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in Ve.Tfiv.Aria Ihtily Advertiser, PUBLISHED BP SAMUEL n. D AVIS, ROTAL-STKEET. _ Daily Gazette. 7 ilolls...Country. 5 doll*. SATt RPAV. NOVEMBER l». 1819. From the fTtMrgtor City Gurttu. laws OF the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. The following article is from the pen of a respectable and intelligent correspondent.— It attracts the public attention to a very im portant subject. We shall express cur own opinion upon the topic hereafter. The mo ment when Congress take up the code for final consideration will be the proper time to •xamioe its provision*. From a CorresporuUnt. We uodei*!and that the judges of the cir cuit court for this district, and Mr. Jones, the District attorney, have lately been very assiduously engaged in preparing their re port of a code of laws applicable to the situa tion of this district, in pursuance of the act of Congress ol April *9, 1816 ; and of the resolution parsed by Congress at the last ses sion. It will be remembered, that in De cember last. Chief Justice Cranch reported a code, which was ordered to be printed. Fro n the industry and sound judgment that it exhibited, it uilly answered the public ex pectation. But the committee of congress to whom the report was referred, consider- j ing that tbe adoption of a cod**, embracing so many important and novel principle*, re 4uir*d long and careful deliberation, again referred the matter to the bench of judges and the district attorney—and, from the as siduity with which they have undertaken t.ie discharge of this duty, we trust we shall soon have it in our power to congratulate our fellow-citizens on the adoption oi a ciear, consi*teut, and rational code of statute law, fur Ibis diUrict. The attention of the judge* Das oeen par ticularly turned to the modification and mo delling of such of the British statutes and Mary laud acts of assembly as a.e applicable to this district, and to the due administra tion of justice, by the establishment ol a course of practice in actions at law, that will more speedily and effectually ensure redrew, and diminish litigation. The present insol vent law s will also receive such a modifica tion as will be inure tavorable both to the debtor and the creditor. Whatever may be the doubts entertained of the possibility and advantage of codifica tion, on which so much has been lately writ ten, we cannot avoid thinking that every step taken to embody the laws, to renoer them more easy ot access and comprehen sion to (huse whom they are to govern, must he an improvement. * — - — From the St. Louis tAiquirer, Sept. 29. THE EXPEDITION Tu THi UPPER Jll»S>UM. Mr. Peter Kerr left Manned’* Port seven miles be lo -v the Council Bluff's, on the lUth instant, and aruved at St. Louu on the 23d. On the 11th. he met the Western Engi neer, M jor Long and party, 12 miles be low the mouth ot the river Plate, ascending. He confirms the account ol a roohery com mitted on some of the gentlemen attached te this boat, by a band of Panis Indian*. On 'he 12th, he met col. Atk.uson 173 miles below the Council Bluffs. T L* rifle regiment and the 6th infantry w ere in com pany, under the command of col. Aikiuson, ascendiug in a number ot keel boats, in good health and spirits and expected to be at the Council Bluffs tr 12 days, that :s to say. ou the 24th inst- None ol col. dobnscu’s steam boats were in company. On the HthMi. Kerrpassed Martin can tonment (Cow Island) saw there th«- steam boat Expeailion, empty, and, preparing to Call hack, her cargo having been transit rred to keels. Martin cantonment was aban doned, except by a subaltern and 30 men, who waited the arrival of an empty keel boat to take the reiuuant ol the lading ol the steam boat t.xpeditfon. On the I6th passed the steam boat Johnson, 25 miles above Fort Osage, lying to. some thing out of order. On the I7ib, I8lh, and 19th met ten or a dozen keel boats above Boon s Lick, as ceriding with provisions for the troops. On the iOih, passed the steam boat Jef fersup, empty, and lying upon the rocks high and dry, 4 miles below the mouth of the Great Osage. It is now certain that the troops have left the steam boats and gone on in keels, and that they will arrive (have arrived in all probability) aiihe Council Bluffs in time to shelter themselves before the commence ment of winter, and to accomplish ail the fiewa of 4he government lor the present summer. ^ , Mr. Forsyth, U. S. agent oa the Upper Mississippi, arrived iu town a few days ago from, the Falls of St. Aathony. We understand from him that he left Prairie du Chien in company with Colonel Leavenworth and a detachment ol the 6th, early in August, end arrived at the mouth of tbe St. Peters, just under the Falls, on the 24tb of tbe same month. Colonel Leaven worth established himself on tbe spot indi cated by Gen. (then Lieut.) Pike, and im mediately commenced the necessary works for the shelter and protection of the troops. On the way up, the detachment halted at the different Sioux villages, by all of whoa> they were well treated. Many Indians from tbe borders of the river j St. Pierre, came down to the Falls while 1 Mr. Forsyth remained there, all of whom conducted themselves peaceably. aBd ex pressed satisfaction at the arrival of the 1 tronps and the establishment of the military I post. - I ' ‘ COURSE or EXCHARQE !* That roerchsnts and traders at a distance may know the rates for staring bank notes ! at Baltimore, we offer the following brief notice of the value of paper, as it is diffe rently marked, engraved and signed. United States’ bank and all its branches— FAR. , | New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Vermont bank notes—Boston at 1, the rest, generally, at from 2 to 3 per cent, discount, except those ot Connecticut, payable in New-York, which are at par. New-York city, and the country notes which are depositable in the city banks, par. Jacob Barker's, 30 per cent. disc. ; Hud son, 90 ; do. ‘receivables,’ t!0 ; Catskill a queduct co. 50 ; MKean’s^ Myers’ notes, 60; Utica insurance, 12 ; Ontario bank, 15 to 20 ; Jefferson county bank, 50; Cherry Valley, 10 ; al I tbe rest pretty good—regu lated by the market at New-York New Jersey.—Most of the hanks in this ; state are nearly at par, or may be passed off as such—the rest at 2 or 3 dis. Pennsylvania.—All the Philadelphia notes, par. The good country netes, 2i to 3 dis. ; Pittsburg, 5 ; the rest at unce'ta’n prices, or at no price at all, and too tedious to detail, j Delaware.—All good except the Com mercial bank and bank at Laurel—the tor merat? percent, dis. the latter at from 50 to 60. Maryland.—City bank of Baltimore, 10 dis.; Caroline, do.; Elkton, Somerset<$• Worcester, Port Deposit, and Cumberland, ; at no price. Frederick couuty, Havre de Grace and Annapolis, at par. The rest pretty good—-the worst at 4 per cent. dis. Virginia.—The old banks, lidis ; Bank of the Valley, Irom U to 2 dis.; no other notes in '.he market. North Carolina, 6i to 7 dis ; South Caro lina. 2 ; Ge© gia, 3 ; Louisiana, no demand, but 12$ if sold. Ohio—the best, the specie paying banks, at lU! Cincinnati, 4*c. from 20 to 40. Some as much as 50 to 60 dis. Kentucky and Tennessee—old banks, if in , demand, at Hum 15 to 20 per cent. dis. ; : new banks ot both states, and bank ol Nash* , ▼i!Ie, not to be suld at all District of Columbia—generally, 1 disc, t Mechanics' <!r franklin banks ot Aiexaiuina, ; Jor 60 dis ; Merchants’ bauk—6 cents for looo dollais ! ! ! 1 he rates v#l discount on much of the pa per above mentioned, ottentimes varies se veral per cent, in the course of a w eek. 1 he , brokers assume the power aud virtually pns- ^ sea# it, ot causing snch fluctuations at plea eyre. The above were their iatea on the lat of this month. [Xiies's Kegister. , A'tv-York, \ov. 11. Yesterday the president and diiectors ot the Aniet.cau Insurance Company, d. dared a dividend of tcn per cent, on the cap tal stock, for the last six months. 1 his compa-» ny was established since the peace. an< has since declared dividends to the amour)' ol one hundred and four percent ; and, 've a e informed, has a surplus capital of neanj 40 per cent. From the .\*Uonal latedigencer. BANE OF THE UNITED STATES. The result ol the iaie meeting ol the Stock holders in tins institution has been properly made public, contrary to ihe usage ol banks: because it is one in which not only very ma »y individuals (aay from three to five thou sand) aie personally interested, but in which the community if deeply concerned, by the pervading influence which the transactions of that institution must have on the trade and business of the whole community. It was due to the government also* which is not at ail represented in the general meetings ot the stockholders, (tho' it is sufficiently represent ed in the directum ol the Bank.) that the means should be aflorded to the representa tives of the people, of judging how tar its af fairs bad been administered with a a view to the public interest. In such an institution, nothing should be concealed ; and nothing has been withheld which it was important to know. There are many par'iculars not dis closed, the publication of which might have gratified curiosity ; but the results of the in vestigation are fully aud fairly below the public. The general committee, in their report, appear carefully to hare avoided retrospection even so far as to give a historical view ot the operations ol the bank. Their object seem3 to have been, not to inflame jealousies or ani moaiues, by making comparisons of th* past and present administrations of the aliairs ol the hank ; but to examine into its present condition; to ascertain the. amount of its losses; to designate ibe apparent causes of them ; and to present tneir view of the pre sent prospects ol the institution. The amount of the losses at one cf the branches of the bank, particularly designa ted, hare been enormous, and ha*e been oc casioned in a manner which, we are per suaded, would have been more satisfactorily elucidated, but for certain prosecutions de pending in Baltimore, connected with these transactions. 1 he other losses, estimated > t 1,300,000, sustained at the parent batik, and its numerous branches, are, we venture to assert, of less amount than has been su-taiu ed during the same period, by any ban* south of the Hudson, in proportion to its ra pital. Every bank calculates on some b s> Irom bad debts, &c. to He repaired out ot the surplus of profits. It is the impression ot some, moreover, that the general committee has erred on the sale side in its estimate ol the amount of loss, and that the re dilv wi»i probably fall short of the estimate. Even the less sustained at Baltimore, ot about twenty per cent, on the total amount ot its discounts, great as it is, is not without example in other institutions: and, we suspect, there is now many a bank in the tull tide of business, the officers of which would be glad to be able to render to the stockholders as favorable an ac count of its debtv. We believe, that the effect of the report on the stock of the bank ought to be Javoruble. It is evident, from what appears, that not withstanding the losses sustained, the bank is now in nearly 33 good a condition as when it commenced operations, and its stock ought to be as valuable. It its stock was then worth, on calculation, ldO, it is now worth 120. But in truth, the stock never was in trihsically worth what it has sold for—say 130 dollars per share ot 100 dollars. It ne ver can Le iu the power ol the Bank ot the U. States, fettered as it is by restrictions^ and Lurthened with onerous impositions, to make dividends to justify any such price.— Upon a veiy moderate estimate, comparing it with the prdfcuct of other investments ol money, the intrinsic value of this stock is now estimated at 110. It never was worth much more in this country ; though, had no the bank met with extraordinary losses, u would probably have commanded a higher price in the European market. When w»- cail tc mind the impossibility o 1 engaging the capilai ol the bank in business otherwise than gradually, and of course the impracticability, lor a year or two after its organization, ot realizing a profit on the wl.ol* ol it; the expend'd ot putting the branches into operation ; the great expense ol import ing specie ; the cost of the bank building, ami of the purchase of buildings lor the branches; the considerable bonus payable to the government; and a variety ot other items ol expenditure, which might bt added to this account, we are almost ied tu believe, that the uunk began so early to divide its profits, that a suspension ot do menu would necessarily have taken place, had no lussts been sustained, .-hen we add to this the tnoie recent necessity, irorn iu craiu ei-pe. cie tor the Last- Ina.a trace, that the uis counls ot Uie bank should be curtailed, and ,ts ousmtsscontracted, vve shad rind that, »<* tar irorn the stale ot the bank being wor.-e, it is belter Mail could nave oeen expected. It is now apparent, teat to the system oi curtailment trorn w hich the commoni y has suriered, and ol w hich It has louoiy complain ed, the bank is indebted lor iia satvativu — 1 ne bieakers were already in sight when the Situ? were taken in. But, toe shoals are nuw passed; ttie vessel is no longer tu dan ger ; anu, ii the canvas be spread, there is no duuot ot her speedily regain.ng her iosl ground, li it is in the powti ol tue bank, it will Uo its true policy, as wed as io thegreat advantage ut the community, to exieiid its business considerably beyond its present range. It is toe opinion ot many, that the bank might he able, without danger, so tar to enlarge the spiiere ol its operations, as at this time to be able to discount all the unques tionably good tr<iu>acliun paper oflered to it, and thus realize a greater profit to the stock holders. 1 his is a point, however, on which therei- much diflerence ot opinion. We have made these few remarks on this subject, because we regard it as ol great na tional importance. We consider the bank as the bulwark which obstructs the inroad ol an overwhelming flood of vitiated paper cur rency, which will prostrate the only stand ard oi vaiue on which the least reliance can he placed. It is a minor consideration, that^ tile government is interested in the stock of the Bank ; and even the consideration ot its importance to the fiscal operations of the go vernment becomes subordinate in compari son with that first referred to. It is with great satifaction, therefore, that by the Kepprt which has been made, the credit of the Bank appears to be placed be yond the reach of the breath of suspicion; and it is shewn, that, with regard to its pro sent administration, it is prudent almost to I excess, if in prudence there can be excess. The suggestion which is made, that no divi* dead ought to be made until the estimated loss is mote than repaid, i3 pack as might be j expected from the standir^and honorable character of the gentlemen who composed l the general committee. The report too. establishes conclusively that the Bank has been so administered as to produce important benefits to every part of the community, except the Stockholders. I has restored specie payments, and main tained them; it has afforded that aid to the fiscal operations of the governu ent to which the state institutions were becoming every lay, less and less competent; it has sustain- j e.i the local Banks by every means in its power—by indulgence a* to time, by advan ces anti loans of specie; and it has conside rably aided ihe commerce and industry of the nation. The errors and vices in the ad in.n'-itCition of the Bank, or any of its branrh f are justly coarge^ble to Ihe frailty of our Natui . and not to the institution, which has },f-ci tliH suffering victim of th*-rn, at the same •ime bat public opinion has held it responsi ble for them. - BANKS. *• If l a n not mistaken,” (‘•avs the gover nor of Vermont, in his addre - 'o the 'tgisla ture ol that state, at the opening of its pre sent session.) “ It I ain not lu'st-ken. in tho<e states where the “banks are the most nu merous and the means of credit the most ea sy, the recent cry ot tot scarcity of medium, and its consequent distresses, h>ve been tne most heard and felt. Although I wish equal privileges to be extended to every part ot the state, yet I am confident that a mu’tipiicity of incopurated banks.ih a state will prove in jurious to the community, it not ruinous to each other.” - M!,lt iLITY. The following Essay is from the oth Xo. of the Plough Boy, edited by S. boulh+uck, Esq. of Albany, (A*. Y.) «* \\ ine »s a mocker, strong drink is [ raging, and whosoever isdcrcivedlhere j by, is not wise.” These are the words : of a writer whose views embraced the i whole economy of life, and whose expe rience had taught him all that was wise in practice, as his genius of inspiration had enabled him to perceive all that w as virtuous in precept. We arc not, how , ever, about to write an essay against i drunkenness, as the words we have quo ted would seem to import. The con firmed drunkard is, perhaps in most rases, beyond the reach of reform ; and the task of redeeming him from his dreadful malady is more hopeless than the sleep of the grave. The vice of which we are speaking, is a disorder of ilie appetite, more easily prevented 'ban cured, it frequently approaches by slow degrees, and originates in small dev iations fivm cornet & steady habits, it w as justly observed in a late new spa per paragraph, that “ while you are la bouring to curtail ;he vices of the grog shop, would it not he well to remember the side-board.” This is an exc Unit hint, ai d otnkes at the root of a prac tice which frequently I-ads to the vice of drunkenness : a practice, (he exist ence of which we have long regretted ; we mean the custom of inviting all, who happen to step in our houses, to make it ti entlly call, or dissipate an idle mo to orink ardi nt spirits. * i: these occasions, •• will you take a glass oj wine ?" is the first salutation .f.er being seated. If the question be ncgi.'ived, it is renewed ns politely in the shape ol a persuasion; Pray do not rtjnse ; a iiltte w.U not hurt yon, it will do you good. •* A little will not hurt you.” These words have dune un»r« mischief among mankind, than perhaps all the artillery o; Satan besides. • A little taste of the forbidden irnit/ said the arch tempter to the mother ot mankind, • will not hint you. It will on the contrary open your eyes to heboid hidden mysteries, i uc unsuspecting fair believed too readi ly, and we all know ami feel the conse quences. . t is indeed, as every person I of observation knows, by * little * and f * little.’ tJiitt every species ot human 1* a*11.' g*dns upon its v ictinis, till it sub dues their meiitul fortitude, and bids defiance to tneir noblest resolutions.— A * iittle wine 9 wnl rarely hort one hut that ‘little/ too often repeated be comes intemperence; intempt retire pro duces idleness, confusion of affairs,debt and embarrasment, and these lead di rectly, il not toiraud anil embezzlement, to penury, want, and llie limits of a jail.—Here is a pritfy climax, imb ed; of human frailty ami weakness, ait for the want ot a little fortitude and firin ! ness to refuse at first to accept a little | sideboard hospitality. In short, a little ; sleep in the morning—a little punch at noon—a little wine and bitters before dinner—a *ittlc more wine and a little lC^t after dinner—a little visiting, and a little more drink at night; alf these soon wind up the industrious concern* ot the plough b.»y, the mechanic, the merchant, or professional character; a «d leave them alike, the victims, not of a. little but of a gn at deal ot wretched ness. We beseech the plough boys of ail others, to avoid these littlb begin nings. which lead to *uch gebat evils, and such wretched ends. Instead ol indulging the freaks of appetite, and hankering after Itixurieg, wlfid, fail to destroy the wholesome habit* ** ser.tial to their prosperity m Uf"? them cling to those habit* as a ^ wrecked mariner would to tLr last 1,1 of hisill*fated barque. |t Wa8 the (RfeBtriou* Edmund Burke, jn !/ ' ery meridian of his splendor, that , made his dinners of the simplest f,J and ihat lie would invite such in/n Pitt, Fox, and other shiningcharact ! of that day, to dine with him upon *[' of mutton and turnips, and a bottle two of mild claret. It was «* the fV* of reasomai-l the flow of soul,” and,*! the indulgence of sensual, irratio, appetite, that was sought by those ill, , trious champions of England’* fanu* a,j glory, feuclt was likewise the teC ranee and frugality of our Franki,, whose immortality is built upon t same basis as that of the Burkes a,'. Pitt* ot old England. Prom «uch examples let us Paint, despise and banish luxury and dia<i(li tioii from our houses and our fist,,, boards; and let the Plough Boy*bet1* first to pursue this path of domestic \ir< : tor and economy. Let them never sict, | en at the labor which they cannot aic,U because Providence has decrml it, ^ I the most salutary mean* of human *4 ; sistrnce. L**t them rather rejoice thu they ha\e always labor enough, if i|)(., , Choose to pursue it. to keep the I)r> from catching 11tem idle, that he niji draw them into his snares of ilestruc I tion. Cixcixwtus. the Roman Pitri,^ weeding in his turnip garden ; liiRKt the British Cicero, dining upon a mu; ton chop : and Ebixki ix, one of rh, sax iors of America, f. acting upon bit«i and water in a printing office ! M|„ illustrious examples f u modern p tn oth, modei n philosophers, and moder Plough Boys! —— H. H. Jr, COMETS. A German Astronomer, of the nami of 11 ayer, has recently published a nn theory of these curious luminaries. Hr maintains, that the body is rompo ! srd of water, and that the tail consist «>f solar rays refracted through this mi dium:—that an impure atmosphere cci lects around it, which is dispersed t; approximation to the sun ; and tin when a comet comes near'the earth.i polities the air, and promotes vegeu tion. Another Astronomer, M. Olbus, oj Bremen, has calculated, that, in 68,001 years, a comet will approach the eartl as near as the mono ; that in 4.000,00 it will come within 7.770 geographic! miles ; and if its power of attraction a equal to the moon, will cause a rise i the ocean of 13,000 ieet, which nui make a deluge. But what is still m : frightful, the same philosopher »»» that in £20,000,©00 years, a comet nil come in contact w ith the earih, and pro duce consequences, which can unit I> imagined. [Phil. Union. ELEGA5T CCT GLASS VR.T, Designed for the President’s Hous at Washington is now in Philadelphia at the >t »re of M ssrs. Fletcner *m ! Gardiner. No. 150. Chesnut street. This c.egant specimen of rich Id Glass w lm h was exhibited at the Urig*v ton Sh w of domestic Manufacture!) i fame from the New-England Glass fa: ! tory at Lee he mere’s Point. It is broad I er and twenty pounds heavier than ei< ! ther the celebrated London or Hiist«d Bowl, which has been So much admirei | in Lngland, and is far richer ai.d deep er in the cutting, and more biaulifulii form, and sy metrical in proportion. 1 is valued at 500 dollars, and is now oi its way to V ashingion City. It is ai Lrn, and cousists of three nieces, tin base, tiie bowl, and the cover, weighing 45 pounds,* intended for the central or ; nauient of a table. '1 he cutting on the | foot, i> m arched scollops, fluting'*, an deep splits, with prismatic rings aia spins beneath—ttie oowl round me but torn in the language of the manufacture lias raised diamonds, and deep suri rings: and on the body there are sii deeper strawberry diamonds, rings, ar< I arched scollops; the cov or has a cbe'f rai cut Iroiu (he solid glass, edge arche ■ scollops, prismatic rings w ith splits ot . nraih , rows of strawberry diamond 1 ami head; ranged and raised diamond | 1 he model of the Bowl is consider^ to exceed in elegance and proportion! thickness any article of the glass kiw luaiie iu Europe*: those who are & quainted with the difficulty and skill re , quired to bring to perfection so large J ; specimen of glassware, can judge ut ^ ! excellence ; the cutting must strike tlrf j eye agreeably from its perfect accuracy ! and it will bear the most critical exa*11 nation. * It weighed tixty-four pounds befort the cutting. 35,519 bbls. flour inspected in Rich | mo lid, for the quarter ending Oct. 31* As men of sense say a great deal in few words so the half-witted have a talct * talking much, and yet say nothing'