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The Weekly Gazette.
- A Weekly Newspaper PCBLISHED BY JAMES H. YOUNG, - Editor. W. S. MITCHELL, Associate Editor Slid Easiness Manager. 1 The Weekly Gazette. RATE 3 OP ADVERTISING. One square, one Insertion $ .50 One square, one month, - !,() One square, two months, . 2.00 Ore square, three months, - 2 5(1 One square, six months, - - .0 01 One square, one jca . . o. KPLiberal contracts made for 1 rrer adveithemcn's. A RALEIGH, N. C, SATURDAY, DEC. 9, 1893. NO. 42. t VOLTV. m tv J. There is said to bo an unusual in quiry for farming lands in Alabama. The general manager of the lands of a railroad says he recedes applications very day from the North and West from those desiring farming lands. Sixteen miners have returned to Seattle, Washington, from the Yukon - . gold diggings in Alaska, bringing with them, as the result of the season's work, about $45,000 in gold dust and nuggets. The share of two or three of the party was about $6000 apiece. . They report that there were about 300 Xmen engaged in placer mining on the lukon Hirer last summer. Some new diggings were discovered on Birch - Creek, 275 miles below Forty Mile Cek, from which two half breeds jjSr "" ) U J , NV(.4ttrTDfr8Of.l i- ' ix "s IV t, " -- t ' itiys.Xhe . Indians did not .molest the miners this year. " , y America holds the record In many natural wonders and artificial triumphs, boasts the Washington Star. The largest lake in the world (Su perior), the longest river (Missouri), the largest park (Yellowstone), the finest cave (the Mammoth), the greatest waterfall (Niagara) and the only natural bridge (in Virginia) are to be found within the borders of the United States, and here the big gest fortunes are made, the most ener getic commercial enterprises under taken, the largest deals are effected, and the most wonderful inventions . are perfected, while the country produces a greater amount of raw material than any other. The St. Louis Star-Sayings thinks that "one of the most gratifying signs of the times is the operation of the law requiring all navy ships to be built at home, from materials of domestic production ; American ships m American bottoms and the estab lishment of ship yards capable of turning out vessels of war of the high est speed and capacity. It is a grow ing enterprise and gives employment to thousands of American laborers, and soon we may anticipate that in stead of going to other countries for ideas , and , methods in ship armor and gun construction we shall have the foreigners coming to us to learn." Mr. O. Chanute, formerly President of the American Society of Civil En gineers, who has devoted much atten tion to arial navigation, thinks that the chief problem that still remains to be solved is the mastery of the practical art of managing flying machines the art of starting, balancing, navigating and alighting. There is much reason in this view, comments the San Francisco Examiner. If nobody in the world had ever sailed even a canoe, and an inventor, by native ingenuity and the application of sound mathematical principles, should design a full-rigged ship, he might have trouble the first time he put to sea in her. Yet his situation would be less precarious than that of the first adventurer to launch himself into the uncertain air. Prob ably the labors of the engineers will ha 7e to be supplemented by a good many broken necks of practical navi gators before we sail the blue as com fortably as the birds. - J One by one the States are becoming interested in the good-roads movement, exclaims the New York Post. The agitation is at white heat in Missouri just now, and nowhere are roads fitted for traveling more needed. In the re mote country districts particularly "they are disJjja..age. . The Kansas City Times, to which much of the credit of arousing the people on this question is due, says truly : "Next to railroads, substantial and lasting public highways are worth more to a -' country, including both the farmers and the townsmen, than any other single investment that could be made. " A resident of Howard County, Mis souri who realizes the needs of this section, makes the following offer: ,VI 'will give $1 per acre on every acre oj land I own towards the building of a gravel road from Eocheport to Jack man's Mill. My farm consists of 450 acres ; hence I will take stock in said road to the amount of $150. I will also give the same amount for a gravel road from Eocheport to Ashland church, or from the church to Fayette If we could get the farmers once in terested in such an enterprise, it would be but a few years until we would have the best roads in the West. The build ing of these roads can be accomplished with less cost in the long run than the present system of road-working is now ftsting the farmer. It must also be remembered that each individual who pays in as much as $100 becomes a . stockholder in the road. In fact, stock can be issued at $100 a share, and I will venture the assertion that this m ney will return a larger dividend tk n in any gther wajYeeted. " i - t r-i v Sam Neely, a colored boj 1 was hanged at Dallas, N. C.,. Savannah and Jacksonville have raised the quarantine against Bruns wick, Ga. Charles and Will O'Neil were ar rested for stealing horses from S. W. and A. Y. Tedder, of Chesterfield county, S. C. The Charlotte, N. C, police captured them in Berryhill township, Mecklenburg county. E. E. Thompson, of Fredericksburg, Va., who is walking on a wager to Bo gota, South America, has arrived at the City of Mexico. One condition of his trip is that he must not carry money with him. He has been hospi tably received in Mexico, but he near ly starved in Texas. y ' Arkansas has 10,000 ferma whn produca GOT, OOO ales of cotton, 9Qfc 000 bushels of sweet potatoes, l,CjD0, 000 pounds of tobacco, 42,0O0Co00 bushels of corn and 2,000,000 bushels of wheat. From the Arkansas forests are cut over $20,000,000 worth of lum ber every year. Gen. John Gibbon, of the United States' army, retired, delivered a lec ture at Winchester, Va., under the aus pices of Christ's Episcopal Church, and for the benefit of the poor. His subject was: "My life on. the plains, or what I know about the Indians." A report is current that Major Tur ner Morehead, who has been in Europe several months, has effected a sale of the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley rail road to a syndicate of English capital ists. Duplin county, N. C.will renew its attempt to have the courts declare the present method of distributing the public school taxes unconstitutional. The school board of the county has instituted another suit against the State Board of Education. At present, the counties collect and keep the school fund, but the Duplin board wish it all to go into the State Treas ury and to be thence distributed per capita. A huge bear was brought by express from Havelock, in Craven county, to Newbern, N. C., Tuesday. It was killed by three sportsmen two of them Northern gentlemen who had gone out deer hunting. It was killed at Great Lake below Newbern, and a few miles from the Atlantic and North Carolina railroad. The bear was a magnificent specimen, six feet in length with a glossy black coat of hair and great rolls of fat when dressed. His.estimated weight was 450 pounds.. The three principal agricultural ex hibits at the Georgia State Fair at Au gusta were won by women, Misses Zoe Brown, of Hancock county, M. Ruther ford, Sumter county, and Annie Den nis, of Talbott county. While Governor Reynolds, of Dela ware, was in his private office at the State house at Dover, some unknown person hurled two huge rocks and a stone cnspidore through the window, with intent to either injure or kill. The President made his Thanksgiv ing dinner off a 27-pound, pink and white, plump variety of turkey, . ship ped from Westerly, Conn., by Horace Vose, who has selected the presidential bird since Grant's time. L. Bertram Cady, a swell Fifth avenue merchant tailor, while at the theatre in New York the other night, spied through his opera glasses, Albeit McMillen, who had stolen $2,800 from him in 1889 and escaped. A policeman was summoned, and the thief arrested. Luella Welz, a pretty type-writer of Cincinnati, sued Will Syberly, a rich shoe man's son, for breach of promise, and the jury found that she was damaged $10,000 worth. The Spartanburg (S. C.) Spartan says: cnariotte has started its seventn cotton mill. This one is for weaving towels, counterpanes and the like. All that Charlotte now needs is a good soap factory to go along with the towels. The will of the late Alfred W. Shields, of Richmond, Va., leaves his farm to his two colored servants, and an estate of $18,000 to the University of Virginia. - Gov. Stone and ex-Gov. Francis, of Missouri, both want to go to the Senate, and will give Mr. Vest a whirl. Mary Johnson, an aged colored woman, from Newberry, S. C, was last Wednesday added to the long list of cranks who insist upon seeing the President to secure an adjustment of grievances. She will be sent home. At Livingstone, Ala., 65 bales of cotton were burned. With difficulty a platform of 1,200 was saved. The canvass of the vote in Virginia for Attorney General gives Scott, Dem ocrat, 130,501 ; Gravely, Populist, 80, 113; Kaigley, Prohibitioniet, 6,510 The Legislature was as follows: , Sen ate, Democratic, 23; Populists, 2 House of Delegates, Democrats, 39; Populists. 10. Congressman Charles O'Neil, of Philadelphia, died Saturday night. He was the "Father of the House," its oldest member in service, and near ly so in years. Seven Person J Cremated Alive by Fiends. Branchviile, S. -C. News has just reached this place that five miles from here, in Barnwell county, two dwelling houses were burned. Sunday night, together with seven persons, four whites and three colored. The whites are the family .of Riley Studlev, and the colored the family of April Frank lin. The houses were at a distance of some four miles apart and the fires must have undoubtedly been the, work of an incendiary. PITHY NEWSJTi: THE MESSAGE. Cleveland Discusses Public "TARIFF REFORM" URGED. Hawaiian Matters Eeservedf For a Special Message, it ChlneseReglstratlon Ltf.vr -TheUnUed States and Brazil-VfTects of the -iHHfci Purcotaet ifepeal -Affairs at Home ana Abroad Work of the Various Bureaus Summarized " Public EconomyAdvocated Ad- ministration's Pension Policy. The- President's annual message, which has been read in both Houses of Congress, is mainly as follows : To the Congress of the United States i The constitutional duty which requires tho President from time to tim3 to give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, an i recommend to their considera tion such measures as he shall judge neces sary and expedient, is fittingly entered upon by commending to the Congress a careful examination of the detailed statements and well-supported recommendations contained In the reports of the heads of departments, who are chiefly charged with the executive work of the Government. In an effort to abridge this communication a9 much as is consistent with its purpose, I shall supple ment a brief reference to the contents of these departmental reports by the mention of such executive business and Incidents as as are not embraced therein, and by such recommendations as appear to be at this particular time appropriate. While our foreign relations have not at all times during the past year been entirely free from perplexity, no embarrassing situation regains that will not yield to the spirit of fairness and love of justice, which, joined with consistent firmness, characterize a truly American foreign policy. . - BRAZILIAN AFFAIBS. The outbreak of domestic hostilities in the Republic of Brazil found the United States alert to watch the interests of our citizens in that country, with which we carry on im portant commerce. Several vessels of our new navy are now, and for some time have been, stationed at Bio de Janeiro. The strug gle being between the established Govern ment, which controls the maohinery of ad ministration, and with which we maintain friendly relations, and certain officers of the navy employing the vessels of their com mand in an attack upon the National capital and chief seaport, and lacking, as it does, the elements of divided administration, I have failed to see that the Insurgents can reasonably claim recognition as belligerents. Thus far the position of our Government n-as been, that of an attentive but impartial obs erver of the unforIu3ato""Conflict. Em phasizing our fixed policy of Impartial neu trality in such a condition of affairs as now exists, I deemed it' necessary to disavow, In a manner not to be misunderstood, the un authorized action of our late naval com mander in those waters in saluting the re volted Brazilian Admiral, being indisposed to countenance an act calculated to give gratui tous sanction to tne local insurrection. CHILEAN CLAIMS COMMISSION. The convention between our Government and Chile, having for its object the settle ment and adjustment of the demands of the two countries against each other, has been made effective by the organization of the claims commission provided for. The two Governments failing to agree upon the third member of the Commission, the good offices of the President of the Swiss Republic were invoked, as provided in the treaty, and the selection of tho Swiss representative in this country to complete the organization was gratifying alike to the United States and Cnile. THE CHINESE EXCLUSION LAW. The legislation of last year, known as the Geary law, requiring the registration of all Chinese laborers entitled to residence in the United States, and the deportation of all not complying with the provisions of the act within the time prescribed, met with much opposition Trom Cnlnamen In this country. Actine upon the advice of eminent counsel that the law was unconstitutional, the great mass of Chinese laborers, pending judicial inquiry as to its validity, In good faith de clined to apply for the certificates required by its provisions. A test case upon proceed ing by habeas corpus was brought before the supreme court, ana on May 15th, 1893, a de cision was made by that tribunal sustaining the law. It is believed that under the recent amend ment of the act extending the time for regis tration, the Chinese laborers thereto entitled, who desire to reside in this country, will now avail themselves of the renewed privilege thus afforded of esfablishing by lawful pro cedure their right to remain", and that thereby the necessity of enforced deportation may to a great degree be avoided. SURRENDER OF WEEKS RECOGNIZED. Costa Rica has lately testified its friendli ness by surrendering to the United States, in the absence of a convention of extradition, but upon duly submitted evidences of crimi nality, a noted fugitive from Justice. It is trusted that the negotiation of a treaty wltll that country to meot recurring cases of this kind will soon be accomplished. In my opinion treaties for reciprocal extradition should be concluded with all these countries with which the Unit 3d States hasnot already conventional arrangements of that character. I have deemed it mttntr to express to the Governments of Costa Rica and Colombia the kindly desire of the United States to see their pending boundary dispute finally closed by arbitration in conformity with the spirit of the treaty concluded between them some vears asco. Our relations witn tne rencn itepuoiic continue to be intimate and cordial. 1 sin cerely hope that the extradition treaty with that country, as amenaea by tne senate, will soon be operative. , While occasional questions affecting our naturalized citizens returning to the land of their birth have arisen in our intercourse with German-, our relations with that country continue satisfactory. The questions affecting our relations with Great Britain have been treated in a" spirit of friendliness. Negotiations are in progress betweon the two Governments with a view to such con current action as will make the award and regulations agreed upon by the Bering Sea Tribunal of Arbitration practically effective ; and it is not doubted that Great Britain will co-operate freely with this country for tho accomplishment of that purpose. The dispute growing out of the discrimi nating tolls imposed in the Welland Canal, upon cargoes of cereals bound to and from the lake port3 of the United States, was ad justed by the substitution of a more equita ble schedule of charges-and my predeoessor thereupon suspended his proclamation im posing discriminating tolls upon British transit through our canals. Arej:3st for additions to the list of extra ditable offences covered by the existing treaty betwean tho two countries i9 under consideration. , THE NICARAGUA CANAL, ; Nicaragua has recently passed through two revolution., the party at first success- I ful having" m turn been displaced by an other, our newiy appointed: Minister, by his timely gool offices, aided in. a peaceful adjustment of the controversy involved in the first conflict. The large American in terests established in that country in con nection with the Nicaragua Canal were not molested. - ; The canal company has. unfortunately, be come financially seriously embarrassed, but a generous treatment has been extended to it by the Government of Nicaragua. Tha United States are escaclally interested in the successful achievemf nt of the vast undertak ing this company has in charge. That. it should be accomplished under distinctively American auspices, nad its enjoyment assured not only to the vessels of this country as a channel or eommur ication between our At lantic and Pacific seaboards, but to the ships oi mo wona m me ; interests or civilization. is a proposition which, iamy judgment, does not admit of questia. uuatemaia nas also oeen visued by the po litical vicissitudes -vthioh have afflicted her Central American neighbors : but the disso lution of its Leeisl.-ture and the proclama tion of a diet "torsVv have beea (unattended with civ!i wi. . , ' V An wxtrr'J.i'Jon f r-ntv with Norway has re- m . .... ' . t ' . . J xne Trramnon trentv witn nussia. signed in March, 1837, a.id amended a"i confirmed by the Senate in February last it, -duly pro claimed last June. IF HAWAIIAN AFFAIBS. It is hardly necessary for me to state that the questions arising from our relations with Hawaii have caused 6erious embarrass ment. Just prior to the installation of the present Administration the exLsting Govern ment of Hawaii had been suddenly over thrown, and a treaty of annexation had been negotiated between the Provisional Govern ment of the islands and the United States, and submitted to "the Senate for ratifica tion. This treaty I withdrew for examination and dispatched Hon. James H. Blount, of Georgia, to Honolulu as a special commissioner to make an impartial investation of the circumstances attending the change of Government, and of all the con ditions bearing upon the subject of a treaty. After a thorough and exhaustive examination Mr. Blount submitted to me his report, show ing beyond all question that the constitution al Government of Hawaii had been subverted with the actfveaid of ourrepresentativetotSat Government, and through the intimidation caused by the presence of an armed naval xorce of the United btates which was landed for that purpose at the instance of our Min ister. Upon the facts developed it seemed to me the only honorable course for our Govern ment to pursue was to undo the wrong that had been done by those representing us and to restore as far as practicable the status ex isting at the time of our forcible intervention. With a - view of accomplishing this result within the Constitutional limits of Executive power, and recognizing all our obligations and responsibilities growing out of any changed conditions brought about by our un justifiable interference, our present Minister at Honolulu has received appropriate in structions to that end. Thus far no informa tion of the accomplishment of any definite results has been reoeived from him. Additional advices are soon expected. When received they will be promptly sent to the Congress, together with all other infor mation at hand, accompanied by a special Executive message fully detailing all the facts necessary to a complete understand ing of the case, and presenting a history of all the material events leading up to the present situation. INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION. Senate February 14, 1899, ana by the House or .Representatives on tBa 3d of April follow ing, the President was requested "to invite, from time to time, as fit occasions may arise, negotiations with any Government with which the United States has or may have diplomatio relations, to the end that any differences or disputes arising between the two Govern ments which cannot be adjusted by diplo matic agency may be referred to arbitration and be peaceably adjusted by such means." April 18, 1890. the International American Conference of Washington by resolution ex pressed the wish that all controversies be tween the Republics of America and the Na tions of Europe might be settled by arbitra tion, and recommended that the Govern ment of each Nation represented in that conference should communicate this wish to all friendly powers. A favorable re sponse has been received from Great Britain in the shape of a resolution adopted by Par liament July 16 last, cordially sympathizing with the purpose in view, and expressing th hope that her Majesty's Government will lend ready co-operation to the Government of the United States upon the basis of the concur rentresolutlon above quoted. It affords me signal pleasure to lay this parliamentary resolution before the Congress and to express my sincere gratification that the sentiment of two great and kindred Na tions is thus authoritatively manifested in favor of the rational and peaceable settle ment of international quarrels by honorable resort to arbitration. THE FINANCIAL QUE8TION. The Secretary of the Treasury reports that the receipts of the Government from all sources during the fiscal year ended J une 30, 1893, amounted to 461, 716,561. 94 and its expenditures to $459,374,674.29. There was collected from customs $205,355,016.73, and from internal revenue $101,027,623.93. Our dutiable imports amounted to 421,856,711, an increase of $52,453,907 over the preceding j-ear, and importations free of duty amounted to $444,544,211, a decrease from the preceding year of $13,455,447. Internal revenue receipts exceeded those of the pre ceding year by $7,147,455.32. It is estimated upon the basis of present revenue laws that the receipts of the Govern ment for the year ending June 30, 1894, will be $430,121,365.38 and its expenditures $458, 121,365.38, resulting in a deficiency of $28, 000,000. . SILVER PURCHASE REPEAL. The recent repeal of the provision of law requiring the purchase of silver bullion by the Government as a feature of our monetary scheme, has made an entire change in the complexion of our currency affairs. I do not doubt that the ultimate result of this action will be most salutary and far-reaching. In the nature of things, however, it is impossible to know at this time, precisely what conditions will be be brought about by the change, or what, If any, supple ment .y legislation may, in the light of such conditions, appear to be essential or ex pedient. Of course, after the recent financial perturbation time is necessary for the re-establishment of business confidence. When, however, through this restored confidence the which money has been frightened into hoarding places is returnel to trade and en terprise, a survey of the situation will prob ably disclose a safe path leading to a per mantly sound currency, abundantly sufficient to meet every requirement of our increasing population and business. . In the pursuit of this object we should resolutely turn away from alluring and temporary expedients, determined to be con tent with nothing less than a lasting and comprehensive financial plan. In these cir cumstances I am convinced that a reasonable delay in dealing with this subject, instead of being injurious, will increase the probability of wise action. IMMIGRATION AND QUABANTINE. The Superintendent of Immigration, through the Secretary of the Treasury, re ports that during tho last fiscal year there arrived at our ports 440,793 immigrants. Of these, 1063 were not permitted to land, un der the limitations of the law, and 577 were returned to the countries from whence they came by reason of their having become pub lic charges. The total arrivals were 141,034 less than for the previous year. The Secretary in his report gives an ac count of the operation of the Marine Hospi tal service and of the good work done under its supervision in preventing the entrance and spread of contagious diseases. The admonitions of the last two years touching our public health and the demon strafed danger of the introduction of con tagious diseases from foreign ports have in vested the subject of National quarantine with increased interest. A more general and harmonious system than now exists, acting promttiy and directly everywhere, and con stantly operating hy preventive paeans to shield our country from th lnvasion' of dis ease, and at the same time having due re gard to the' rights and duties of local agen cies, would, I . believe, add greatly to the! safety of our people. - . - WORK OF THE ARMY. ' The Secretary of War reports that tho i strength of the army on the 30th day of Sep tember la it was 25,779 enlisted men and 2144 omeers. - Neither Indian outbreaks nor domestifvio- lence have called the army into service dur ing the year, and the only active military duty required oi it nas been in the Depart-, ment of Texas, where violations of the neu trality laws of the United States and Mexico were promptly and eiSciently dealt with by the troops, eliciting the warm approval of tne civil ana military authorities or both countries. .... .. "'j'OSTOrnCE DEPARTMENT. . - TherepJrt of the Postmaster General con tain, n detailed statement of the Deratious ot the PostV rtr rper&J'dring th last d loucning inis important prirn oi ine puD lic service! - The business of the malls indicates with absolute certainty the condition ot the busi ness of the country, and depression in finan cial affairs inevitably, and quickly reduces the postal revenues. Therefore a larger discrepancy than usual between the postofllce receipts and expenditures is the expactel and unavoidable result of the distressing stringency which has prevailed throughout the country during much of thetime covered by the Postmaster General's report. I desire to commend as especially worthy of prompt attention the suggestion of the Postmaster General relating to a more sensi ble and business-like organization and a better distribution of responsibility in his department. ; THE NAVY. The report of the Secretary of the Navy contains a history of the operations of his department during the past year, and ex hibits a most gratifying condition of the per sonnel of our navy. He presents a satisfac tory account of the progress which has been made in the construction of vessels, and makes a number of recommendations to wbich'attention is especially invited. Progress in the construction of new vessels has not been as rapid as was anticipated. There have been delays in the completion of unarmored vessels, but for the most part they have been such as are constantly occurring even in countries having the largest experi ence in naval ship-bui id ing. The most serious delays, however, have been in the work upon armored ships. The trouble has been the fail ure of contractors to deliver armor as agreed. The difficulties seem now, however, to have been all overcome, and armor is being deliv ered with satisfactory promptness. As a re mit of the experience acquired by ship builders and designers and material men, it w .believed that the dates when vessels' will be ' completed can now be estimated with reason ' able accuracy. Great guns, rapid-fire guns, torpedoes and powder are being promptly supplied. While I am distinctly In favor of consis tently pursuing the policy we have inaugu rated of building up a thorough and efficient navy, I cannot refrain from the suggestion that the Congress should carefully take into account the number of unfinished vessels on our hands and the depleted condition of our Treasury in considering the propriety of , an appropriation at this time to begin new work. f '. .I V.,- " PENBIONS. ( . r - The Secretary oT the Interior has the sup ervision of so many important subjects that his report is of especial value and interest. On the 30tn day of June. 1893, there were on the pension rolls 966,012 names, an In crease of 89,944 over the number on the rolls June. 30,1892. Of these there were seventeen widows and daughters of Revolutionary soldiers, eighty-six survivors of the War ot 1812, 5425 widows ot soldiers of that war, 21.518 survivors and widows of the Mexican war, 3882 survivors and widows of Indian wars, ' 284 army nurses, and 475,645 survivors, and widows and . children of deceased soldiers and sailors of the Rebellion. The latter number represents those pensioned on account of disabilities or death resulting from army and navy service. The number of persons remaining on the rolls June 30, 1893, who were pensioned under the act of J une 27, 1890, which allows pensions on account of death and disability not chargeable to army service, was 459.155. The number added to the rolls during the year was 123.634, and the number dropped was 33,690. The first payments on pensions allowed during the year amounted to $33, 756,549.93. This includes arrears, or the accumulation between the time from which the allowance of pension dates and the tima of actually granting the certificate. Although the law of 1890 permits pensions for disabilities not related to military service, yet as a requisite to its benefits a disability must exist incapacitating applicants "from the performance of manual labor to such a degree as to render them unable to earn a support." The execution of this law in its early 6tages does not seem to have been in accord with its true intention ; but towards the close ot the last administration an autho ritative construction was given to the statute, and since that time this construction has been followed. This has had the effect of limiting the operation of the law to its Intended pur pose. The discovery having been made that manv names had been put upon the pension roll by means of wholesale and gigantic frauds, the Commissioner suspended pay ments upon a number of pensions which seemed to be fraudulent or unauthorized pending a complete examination, giving no tice to the pensioners, in order that they mic-ht have an opportunity to establish, if possible, the justice of their claims notwith standing apparent invalidity. This, I understand, is the prrctlce which has for along time prevailed in the Pension ' Bureau ; but after entering upon these recent investigations the Commissioner modified this rule so as not to allow, until after a com plete examination, Interference with the pay ment nf a nension apparently not altogether void, but which merely had been fixed at a rate higher than that authorized by law. I am unable to understand why frauds in the pension rolls should not be exposed and corrected with thoroughness ana vigor. Every name fraudently put upon these rolls is a wicked imposition upon tne kindly sen timent in which pensions have their origin , every fradulent pensioner has become a bad citizen : every false oath in support ot a pen eion has made perjury more common and false and undeserving pensioners rob the people not only of their money, but of the patriotic sentiment which the sur vivors of a war, fought for the preservation of the Union, ought to Inspire. Thousands ot neighborhoods have their well-known fraudulent pensioners, and recent develop ments by the bureau establish appalling con spiracies to accomplish pension iraads. uy no means the least wrong done Is to brave and deserving pensioners, who certainly ought not to be condemned to such assocla tlon. Those who attempt in the line of duty to rectify these wrongs should not be accused of enmity or indifference to. the claims ot honest veterans. " The sum expended on account of pensions for the year ending June SO, 1893, was $156,- 740.467.14. The Commissioner estimates that $165, 000,000 will be required to pay pensions during the year ending June 30, 1894. -THE INDIANS. - The condition of the Indians and their ul timate fate are subjects whioh are related to a sacred duty of the Government, and wnicn strongly appeal to the sense ot justice and the sympathy of our people. Our Indians number about 213.000. Most of them are located on 161 reservations, con ' raining 86.116.531 acres of land. About 110, 000 of these Indians have, to a large degree, adopted civilized customs. Lands in sev eralty have been allotted to many of them. Buch allottments have been made to 10.000 Individuals during the last fiscal year, em bracing about 1,000,000 acres. The solution of tne Indian proDiem ae- pends very -largely upon good administra tion. The personal fitness of agents and their adaptability to the peculiar duty of car ing for their wants, is ot the utmost import ance. The law providing that, except la especial cases, army officers shall be detailed as In dian agents, it is hoped will prove a success ful experiment. There is danger of great abuses creeping into the prosecution of claims for Indian de preciations, and I recommend that every possible safeguard be provided against the enforcement ot unjust and fictitious claims oi this description. FOBXSTBT AND AOBICEXTCBX. The report of the Secretary of Agriculture will be found exceedingly interesting, spe cially to that large part of our citizens inti mately conoernea xa agriculture occupa tions. I especially commend to the attention of the Congress the statements contained In the Secretary's report concerning forestry. Tho time has como when efficient measures pliouid be taken for the pruf-ervat'on of our for!.ts fL indiscriminate n,T rerr.edi'vss destruction. T ' , ' The regulations of 1892 concerning Texas fever have been enforced during the last year, and the large stockyards of tho coun try have been kept free from Infection. Oc casionally local outbreaks have been large ly such as could have been effectually guarded against by the owners of the af fected cattle. While contagious pleuro-pneumonla in cattle has been eradicated, animal tuber- culosis, a disease widespread and more dan gerous to human lifethan pleuro-pneumonia. Is still prevalent. Investigations have been made during the past year as to the meant of its communication and the method of its correct diagnosis. Much progress has beu made in this direction- by the studies of the division of animal pathology, but work ought to be extended in co-operation with local authorities until the danger to human life arising from this cause is reduced to a mini mum. In the year 1839 the Congress appropriate 1 $1000, to be taken from the Patent Office funds, for the purpose of collecting and dis tributing rare and improved varieties ot seeds and for prosecuting agricultural investiga tions and procuring agricultural statistics. From this small beginning the beed Division of the Department ot Agriculture ha grown to its present unwieldy and unjustifiably ex travagant proportions. During the last nsnat year the cost of seeds purchased was $66,548.61. The remainder of an appropriation of $135,000 was expend ed in putting them up and distributing them. It surely never could have entered the minds of those who first sanctioned appropriations of public moneys lor the purchase ot new and improved varieties of seeds for gratuitous distribution that from this would grow large appropria tions for the purchase and distribution by Members of Congress of ordinary seodp, bulbs, and cuttings which are common in all the States and Territories and everywhere easily obtainable at low prices. In each Btate and 1 errttory an agricultural experiment station has beeu established. These stations, by their, very character and name, are the proper agencies to experiment with and test new varieties of seeds : and yet this indiscriminate and wasteful distribution by legislation and legislators continues, an swering no purpose unless it be to remind constituents that their representatives are willing to remember them with gratuities at public cost. Under the sanction ot existing legislation there was sent out from the Agricultural , Department during" th last, fiscal yar. enough of cabbage seed to plant 19,203 acres of land, a sufficient quantity of beans to plant 4000 acres, beet seed enough to plant 2500 acres, sweet cora enough to plant 7800 acres, sufficient cucumber seed to cover 2025 acres with vines, and enough mnskmelon and watermelon seeds to plant 2675 acres. The total quantity of flower and vegetable seeds thus distributed was con tained in more than nine million packages, and they were sufficient, if plantod, to cover 89,596 acres of land. In view of these facts this enormous ex penditure without legitimate returns of bene fit ought to be abolished. Anticipating a consummation so manifeetly in the interest of good administration, more than $100,000 has been stricken from the estimate mndo to cover this object for the year ending Juni 30, 1895 ; and the Secretary recommends that the remaining $35,000 of the estimate be con fined strictly to the purchase of new and im proved varieties of seeds, and that these be distributed through exp riment stations. Thus the seed will be tested, and after the test has been completed by the experiment Btation, the propagation of tho useful va rieties and the rejection oi the valueless may safely be left to the common sense of tho people. THE CIVIL SERVICE LAWS. The continued intelligent execution of the Civil Service law and the increasing ap proval by the people of its operation aro most gratifying. The recent extension ot its limitations and regulations to the employes at free delivery postofflces, which has been honestly and promptly accomplished by tne commission, with the hearty co-operation of the Postmaster General, is an immensely im portant advance in the usefulness of the sys tem. I am, if possible, more than ever con vinced of the incalculable benefits conferred by the Civil Service law, not only in Its effect upon the public service, but also, what is even more important, in its effect in elevat ing the tone of political life generally. NEED OF PUBLIC ECONOMY. Economy in publia expenditure is a duty that cannot innocently be neglected by those intrusted with the control of money drawn from the people lor pur lie uses. It must be contessed that our apparently endless resources, the famil iarity or our people witn immense ac cumulations of wealth, the growing sentiment among them that the expendi ture of public money should In some manner be to their immediate ana personal aivan tage, the Indirect and almost stealthy man ner in which a large part oi our taxes are ex acted, and a degenerated sense of official ac countability have led to growing extrava gance in Governmental appropriations. At thl; time, when a depleted public treas ury confronts mi, when many of our pooph are engacred in a hard struggle for the neces jtries of life, and when enforced economy U nresslng upon the great mass oi our coun trymen, I desire to urge with all the earnst- ness at my commani mat congressional legislation be so limited by strict economy a to exhibit an appreciation of the condition of the Treasury and a sympathy with the straitened circumstances of our fellow-cit izens. The duty of public economy Is also of 1m mense Importance In its intimate and neces sary relation to the task now in hand of pr3- vidlng revenue to meet uoTernmem expendi tures, and vet reducing the people's burieu ot Federal taxation. TARirr CHANOES. Aftr bard itrugglo-tariff reform is dl mpi v hofnra uL Nothing so Important claim our attentloa, and nothing so cleirly present j Itself as both an opportunity and a duty an opportunity to deserve tha gratitude of our fellow citizens and h duty Imposed upon us by our of t-repeate4 professions and by tho em phatic mandate of the people. After a full discussion, our countrymen have spoken in favor of this reform, and they have confided the work ot its accompnabment to the hand 'of those who are solemnly pledged to it. If there Is anything in tho theory of a rep resentation in public places of the people and their desires, if public officers are really ili.' servants of the people, and if political prom ises and professions have any binding lore, our failure to give the relief so long awaited will be sheer recreancy. Nothing should inte vene to distract our effort until thH reform i accomplished by wis and careful legislation. While wo should staunchly adhere to th principle that only the necessity of revenu-) jnstine the Imposition or tariff duties I other Federal taxation, an 1 that they fh ill Delimited by strict economy, we cauaot-H our eyes to the fact that cond.tiou navi? grown np among us which In Justice and fair ness call for discriminating care in the distri bution of such dutlos and taxation as tho emergencies of our Government actually de mand. Manifestly, if we are to aid the people di rectly through tariff reform, one of 1U most obvious features should be a reduction in me9e1fJarlff chr?e "Pon the nccesnarles of lire. The bench ta of such a reduction would Pe palpable and substantial, seen and felt by thousands who would be better fed and better clothed and better sheltered. These gifts . should be the willing benefaction of a Gov ernment whose highest function is tho pro motion of the welfare of the people. Not less closely related to our people's pros, perityand well-being is the removal of re. strictlons upon the importation of the raw materials necessary to our manufactures. The world should be open to our national in genuity and enterprise. This cannot be whil Federal legislation, through ths imposition of high tariff, forbids to American manufactur ers as cheap material! at those used by tbcir competitors. It Is quite obvious that the enhancement of the price ot our manufactured products re sulting from this policy not only confines tna market for these products within our own borders, to the direct disadvantage of our manufacturers, but also Inoreases their cost to our citizens. The interests of labor are certainly, though indirectly. Involved in this feature of our tar iff system. The sharp competition and ac tive struggle among our manufacturer tr supply the limited demand for tholr f-ooW- oooii nil t&e nnri,n market to which tl4SBVm consigned. Then follows a suspension ui .tfc -in mills and factories, a discharge of em ployes.and distress in the homes our working men. Even if the often disproved assertion could be made good that a lower rate of wages , would result from free raw materials and low tarff duties. te intelligence of our working- -men leads them quickly to discover that their steady employment, permitted by free raw material, is tho most, important factor, in their relation to tariff legislation. A measure has been prepared by the appro priate Congressional committee embodying - tariff reforms on tho lines herein suggentcL which will be promptly submitted ror legisla tive action. It Is the result of much patriotic' and unsclQsh work, and I balleve it deals with its subject consistently and as thoroughly as. existing conditions permit. I am satisfied that the rcluced tariff duties . provid-d for in the proposed legislation, added to existing internal revenue taxation will. In . the near future, though perhaps not Immedi ately, produce sufficient revenue.to meet the '. ne-ds or the uovernmenu . The committee, after fun consi'iorauon, ana to provide against a temporary cenciency which mav exist before the business tf tho country adjusts Itself to the new tariff scbod- u es. have wisely emoracea id tneir pian a tuw addit ional internal revenue taxes. Including a small tax upon Incomes derived from certain corporate investment. These new assessments are not oniy aowo- lutely Just and easily borne, but they have the further merit of being such as can tie remitted without unfavorable -justness nisiuroancrs whenever the necessity of their imposition no longer exists. 4w - - In my great desire for the success of this ty measure I cannot restrain the suggestion that its success can only be attained i.y mean of unse'nsh counsel on the part of tho friends of tariff reform and as a result of their willlon- ness to subordinate personal desires ana am bitions to the public good. The local Intcrosts affected by the proposed reform are so numer ous ana so varied mat ir an are insim-ou upon the legislation embodying tne rciorm must Inevitably fall. tn conclusion. iriT intense feeling of respon sibility Impels ms to Invoke for the manifold Interests of a generous ana nrauun it . the most scrupulous care, anfl to picnire rnv iiling support to every lerrisiauve euivii the advancement or the greatness aim pcrity of our beloved country. . HAS CONCLUDED ITS INVESTIGATION. Tf9 Committee Investigating the Low Price of Cotton Nearly Heady to Report. ' WA8nixoTO!kD;0. Repot 1. receiv ed from the" sub-coroomU'O oft niicni ture, which is investigating the lowTTT of cotton are to the effectthnt thecom mittce has at last conclnled its in vestigation in the cotton-growing dis tricts. The committee is at prracnt in New Orleans, where it has been engaged for the pnpt ten days, having gonn there from Memphis, where eight days' time was ppent. The investigation has been very thorough into the cause of the depression and the testimony of many persons who are in poascbRion of facts bearing upon the question and or those who bold opinions', In been taken by the committee. There is some complaint of over-pro duction and of the lack of diversity of crops in the South, but the generol bo lief seems to be that tho scarcity of money is the one great reason for the exiting depression. Tho commilteo is expected to complete its labors in Memphis in time to reach Washington for the assemblage of Congress next Monday, or a few days later. It is probable that the committee will visit New York and the cotton manufactur ing districts of tho Eastern States coon after the holiday. Why She Has Lived So Long. Henrietta, N. Y. "The reason I have lived so long, and kept always so well arid hearty," said Miss Eliza Work of this town, who will be 100 years old, if she livessix weeks longer, "isbecnuso I never drank tea or coffee, and, above all, never got married." Miss Work keeps house for her nephew, George W. Lincoln, r.nd keeps no help. RhewBsborn ntKt. johnebury, Vt., on January 8th, 1794, and cunie to Monroe county eighty years ago with her brother. At the ago ofl'l nhe traveled alone to her native place, and -ikxlflifs that sho was not a bit tired, ' eilher going or returning. - . "I have done a big day's work every tiny for more than 91 years," nhe says, "and I expect to do a great many more. I have never had ocenfion lo iipo spectacles yet, and ray teeth are the nume teeth I have always had. My brother lived to bo 101, and would have lived much longer if he had never married. He-drank coffee and tea. too. People who marry and drink coffee and tea ought not to expect to live very long." One Hundnd Fortieth Anniversary. The Moravians of Old Town, near Winston, N. C, celebrated the ono hundred fortieth anniversary of the founding of their con gregation on Thursday lant. This is the mother church, and the firt ono establinhed by the Moravians in tho Bouth. On October 8, 1853, a com pany of twelve single brethren set out from Bethlehem, Va., to form a mttls ment in tho wilds of the Huutb. Among tho number was Bcrnlmrd Adam Onibe, the flrtrt minister of the infant ecttlement, who died in his 9 2 J year, and on his 90th birthday walked from Bethlehem to Nazareth," Va.., a distance of ten miles, and walked bnck a few days after, having returned to Pennsylvania from North Carolina in after years. . ft