaied In thcte words: "That all power is Inherent in the people, and ail tree go' rniuenls ar fonndei on their authority. and ii fclituied for their peace, safety, aud happl- niBK ror the ii'ivnncenn ut o ineso ends, iney have, at aU times, an unalienable a. id tttdefeasiolo i iiftit to slier, r' foiiu or abo'lsh their govern Jitsnt, In such milliner as t i.-y may think oropor " i tie last coLveniion lor tins purpose was held in IMS. Durliifi the thirty-two years whi'oh have since elapsi d, sundry anieiulnieiits have been made by joit t resolutions of the (Jencrul A'f.einbl.v, an I in eompllai.ee w'lh thi tenth urtlcleof lln: Cons'itit tioii. were iipproved and raMlied by a nnij illty ol the fiuiiillied vol. rs of the State. The ino.t Imporlaut w i re those ol ismi, making the judges of the courts t lcctU'c; ol l'i", erenliiiit a Sinking Fund, reu laiing the public debt ni d legislative districts; and of I.-Ol, conferring itie right of HiinVuge upon IlioM! eiga.ii'd in the military service of tlu stale or i utioii, ami imposing sundiy restraint-) on iiie pow er oi the l.e;:l"lature. ' hese ntuo'idmciits, thoii'-h important and valuable, irive nn ltiootmr,!- oiih and koi t of pateh.worii chai'ie-rcr to the Consti tution, ami are not cousouant with the requlreiiiciits of the tunes. Ihis is a progressive period, and our State liis outpiown Hi liindameiital law. 'J hat law should, tin ii lore, t e mude to keen psee with the ag t i.i which we live. The existing Constitution, inelu i ing the anu nniuents of is.'ii and istil, impose many v holt some restrictions on tlie power and jurisdiction of the Legislature; but experience has demonstrated their iiiailt nuacy to protect the people against the evils Intended to bo remedied, and especially those of corporate power, ami of special and loeel legisla tion. J lie pamphlet lavs ior tne last .our years show that the neueral laws for each session niad-) only about one hundred p ges, whilst the local and special legislation for the same pi nod amount annu ally lo about thirteen Hundred and tirty. The re turning evils are manifold and acrcrravated : a 'id pro minent, Hiiioni- ine reasons ami sugirestions why a remedy should be applied, I respectfully submit the following: 1-'list, Diii'erent systems of laws ror roads, bridges. schools, elections, poor-houses, and many other tl iujfs, are enacted ror Hit several counties, towu-stiit-s, and boroughs, on subjects which ought to be reguiuieu by general laws, operating uniformly U on all. Hicond. It is Impossible ror the citizens, judges of tlie emu is, or members or the legal profession, to ac(uiie or retain an accurate knowledge ol the vurjii'g s. stems or laws in their rtspective dis tricts; and fieqiicntly on removal from one county to another, our people tin J themselves under aluiu.st entirely diii'erent codes. Unrtl. l'luciicHlly, tlie whole theory of our Cou etitution aid Government is subverted and de stroyed by Hie piesentsystetn ot local enactments, lit preueii'tulive govel tiincbt la b.tsed on the Idea that the laws shall be frtmieiUby, and be the result; of, the collective w isdom of the people's represen tatives. Itut what are the actual (acts? The minds and eilorts of the members jare so wholly absjroed by pilva c and local bills that it is almost impossible to (it t a jit uerul or public act considered or passed, '1 lie special aud local bills are usually drawn by the n eiutie-r representing tho locality, or by some one iroin tlie ilibliict inteiefcted iu tlie proposed law. liy what is called courtesy, it is conodvred a breach of frluiiieitei lor any member of tho Senate oi House to tnuilere w i t ii or oppose a merely private or local bill of any o'her member. The re sult Is, the bills are passed a-s originally pre pa.rt e, v itiiout exainu.atioii or comparison of views olleu ciude, and ill.oigt bli d, and w ithout regard to const ii in tonal requirements or sound public policy. Some of the woist ol these hasty and oadl.v couhi'leied enactments ate arrested every year by Kxei utive interposition; but In the nature of the case, thi- veto ui bent can only bo made a partial restiainl upon the evil; and nothing cau eradicate it short of coiis ilulionul prohibition. Fttirth. Spiciui legislation Is the great and im pure inundation nl corruption, private speculations nnd pi.blic wrongs. It has become a reproach to republican govern ment, and is one ol the most alarming evils of the times. Judicious amendments to thj constitution would arrest hmI destroy the growing evil ; and it is the duty or every patriotic citizen to co-operate In till h wful measures to ellect so desirable a eousuui a at ion. In the enactment of laws a ra ileal change Is demanded. Every bill presented for adoption should be read, at least optce, In full, aud the yeas and nays be recorded on its final passage. Fifth. It is Important that the State Constitution should be made to conform to the Constitution of the United States as recently amended. fcixth. The subject or minority representation is now much agitated, and Is receiving a largo share or consideration among thoughtful aud considerate men. It embraces problems or great political im portance, aud Its n-auifest justice commends it to public favor. Whilst some of the o tjecta it proposes might be obtained by legislative enactments, the general principles Involved are so elemenUry and radical.lbat they should, II adopted, be Incorporated into the lundameiital law. Seventh. The members or the General Assembly Should be Increased iu number. .Eighth There should bo a fundamental limitation to the power oi corporations. Niutn. There Is ubnuiute necessity for greater se curity for the public funds aud for their proper dis tribution. Tenth. The State Treasurer, Superintendent or Common Schools, aud a Lieutenant-Governor, the Utter to preside over the Senate, ami pel foi in the duties of the Governor, in case el Ins absence, sickness or death, should be elected by the people. The Attoruev-Oeueral, Secretary of Slate, aud the Adiutaut-iieueral should. for obvious reasons, continue to be appointed by the Governor. J levetlh. The dsy for ho d'eg the annual elec tions could, with great proprletv, be changed from the sicond Tuesday In October to the sain ; day iu November, on which nearly all the surrounding Stales now hold theirs. Tin's would dispense with one lee.tton every fourth yeir, and prevent Invasion from other States for the purposo of Interfering wnh our elections, ns the clll.ei's of each tato wruhl be occupied v. itu their own. The season, too, wou'il be more aa'lsiiictori t the p op e of the arri cnltural d'Btili t. as It would urn, Interfere wnh the liai'MB'lng of their corn and other sum ner produc tions. The nrcrtsity contltiitlenal reform Is npprecl nt d and Rdmliieii nv nil who have reflected unon thetubject, nnd nlho.it dis 1 ictlon of party, the ptf SB has hen o'iipnken. and has alnoit unani mous Iv s'nc.iii nod the enlling, a t an early day, of a Constitutional lit invent Ion. For tin bo reasons, ami manv others equally Im portant, which mljfht be enumerated, I rarnesMy recommend that the I eglslatnre make provision for a ennvt ntlon to thoroughly revise and amend the Constitution of the State. Krvl-lon of the Civil Cade. The coninilssionets to revise the statutes have comnlett 1 their work. The entire laws of the (;om monweiilili, including those of Dullish origin, except such as relate to crime, have bjon revised, collated, and systematically arranged tna volume of less than three hundred pages, or about one-third the size of 1'iirdon's Digest. Our laws are the accretions of one hundred and seventy years. Many ef them are Incongruous aud disjointed enact ments, which have been Increasing from time to time, by fragmentary legislation, wl liout any at tempt at sjstem, logical arrangement, or con ciseness of language. From the examination I have been able to give the revision, 1 am satis lied that In the discharge of their duty the commis sioners have exercised great diligence, ability, an I a conscientious desire for Its successful accomplish ment. It cannot be presumed that a work or such mhgnilude is perfect in every particular; and how far it may answer the purpose for which it was undertaken, remains to be determined. That It is an improvement upon what it is intended to supply there Is no room for doubt. It adheres Iu the main to the lextof existing laws, with occasional changes to meet prcBeut demands, but which were not needed when they were first enacted, and also additional provisions which the progress of the age requires. Tlie work, as presented, might properly be adopted, without, material changes, making it the basis foi such amendments as time and necessity may sug gest, or as may be recommended by the joint com mittee to which It was referred ror examination bv the Legislature of last year. It will be seen that seme of its provisions have been framed with a view to throw much of our special legis lation Into the courts, where it may be disposed of w ith less inconvenh n e to interested parties, and a great saving in our annual expenditures. Writ of Krror In Crlmlnnl linsen. A-the last session of the Legislature an act was passed, entitled "An act, io allow writs of error in cases of murder ani voluntary manslaughter." The flist, fcciIou provides that a writ of error "shall be of right, and may be sued out, upon the oath ol the de'ciidaiit or defendants, as in civil cases." The se cond sei ti m makes it the dmv of the judcres of the Supreme Court, in all such cases, to review both tho law and tlie evidence. lielore this enactment the law required the de fendant to niece that seine eiror had been com mit ti d by the Court on the trial, a'id to show cause, within lliiity da s, why the writ of error should be planted; but this law glvps a writ, whether any error is alleged or not, aud aliows the defendant seven jears in w hich to issue it, according to tho practice iu civil casts, lleret fore the Executive old not ordiuni ily issue the warrant lor execution ol any erim'nal until the expiration of tin thirty (iuys within which he was permitted to apply for his writ of error. That liiuiiation of thirty days being now virtually lepealed, ami seven years sub stituted then for, Is It expected the warrant shall be withheld for the seven years If not, when may if, properly issue? And il Issued at any time witliiu tilt; t even ears, may not. the criminal supersede It at any time he pleases by his writ of error? And may it not bo reasonably expected that tuts will be the practical result In i vt ry such case 7 This would seem like truung with very serious milters; and I respcci fully submit whether the ci of List session should not be repealed, t-r ury materially modified, w ii lion i tit lay. ApporCoi. iiict t. The Important duty devolves upon you to appor tion, iu accordance with the last ccs is, the repre sentation to tlie General Asseiuoly uud to Congress. This will be among the most, i:i' ions ami di.ilcnlt works or the session. In its performance it is pre sumed nnd trusted that you will be guided and gov erned by a strict sctmc or justice and Impartiality to all parties and to every district in tho State, so Hint no well-founded reason be given for coumlaint or censure. I nder the laws of the Shite it is made the duty of the county-commissioners of the respective counties to make returns to the Goveriiorortlieseptoiini.il enumeration of taxables on or before the tfrst Tuesday of December. Not one-fourth of these returns have yet been received, although tins atteutiou of the commissioners was invited to the subject by special circular iroirt the Secretary of the d innionwealth. As soon as the returns come to hand the necessary abstracts will be made out and fir warded to the Legislature. Common School. The report of the Superintendent of Gomrron S' Pools shows that there are now within the State unci tchoel districts, 14,212 schools, 2S;I2 graded schoo s, 13,lno directors, 79 county and other super intendent-, 17,012 teachers, and S2s,s91 pupils. This is au increase over the preceding year of 31 districts, 270 schools, 417 grade schools, 200 directors, 3 superintendents, 470 teachers, and 13.1.",S pupils. 'I he tost of tuition ror the past year was S3, 745,-475-hl; building, purchasing and renting setiool houses, 82,7t'r,C44-i!4: contingencies, 8 l,lt5,'2'itj-ei.' ; other espinoiiures. $' 5,47ft; making a total ot j7, 771,701 20. Fstiraated value or school property, ir,s37,ls:i. Average salary or male teachers, f iti-C5 per month; length of school ferm, Omo months; and ihe cost per month of ach pupil, as cents. Ic addition to ti e above, tive Normal schools are reecgi izt d by the State. sii.ee their recognition, 12,390 students have been received into them; aud 2ii7f are now enrolled. There are CO professors aud tutors. The libraries contain bl35 volumes. The buildings and grounds are vuliii d at J;io4,007; aud tho furniture aud appa ratus at f 7ft,ooo. Desides the schools that receive legislative sap poit, there are iu tho state Old private schools, semi naries and academics, employing S4S teachers and having 21,M& students. Ihe estimate.! value of their property is iooo.ooo, and tlie annual amount received for tuition, g:Si),oiio. There are also thirteen colli ges, with 157 professors and tutors, and 2S05 studeuis enrolled. They own much valuable property, and their libraries number Oft.uoo volumes. '1 he admirable workings of our Pennsylvania school system an; everywhere admitted, and Its great success is chieily o Ing to the generosity of the legislature, by which It has betn so kindly aud so beneficently nurtured, aud It is sincerely to be trusted that it will never weary in this praiseworthy work, which has thus far beeu so well accomplished and so abundantly rewarded. Holdiers' Orphans' Hchools. Your attention is respectfully invited to the report of the Superintendent of tlie Soldiers' Orphans' Schools Iwr the year terminating May 31, 1S70. Since the first organization of these schools the whole number of children admitted la 6053. And during the same period the discharges, including deatl'S, amount to 1524, leaving 3529 In the schools at the close of the year; of whom S137 are In "giadcd" aud 703 In "primary" schools, ami 8J9 In homes. The expenditures of the sys'.ein for the school ytar ending MnvSl, 1870, wereMi.l2C'4 ; the appropriations f 194,7 0; b ilauce f 19, 421-43. 'lilt? Superintendent estimates the expenditures lor education, muintei ance, clothing, etc., of3ti,ooo children duilng the year terminating May 31, li72, at 5tio,i:co. I have personally visit d, inspected and examined quite a number of these schools since the adjourn ment or the last Legislature; and I do uot hesitite to pronounce most or them superior, In all respects, to any ot uer iustitut'ons of a similar character iu the couulry. The Banilary condition of these c hu meri Is one or the most remarkable features of the schools. Du'lngthe Dve years they have been In operation, out of 5053 children, only seventy-one have died, which Is but a litMe over one aud four tenths per cent, of the entire numher for the whole time, or less than three-tenths or one percent, per annum. These facts are Incontestable evidences of the care aud attt ntlon thai have been bestowed upon these institutions. The establishment of these schools, and the liberal encouragement and support they have re ceived, have met he approval aud admiration not not only of the other states of the Union, but of the entire civilized world. Agricultural College. This Institution appears to be gradually accost pushing the objects tor which it has been liberally endowed by the State. It has uhcut sixty students, who are Instructed, not only in the ordinary branches or literature and science, but In all the Held operations ueeessary for a thorough agiicul- lu.al u.liw utl,,n fl'hA L' f na, i 111 I1 1 u I k'uri,ld .SiU. blisbi d under the supervision of the ulcers, have thus fur answered their expectations. IMIIttRr Mat'rro. onr attention Is invited totnc report of the Ad jut nt-Ucneral, for the detains of the trans ictl ns of h;s dtparuneiii, during the pust yeir T'e lie -i-s-s t of a n ilitary power In the Hta'.e, subo dinate and snKll'larv to the civil authorities, has beeu so fii ly discussed, and so Renersliy Rdmitfed, as to render any argument on the subject eutL'ely super fluous. It has been my desire and aim to cons' tut) such a force, to aid the civil authorities, should an emergency artse.ln the suppression of public tumult ordhorder. This has been etrected more sinv.ess fully than was at first anticipated. In lSoil tdere were but eight volunteer compinles lu tie State; at the dose of 1S69 there were one hun died and eighty-four; to which number one hundred and fifty-eight coni anles were added last year. In the meantime thirty have been disbanded, leaving three hundred and eleven organized and active mili tary companies, now recognized oy act of the Legis lature, as the "National Guard or I'eunsyivanl From the coropnny organizations fourteen regl nents and five battalions have been formed. Whilst I am not disposed to encourage regimental organiza tions of cavalry or artillery, they being unnecessarily large nnd expensive, I regard separate or lodopeii- dent troops aud batteries of these branches of the service, attached to brigades or divisions, as highly impt rtant. Tl.e quota or arms due rennsvivania has been diawn from the General Government. This amounted to forty live hundred breach-loading ritle-muskets nnd accoutrements, with a proportionate supply of the proper ammunition. These have beeu distri buted, as provided lu the act of May 4, 1SG4. Allilinry Illntory. The Legislature, In ist4, passed an act authorizing the Governor "to appoint some competent person to prepare a military history of Pennsylvania volun teers and militia, ' who hail been or might thereafter be In the Held during the war of the Kebelllon .In conformity therewith my predecessor appointed samuei r. uares, jisq., to perrorm tins ditticiilt and resopnslble undertaking. He commenced the task with zeal and Industry, and has prosecuted It with ability. The worR has proved to be far more exten sive and required a much greater amount of labor and research tnan was at lirst contemplated. Fou' large royal octavo volumes, handsomely printed and substantially bonnd, have been produced, and the tltih and last volume will be completed before the llrst of June next. The book Itself affords the best commentary or criticism of the manner In which the author has discharged his duties. It puts in concise form and perpetuates the most important portion of our history, which otherwise would have been for ever lost. Uereaftcr it will bo invaluable to the Commonwealth. Nnflonnl Cemeteries. fin the first of July, is70, au act of Congress was parsed amendatory to the act entitled "An Act to Kstablish and Protect National Cemeteries,'' ap proved Fi bruary 22 lsiJ7. The object ol these laws Is to place under the National Government the management and preservation of these cemeteries, and to secure the consent of the several Sta'es in which they ore located. This consent has already bet n given as to the cenu tery at Gettysburg, by the act approved April 11, lsos; and the National autho rities cow ask for the same action by tho State as to the cemeteries at (ilenwood, Lebanon, Mount Mo rlah. Odd Fellows', and Woodland, In Plillnlelphia; and also tho.e at Darrisbnrg, Pittsburg, aud York. Tho itlllfoid unit illulit iiiorii Italirontl. About the close of the lust session of tin; Legisla ture an act whs passed anil approved entitled "A supplement to the iMllford ami Matamoras K iilroad Company." The fourth section of this en ictuient seems to have been intended to take from the State and give to the company the ten thousand dollar bonus paid Into the state Treasury aLnually by the ff!wYork and Krlo HaProad Company, under the fi f til section of the act of 20111 M irch, IMS. Soon after the adjournment my attention was directed to the subject, ami to giurd against loss I caused the Attorney. eJeneral to ni ve notice to t tie New York ind Krie Kailroad Company that, th-- State would look to that corporation for the pnyi ent of the annual bonus, as heretofore, notwithstanding the ptssage of the supplement referred to. I regard the latter os having been enacted and approved, through in advertnnce, lu the hurry of a clo-ing session, and as hasty and inconsiderate legis ation, at, variance with the settled policy of the State, and highly pre judicial to the public, interests; and I iherofore ear nestly recommend its Imoiciiiale repeal, or at least to much of it as relates to the bonus. i'eli arnph l.tnexniid It n 'iron tlx. The quest iou of the assumption or the control of the telegraph lines, r.nd tin; chartering of railio.id companies w ithin the state by the General Govoru n ent, was partially considered by the legislature at lis last sets. on, mid Is now receiving considerable attention. Kegarding the subject as one of vast importance, involving the sovereign (tower of too Sti.tr, the interests ol corporations that are enfran chised by It, and of our citizens who have Invest -incuts in stocks nnd bonds amounting to many tnll lioisof dollars, I most earnestly invito your serious examination of ir, and y our early action thereon. Geological Murvey. A reliable geological aud miuera'.ogical survey would be of incalculable value t the State. With out It we have iudeiiuite Ideas of our vast uude vt'oped mineral wealth, and the exnenso attending it would be utterly Insignificant when compared with the beneticlal results. We are, at present, without even a reliable map to indicate 4he locality, character, and resources of our mineral regions. The liist step towards a geological survey is to obtain as correct a map as possible, If nut of the entire State, at least of S'leli parts tncieof as are of the most portau;e to be studied geologically. This will be a work of labor and time, and cau only be accom plished successiiiiiy by triangulating each county separately, and irom the couuty maps ttius acquired, constructing a complete and accurate map of the whole State. It is neither wise nor just policy to delay this work because it may be more perfectly eilccted at some future time. There is for it a pre sent mcefsny, and tne time never win come wnen such a work can be rendered perfect Tnere can be no such tiling ns a final geological re port. New developments in mineral re sources, as well as additiona laeqiiirementa iu scleu litlc knowledge, will constantly be made as long as the world exists. The geueral voice or the business community and iHiid-ovvi erslifp or the State demands this survey. It is et pet tally called ror by the oil regions, newly discovered coal ileitis, and by the iron, manufactur ing, and railroad lntt rests. Large portions of the State remain, to a great extend unstudied by scien tific and practical men. The old surveyor 1830-41 did a good work, but It is or little value now, except In a few localities, since it was made, wonderful discoveries have taken place, and problems of struc ture and Uept sit still regain unsolved, doubtless In volving many millions c Jollars Iu value. Then, many of tho back counties were comparatively unsettled, and s- arceiy any openings were made in our mineral districts, except iu the anthracite coal basins and u round Pittsburg. Now, the Stale Is full of trial shafts and private explorations; extensive forests have been cleared; roads penetrate what were ln accesMble re'glons; railways traverse whole counties with instrumental field work; many thousands or oil anil salt wells have been buret! ; valuable mines put in working order; the population h is advanced in intelligence and grown more observant aud eu terpiisli g, and the skill or the geologist, metallur gist, and surveyor has reached a higher degree or perfection. Posteiily has its claims upon us; and it should be considered that what ever Is done ror the present generation is so much accomplished ror the generations that miy follow. Cue important function of a geological sur vey Is to preserve knowledge ror futu'e use. Scieiuo is cumulative aud Its advances are slow. It must collect many facta before it arrives at true conclu sions. For waut ol a proper bureau of statistics and a corps of observation and publication to col late and relate the facts of our geology and mine ralogy as they have appeared, the State ins already suilered severely. Much valuable iulorniatiou has beeu lost, never to be recovered, and but little certain knowledge of past mining and other scientific opera tions has been preserved to govern and assist the fu ture engineer. Tlie sooner, therefore, iu my opinion, a geological survey is authorized, the better will It bo lor tho prospective Interests ol the State, as well as for its present necessities. Hoard of Public t hnrlllra. Under the requirements of an act approved April 24, lhiiy, 1 appointed live commissioners to const . tute a Loanl of Public Chanties, who, at all times, have full power to look into and examine the condi tion or all charitable, reiormatory, or correctional Institutions within the State; and at least once in every year visit all such as are receiving State aid, to examine wvervthlnt connected with their man- agi ment, and especla ly to ascertain wnetner tne funds aunronrlatetl to them are economically ami judiciously expended. The requisite number or gentlemen, possessing the necessary qualllieatior'B, Fiai-A eenerotiHly consented to Serve on this board. which Is now fully organized, and the objects con templated are being accomplished. Early d irhig the session their Brat anuual report will be pre sented ror your consideration, which win give a full account of ihe exuut and Importance of their phi lanthropic transactions in behalf of the Common- weaun. Delaware Ilouadary I.loe. The Legislature, at Its session of lht9, passed an act entitled "An act to settle, determine, aud locate the southern boundary line of the Commonwealth. ' In conformity therewith commissioners were ap pointed to act "in conjunction with like commis sioners on tlie part of the Stace or Delaware.' rnat Sta'e, however, tins failed, thus far, to make the ne- cssaiy appointment. The work consequently re. mains nnaeoorotmsncc, and tne Doumiaiy line Is uot deiinite y llxct. I uder ordinary circumstances tniB nugnt not. bo rrgardt d as Important; but when It Is consider -d that there is a material rtliteretice in the pen tl co tea of the two States, and that the code of Dsle vare contains certain provisions aud an horlzes r.he In fliction or punishments repugnant to all the citizens of Pennsyivsnla, serious evils may o ne day hHsi out or the neglect to determine thm 11 ir. It is Im possible to tell what might transpire should t.he stite or Delaware seize upon a citizen and sunject nun to the dlsgracetnl and abhorrent punishment or the p'liory and the whipping post, who. upon subse quent investigation, was ascertained to nive his resilience in Pcnnsjlvaula. The Injured party wo-ild r.n e a rig nt to demand, ana we would ne eoiuieiied to grant him satisfaction ror the wrong he suil'erod. The Hxlierlcn. The supreme Court has decided that the law re quiring the owners of dams lu the Susquehanna river to make Ash-ways In the same, nt last In cases where they had purchased their works from the State, is uneocstltutlounl and void. From this de cision It does not appear that the State cannot have such ways constructed at its own expense I5ut thla does not seem advisable until concurrent legislation can be obtained with Maryland, thai Statu holding both banks of the Susquehanna river at ita mouth and for many miles above. The subject has been brought to tho attention oi' Marylaud, the Legisla ture or which State, at Its last session, passed a law providing ror the appointment or commissi iners of llsheries, to report at its next session, which will not occur until next winter. The llsheiles uuder con sideration are nearly, if not quite, as much deterio rated by the want of statutory laws for their pro tection as by the mechanical obstructions In the streams. Tie New Kngland States and New York have commenced the experiment-of fish propagation in the large streams north of us or. quite an extensive scale. Their experience will be useful to us when all obstacles arising from the divided state owner, ship of the river shores shall have bcea obviated. New Jersey appointed llsh commissioners at the last session of her Legislature, and the eomtnis sinner of Pennsylvania is now in treaty with them In reference to needed concurrent legislation. The subject Is receiving careful attention In both States by their delegated agents. It Is hoped that Dela ware will join with Pennsylvania and New Jersey in the refoims needed on tho Delaware river. The Land Department. The report or the Sui veyor-General shows that during the past, liseal year 350 patents were Issued, covering 537,sso acres, being more than one-tlfty-sixth part of the area or the state. The great amount or work In this department requires several additional clerks. The expenses or the oillce were 1 2:, ioo,while the receipts, irom fees alone, amounted to i54,i03'Ul. The Yellow Fever This fearful opedenite made its appearance at tlie (quarantine Station in June last, spreading terror through that neighborhood, and causing serious alarm in Philadelphia. The disease assumed us ivoist type, and the percentsge of mortality was ex tremely largo. It was brought to tho Lazaretto irom Jamaica, by the brig Home, whose captain died during the voyage. The brig was detained by order ol the Lazaietto physician, who, with tho (juaiantine master and other valuable attaches of Die station, tell victims to tho pestilence. '1 he second mate and pilot or the brig, lu violation or orders to the contrary, and also of tho health regulations, went to the city, w here they both tiled ; and it has been inferred that the ilea1 In which subsequently occurred there are partly attributable to their Im prudence. Upon the death of the Lazaretto Physician and the (Quarantine Master I appointed two physicians, both of whom were known to have had muuu e.xpe iience in yellow lever, to fill the vacancies. They volunteered tlnir services at a time when R was iliillcult to obtain persons properly quailiied. The results proved the propriety or these appointments. Soon alter they entered upon the performance of their duties, the disease wns eradicated and the station restored to Its n-ii silly healthy condition, soma changes seem ncocftaiy for tlie proper management of the quarau tlte. lu my r pinion the (.niiraiitiiin Master should by law be inquired io be a medical man, qu UlUed to act s an nxtd.-itniit to the Lazaretto Physician, ami to perform the duties of that otllcer, Iu ease uf his absence, sni iiiss or death. Had this been the case when the late physician died, the necessity for call ing assistance from without would have been obviated, and the sickness, sniveling and mortality Idsseued. The salary of this oitleer, as well as that of the l azaretto Physician, should be materially In creased, in order to retain competent an-1 responsi ble men for these important positions. The salaries now paid were fixed many years ago, and are inade quate compensation for the risks uud services re quited. Grater tl acknowledgments are due to the mem bers or the Hoard of Health for their excellent sani tary precaui ions and personal services during the prevalence of the epidemic, and also to ttt attaches of the (quarantine Station ror their Tearless devotion to du y in the time or dagger, r ,d their constant and self-saciiiicing attention ni the wants of tho sick and dying. Had it not been for these faithful and eihtient services, by which the progress of the fever was arrested, Philadelphia and other popu leus districts might have suilered a repetition of the horrors of former years when this dreaded disease made such frightful ravages. I'nrdoos. ccompanyIng this communication will be found the report ot pardons granted during the past year. Compared with the increase of crime, aud the great number of prisoners in tne county jans au i state penitentiaries, the number is less than that of former yean. In exer cising clemency towards persons convicted of crime, i nave biricny euueavoreu, uuuer an circumstances, to observe that caution and discretion contemplated In the Constitution, and to impartially administer that mercilul prerogative aud extend Its beneficent protection only ror the correction of the errors or criminal jurisprudence, the reller of those who may nave oeen -crueiiy - or "excessively" punisncd, and those around whom cluster mitigations and ame liorating circumstances. VAt! number of aiili?atioM for pardon dtirlni the past year van tuelce hundred and fully, if which nut y- nrti ur lire )irr rem. were oraiueit, The commutation of sentences ror good behavior in prison, in accordance with tne law or lni.i, has ell'ectetl favorable results In the conductor prison ers, and their krepers hint ic a great, auxiliary in maintaining a wholesome prison discipline. Its bene iiciai cilect will doubtless be manliest In tho conduct ol those who am released from prison because or Ita reformatory IniliienceB, aim it is believed that fewer con vlet a discharged under it will return to criminal f ursuits than indcr the old system. A General Review. The cheerful aspect of natio lal ail'aies U a subject for congratulation. A prudent aud patriotic ad in in 1st i a titjii lias given to the country the substan tial fruition or the vict Ties obtained lu the late snuggle ror freedom aud the republic. Tne dis severed Slates have been restored to the Union; peace rtigns triumphant through all ourdoiuiniJiis; the national crcGlt is established beyond the possi bility of BucccsBful assault, and returning prosperity abounds In every state aud department of the G jv ei nn. tut. H1EETKADK FAI.LACIKS. The doctrine of freo trade, so beneticlal to lorelgu interests and so inimical to Anieiieun inoustry, If carried out to its legitimate results would soon cause American labor to be absolutely impoverished, reduce the free and happy millions of tollers to the degraded condition of the down-trodden population of Europe, and copltal would no longer seek enterprises thus ren dered unreinuueratlvn. Protection to our products ami manufactures, when lightly viewed, is protec tion to labor against competition from abr -ad Labor in the Uniud States commands higher wages tliuu iu any otheT country. Consequently our work ing n en are tr-e more elevated. Labor is the found, at on of Individual md national wealth, and those nations that have muse thoroughly pro tected It from foreign competil ion have been most prosperous. During the late war tho tallsmanlc lu ilueiicts of protection to our home Industries, and upon tne labor and capital invested, were obvious in deveh ping and raising them from their paralyzed condition to tne substantial prosperity which has since pervaded the country. And uow, when it has been bo transceudeutly demonstrated! tnat we are not only able to defend ourselves, but, want U equally Important, "to depend upon aud live upon our own resources;" and when the advocates of free trade are endeavoring to persuade us to adopt the absurd theory that "tariils hinder the develop, mentor Industry and the growth or wealth," why should not the wisdom of the Government make available the teachings of experience, and at once legislate for the good of the people? Way should it not protect American labor, maintain its compensation, give the producer a home market, and develop the unbounded resources ot the coun try T The duty on tea, coilee, and tropical produc tions, and all inquisitorial and other tacation under the revenue laws, except upon luxuries, w hisky and other liquors, and tobacco, should be re pealed. Fortunately, in Pennsylvania, there Is but liitlr, if any, difleieuce of opinion on the subject of a roflrnabio protective policy. Yon canno'- lei's late on this subject, but yon can, ami you should, i is r..tt your Senators and request your K ipresen tatlves in Congress to use their best exercions to pi tie ve ns from the baneful Influences of free trndt , by which the emissaries of Great HrT.atu are now, 1th syren songs, so anxiously and lntustrt ousij endeavoring to mre us to destruction. . m TUB "HKATITEN CHK3." The Introduction of "Chinese Coolie," or "con tric labor," Is one of the gteatesi evils that csn befal the tolling millions of our country. Their pre sence Is not ouiy degrading, but Impoverishing and paralyzing to our patriotic and intelligent working men, it Is a new species of slavery, equal In all its injurious tendencies to that the extinguishment or which cost th t nation such immense treasures and so many thousauos of valuable Uvei. It should not be tolerated for a single moment, as its results will virtually be to debase and force, our worklngmen Into unnatural rivalry with the dregs or the Chinese population. Kestrifctive laws against the Importa tion ol this kind or labor, such aa would stay its fur ther progress, should be enacted without any unne cestary delay. THE CNPLEABAKTNERSES Wtni ENGLAND. The claims against Great urltain for depredations aponthe commerce of our citiKeus by the piratical steamship Alabama and other vessels, and the dis puted rights of our fishermen In the eastern waters, are yet unsettled. The Imponanceof these Issues save caused much bitterness or reeling, ami, to a considerable degree, involved th peace and honor or the country. Tne alleged cruel treatment by Eng land of American citizens charged with complicity In Bome of the Fenian movements, equalled only by the historic horrors of Dartmouth ami Anderson ville, loudly call for th prompt and humauo atten tion of our Government. These three sub jects, I am Informed, are now under the consideration of the National Ad ministration, whose Intention it Is to settle them with as little delay as possible, and In such manner as will, meet with general acquiescence and approval. Ot'R COMMERCIAL MARINE. I have observed with pleasure tnat Congress Is about to provide, by legislation, ror the building up and protection fcf the commercial marine of our country, and for postal facilities to and from roreign countries by American vessels. These measures should, and no ooubt will, receive the approval of the people. It is also gratifying to flud the mercan tile, manufacturing, railway, and other Interests of our great commercial city of Philadelphia moving with vigor, aud, I am assured, with success, In providing the means necessary to establish a first-class line of American Iron steam ships to run between that city and Kuropean ports. The Legislature w ill, no douot, grant liberal fran chises to ellect a result tnat will place our Com monwealth in aox'aneo of all others, lu the construc tion and use or such vessels ror ocean navigation. With tlie aid and facilities which tho Natloual and State Governments niav find it their duty ami Inte rest to extend, it is hoped that this enterprise will be successful. The construction and maintenance of steamers suitable for the purposes indicated would consume large amounts of our great staples Iron, Bteel, coat, aud lumber ami also give em ployment to innusamis or our mechanics and citi zens, and vastly benefit all branches of trade and Inoustry, THE END OK Tn REBELLION. All good citizens win rejoice when the last dis agreeable veBilges of the recent civil war shall have been obliterated. Since the cessation of op ;n hos tilities, the nation has set the whole world a noble ' example by Its unpiecedented magnanimity in for giving the oirenses and restoring to citizenship the great mass of those who warred against Its peace and safety, in this regartl, we have been as gener ous In peace ns we Inive been Invincible iu war; and now but comparatively few of those who sought to dissever the Uuion remain as aliens and strangers to Its Government. The supremacy of the lsws has beer maintained, and tlnir power Is no longer disputed. The passions tnat, excited and protracted deadly strife have subsided, and we are again, practically, a homogeneous people. There are, doubtless, here nUd there, some tlls alTected spirits, but their numbers ure too few, aud their power too Insignificant to give ser.ons cause for uneasiness or alarm. Ai d even towards these, conciliation will be more productive of good results than the avenging force of triumphant power. It Is gieally to be desired that universal peace, amity, and national leliowship and brotherhood should agnln prevail throughout our country. And the time Is, lit list, close at hand when this grand and perlect consummation will beeU' cted by universal amnesty. It would efface the lingering distinctions which are fostered by punishment df the very few for crimes la which very many participated, and re move tlie last pretext ior hostility aga'iist a govern ment whose magnanimity is the crowning glory of Us power. It will accord with enlightened ant! pro giersive civlllZHtion, and harmoi.ize with tho tested might ami grandeur of freo lns'itutions. It will prei ent, too, the noblest government of the world's history as Impregmule and iudlss iluble. because founded, without eihtinciion, class, birth, or cir cumstances, upon the virtue and intelligence or all its people. NATIONAL TROOPS AT STATU ELECTIONS. The employment of United S ates troops at elections, without the consent or the local and State Governments, has recently received considerable atiention and reprehension. It Is regarded as n Interference with the sovereign rigt'ts or tne states, wnicn was not contemplated by the lounders of the General Government, aud, II persisted In, must lead to results disastrous to peace and harmony. The pnetice is one so serious in its character, and so Injurious In its tendencies, as to merit prompt cnuidcration and decisive action, not only by tlie General Assembly but ly Congress. One of tho complaints of the colonists against the lb itish King was the oppression grow li g out of the assumption of this power. They said, "He has kept among us lu limes of peace standing armies, without tlie consent of oar Legislatures;" and, what la especially peri Incut to the case in point, "lie has ait'ected to render the military Independent of, and superior to, the civil power." The alleged authority for the nse of troops at our state elections 1 derived from the tenth Bection or an act of Congress aoproved May 3i, lb70, eii'lthd "An act to enforce the right of citizens c.r the United States to vote lu the seve ral States of tho Union, and ror other purposes," which authorizes United States marshals to call to their assistance "such portion or the land and naval foices of the United States, or or the militia, a may be necessary to the per.onnance or the duty with which lliey are charged, and to insure a faithful observance of tho fifteenth amend ment to the CoiiBtitulloii of the United States." Hut it must be a forced construction of this law that wil Justify the presence or armed natloual forces at our places of election when no necessity exists therefor, and where their presence la calculated to provoke collision. With a good President, the exercise of the power referred io might have no In jurious results, tut in the hands or a bad man, governed by personal ambition, it might prove ex ceedingly calamitous. l'ii-,HMrioul a onod rrei dent mi'iht beindurtd to tvijduy it uifoiu.ifuliy, a bad one would be almost certain to use it' for his own advancement. Under any circumstances, In my opinion, it is unsafe, -ind antagomstiu to the princi ples ttat should govern our republican institutions. At the last October election United States troops were stationed lu Philadelphia for the avowed purpose of enforcing the election laws. 1 his was done without the consent or even the knowledge of the clvi authorities or either tlie city or the state, and without any expressed desire on the part ol the citizens; and as far as can be ascertained, without existing necessity. From a conscientious conviction of lis importance, 1 hive called your attem'on to this subject. A nelect to twe done so might have beeu construed asanen il.)i semen tot a Measure. thl meet mp unqualified dia)rovaL The civil authorities or Pennsylvania have always beeu, and are still, competent to pro tect Its citizens In the exercise or their elective fran chise, am! the proper and ou'y time ror Untied states military forces to intervene, will be, when the power of the Commonwealth la exhausted, aud their aid ts lawfully required. THE C'KKTKMMAI. OF INDEPENDENCE. The celebration of the Centennial Birthday of American Independence Is exciting much public attention. It will be an Important era in the his tory of the nation. Congress has already agitated the subject, and will, doubtless, soon take action lu relation thereto. The place for this great occasion should not be a question of controversy. So other rovld be se appropriate an J'liilaiielphia. Around the Hall of Independence cluster all the brightest memories of the eventful period to be commemorated. There Congress met; there tue historic bell first proclaimed "liberty throughout all the land unto all the Inhabitants thereof;" there the Declaration of Independence was lirst promulged, and there should be the na tional celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the nation's existence. IN CONCLUSION, It is my sincere denlre that we may cultivate the spirit of good will, forbearance, kindness and chari ty, and uutte in constant eirorts to promote the public good and general prosperity. j0un w. gbary. KxEiTtive Chamber. llarnsOurg, January 4, DT1.