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The evening world. [volume] (New York, N.Y.) 1887-1931, July 14, 1920, Final Edition, Image 3

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THE EVENING' WO R&D, 'WEDNESDAY, JTJVL Y 14, 1920,
HOW TO FULLY UNDERSTAND THE GREAT YACHT RACM
ft
RACES FOR AMERICA S CUP
WILL BE CONTEST OF RIVAL
CREWS AS WELL AS YACHTS
Seamanship of Men as Impor
tant to Victory as Sailing
Qualities of Craft.
IS A .BATTLE OF SArLS.
Each Captain Plans Their Use
According to Wind and
Sea'-Conditions.
The present series of races for the
famous America's Cup will bo sailed
over two courses oft Sandy Hook, so
laid out as to extend to the utmost the
seamanship of the rival crews and the
nailing qualities of tho two yachts.
The races begin Thursday and will
bo Balled every other day until Sham
rock IV. or Resolute has won three of
the Ave races that are scheduled.
Three straight victories would end tho
series and dctcrmlno tho ownership of
tho cup. Tho races are scheduled to
tart at 12 o'clock noon (daylight sav
ing time), and each to bo considered a
race must bo concluded within six
hours of tho firing of tho starting gun
from the committee boat. Accidents to
boats or crew do not necessitate a call
ing off of the rnce, though heavy seas
and squally weather may forco a post
ponement from aay to day.
To tho landsman tho myriad Intri
cate spurs, ropes and sails of these
great racing machines, together with
thMr technical names, will remain
forever a inymsry, for racing In ono
of theso great aevonty-flvc-footers ifl
going to be a rich man's sport for
many a year. Tho following general
outline of terms of description of the
racers Is written with a view of mak
ing clear to tho average landsman a
mind picture of tho racers, so that ho
may vlsu.illzo the contest from tho
dsy-by-day descriptions that will ap
pear In Tho Evening World.
START TO BE MADE OFF SANDY
HOOK LIGHTSHIP.
The start of tho races will bo made
off the Sandy Hook Lightship, and
tho course will bo signalled to tho
racing yachts from tho committee
bout Two courses are available, and
their use will bo alternated. The first
raco Is likely to bo along a straight
lino fifteen miles out to sea and re
turn; tho second over a triangular
course each leg of which will bo ten
miles. Koch race, therefore, la of
thirty miles.
Yacht racing demands that every
possiblo sail that may be used during
tho course of tho race Bhall be ready
for Immediate use. Each yacht car
ries three or four complete suits of
sails, which are changed frequently,
owing tc their stretching In tho heavy
winds.
Hefore the race each skipper, with
his knowledge of the wind and sea
renditions and the course In mind,
has laid out his plan of campaign,
and his crew has accordingly pre
pared the sails It is Intended to use.
The first sail to bo set, of course. Is
Flying Boat to
For tho first tlmo In tho history of
tho America's Cup, Tho Kventng
World will cover tho raco "lietweon
Itcsoluto and Shamrock IV. from tho
ulr.
Through the courtesy of tho Ameri
ca Trans-Oceunic Co. of No. 505 Fifth
Avenue, of which Hodman Wana
maker Is tho President, reporters for
The livening World will view the
speed contests from tho luxurious
cockpit of "Tho Ulg Fish," a Curtlss
biplunu, the largest and fastest pri
vately owned nirplano In America.
This hugo 100-fuot plane, built dur
ing tho war for -Domhlng dorman
nav.il stations, will bo flown by cx-I.ii-ut.
Commander David H. McCul
lough, I'. S. N. H. F., wbo gained
international fame ns tho navy illot
of the famous NC-3, flagship of tho
nuvy'u "Nancy'' boats which, lost in
a dense fog after 11 fifteen and a half
hour lllght toward tho Azores, landed
in a stormy sea and was afloat fifty
two hours, hor gallant crew spurning
aid from tho destroyer Harding and
"taxylng," more doad than alive, into
Tonta 'llelgada after" they had bcon
given up for dead-
Glossary of
Terms Used
In the Races
How the Landsman Can Fol
low the Forthcoming Con
tests Between Shamrock
and Resolute for the Amer
ica's Cup.
ABAFT Toward the item of the
veiiel.
ABEAM On either tide of the ve
sel amidships.
AFT Toward the stern.
ASTERN Opposite from ahead.
BATTEN -j! Light wooden strips
sewen into sans to Keep them from
Bagging.
BOARD The dlstanco sailed by
vessel on one tack.
BOOM A spar, oonnected to the
mast by Jaw, holding the foot of the
sail. .
BOW The forward part of the ves
el.
BOWSPRIT A spar projectlno for
ward from the bow of the vessel, bo
Inn the lower supoort for the libs.
KOOT (a) The lower edge of tho
ail, and (b) to travel.
GAFF The soar holdl
of the mainsail, by means of which it
is noisiea up tne mast.
GYBE To change the sails from
port to starboard or vice versa with
out goinn in stays or delaying the
progress ot the vessel.
HALYARDS Ropes used for hoist
ing and lowering sails and snars.
HAULED (close hauled) Sailing
with the vessel pointed close to the
direction from which the wind Is com
Ing.
ntu-ini now or tne vessel as
distinguished from the stern.
HEELING The listing of a ship
Caused by the force of the wind on
the sails.
JIB Any triangular sail, set nn a
stay that extends from the bowsprit
10 ino mannoao.
KITES Light and lofty sails for
use in light winds.
Lee The side opposite that from
which the wind comes.
LOG (a) an instrument for meas
the mainsail, the one sail that must
Invariably be carried. This great
spread of cotton canvas welghB many
tons and In held In place by being
luced at the bottom to tho boom, a
great, movablo pole that Is attached
to the mainmast a fow feet above the
level of the deck nd extends many
feet beyond the stern of the racer.
The top of the mainsail Is laced to
the gnff, a shorter wooden spar that
Is hoisted along the mainmast by
ropes or steel cables Itnown as hal
yards. The mainsail .Is attached to
the mainmast by wooden or steel
Carry News of Yacht Races for The Evening World
THE AMERICA. TRANS-OCEANIC COMPANIES "BIG FISH !1
It was Lieut. Commander JIcCul
lough who trained the famous It. V.
Davison unit of flyers at Tort Wash
ington and Huntington during tho
early stages of tho war. Ho Is now
retired and is acting ns General
Manager of tho America Trans
oceanic Company, which, with a re
cord of 83,000 flying miles to Its credit
In tho four years of Its existence, has
never had nn accident.
Tho America Trans-Oceanic Com
pany Is tho distributing ngnt - the
metropolitan district for tho f S3
Aeroplane and Motor Corp. i,
operating flying iboats and pla-i . In
Now York In tho summer and In
Florida in tho winter. I'. L. Freeman
Is Now York sales manager for tho
company.
"The lllg Fish," named becauso of
tho painting of Ka hull by ex-Sheriff
Itobcrt Wlnthrop Chanler, Is driven
by two 400 horso power Liberty en
gines, and when fully lnnded will
carry six tons for ten hours' uninter
rupted lllght.
HecauHu of Its extreme size more
space Is avallablo In tho cockpit of
tho piano than will ibo required by
The Kventng World, nnd Commander
McCullough Mill curry a few paying
guests on the flight, an unusual op
portunity for airplane enthusiasts to
The
ctror
i CLUB1
urina the sneed of a vessel, and (b)
the diary of the happenings on a ves
sei.
LUFF (a) to bring a vessel nearer
into the direction from which the wind
comes, and (b) the portion of the
mainsail along the mas,t, between the
boom and the gaff.
LEACH (of sail) The portion of
the mainsail farthest removed from
the mainmast, between the gaff and
the boom.
MAINSAIL The chief sail of a
hoops that slide up or down as the
sail Is hoisted or lowered.
An idea of the immense size of
the mainsail carried by the cup
racers may be gleaned from the
fact that if the sails of the Reso
lute were made from ordinary
bed sheets, fifty-four inches wide
and eighty-one Inches long, it
would require 270 of these sheets
sewed together to give an equiva
lent sail area.
Once the mainsail Is set, the top
sail Is sent aloft. In light winds, a
club-topsall Is used; should jralcs
threaten, a smaller "working topsail"
- x
SHEET sV rJlO
Boom J .JAyjAiu boomSav
seo tho greatest sporting ovent of tlin 1 Should be mnde to Commander Mc
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Keep This Copy and
vessel, bent from gaff and boom to
the mainmast.
MAST A stick or spar of round
timber or tubular steel set upright in
a vessel to sustain tne yards, booms
and sails.
, POINT To sail close into the di
rection from which the wind comes.
PORT The left side of the vessel,
looking forward.
PORT TACK To sail with tho
wind coming coming over the port
side of the vessel. 1
will be set. This Is a triangular sail,
attacnea to tne very tip of the top
mast and along the gaff of the main
sail. The club-topsall, however, Is much
larger, towering high above the top
mast by means of a club-topsall sprit,
and beyond the end of the gaff by a
club-topsall boom. This sail Is at
tached to these additional spars
("bent," the sallorman calls itl beforo
being hoisted Into place, and Is sent
up "flying," or unwrapped. Usually
a few men of tho crow aro sent up to
the spreaders to guide It aloft and to
clear away any Jam In tho number of
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the Big Racing Yachts
Know How to Follow the Race Stories
RUN Goina before the wind, or in
the direction toward which the wind
blows.
REACH To sail with the wind
slightly forward of the beam, or
abeam.
SHEETS Ropes used for operating
a sail, either easing It off 0
or nn
aullng
It in.
STARBOARD Tho right side of the
vessel looking forward.
STARBOARD TACK To sail with
ropes or 'sheets" used In hoisting It
Theso "spreaders," by tho way.
are steel arms, extending from either
sldo of the mnlnmast at tho top
of tho gaff, and along them are
stretched taut steel wlros to glvo
added strength and stcndlness to the
moat, agalnnt which such a powerful
forco Is constantly at work when tho
hugo sails aro drawing full.
Whllo ono section of tho ctAt Is
setting the club-toosall. another Is
bringing up the Jibs and staysail, done
up In "stops" and ready for hoisting.
though many tlmos theso latter sails.
too, are ont up flying. A sail Is wild
to bo sent up In "stops" when It Is
rolled up, sausage-llkc. nnd tied to
gether with bands of light yarn that
will break easily nnd permit tho wind
to fill the sail when It is "broken
out ' at tho skipper's command.
MANY COMBINATIONS IN WHICH
JIBS MAY BE USED.
The number nnd kinds of Jibs to,be
set during tho course of the race will I
depend entirely upon direction,
Oppenheim.
34th Street-New YwK
Extraordinary Reductions Thursday
125 Misses' Midsummer Dresses
Values to 15.00
250 Misses' High Class Dresses .
Values to 39.75 Reduced to 18.00
i
50 Misses' Silk Shantung Suits
Values to 45.00
I B-KLLOOr4 1
v,m
I , (OALLOOrfltpV
I OOQ11 pMSslTOON
the wind coming
side of the vessel.
over the starboard
STAY (in stays) When a vessel Is
going from one ibck to anotner, ene
is in stays at the moment she heads
directly into the wind and her sails
spill all the wind and flap,
SHROUDS Stout rope, often made
of wire stretched from the masthsad
to the sides of the vesssl, serving as
a means of ascending the mast and
as lateral strengthening stayi for the
mast.
weather conditions) wind nndf the
stnto of tho sea. and there are a
counties? number of combinations in
which tho various types of Jibs shown
In the accompanying cut may be
used.
The most difficult course la the tri
angular ono of ten miles to each leg,
testing the sailing qualities of the
yachts on every angle of the wind,
enabling tho use of every variety of
sail, Including tbo "kites," as the
big, light, flying balloon Jibs, spin
nakers and topsails urn known.
The spinnaker and balloon Jib, or
ballooner, are used In running dead
boforo the wind, or with the wind
astern. Tim sheets of tho mainsail
are cased off until that sail, with Its
attached clubtopsall, Is entirely out
board, or at a 90 degrco angle with
tho yacht Itself. This may be thrown
out cither to the port (left) or star
board (right) sldo of the yacht.
Tho spinnaker boom Is usually a
solid wooden spar, kopL when not In
use. lashed nlong tho deck w"here It
can bo conveniently coat' looso and
rigged. When a turn brings the
fOlllkK Si t
Reduced to
Reduced
Misses' Dep't3rd Floor
TACK (aolna about) To out
vssssl about so that the wind blows
anainst the other side of the sails
from which It has been blowing, by
way of the bow.
WEAR To turn tho vessel around
so thst the wind will come from one
Ids to the othtc, carrying the stern
around by the wind.
WEATHER The dlreotlon from
which the wind comes..
WINDWARD Sams ss wssther.
yacht to the point where the "kites'
may bo set, the spinnaker Is brought
from below and "stopped" up, to be
hoisted at the proper moment to the
very ton of the masL
.The spinnaker boom Is rigged at right
angles to the null, on the side oppoolte
the mainsail, and the spinnaker Is
hoisted out to tho end of the spinnaker
boom and "broken out," filling In
stantly in the wind like the huge bal
loon it Is.
Unless "the wind on.thls leg of run
nlng before the wind be too great, the
balloon Jib also is sent along In st)pt
nnd broken out, superseding all the
other Jibs and giving the yacht the
greatest spread of canvas It can carry
under any condition. The spinnaker Is
used only In running beforo the wind.
The sending up of both these last
two great sans has Deen acscrroea as
In "stops." It Is posalble, ot course.
tn iiend them in and set them "fly'
Ing," though the latter Is a perilous
proceeding, as the skipper of Lord
Dunravcn's vaixyrie is wining to tes
tlfy, after his fatal attempt to send
8.75
to 25.00
his spinnaker up flying hi his raaofl
against vigilant, bis sails bclngtJS
Med awar. and with them tha HtrfSiS
inera nope.of- winning the cud.
-inese cans, as nas been said, arJ
used only before the wind, and it?isl
easy for the layman to understand
now a vessel can travel in the strati
direction as the wind. , i
How a vessel can sail from a oolnta
to another point against the wlndfiqfj
in a direction opposite trial from!
which the wind Is blorwlnr. ia thft.l
layman's bugaboo. To sail dlreaUV
into tne wind, of course. Is lrrroosi
Bible, but It Is poastble to make hend-ll
way in mat direction by xig-zagsiar,
across me pain or tho wind, by what
la known In aoJllnr n Thntrr t -nr
uoklng." in this way, the yaehtsv:
can catch the wind In their close
hauled sails and tack to and fro, ad-
rancing eacn iacx in a aireotion ao-
tuaiiy against the wind.
HOW A YACHT MAKES PROGRESS
inilMtr TUr wiun "3
A boat is sold to be on the porti
tack when the wind Is coming from
her port (left) side, and she Is heeled J
over to siarooara or ngnt. a voat
Is on the starboard tack when the
wind strikes ber soils over the star -.,3
uuaru or mui aiac, aeeiias uer mr
to port.
Yachts are on a "sol It tack" when.
though ealllnjr for tne some point,
one rot off on a port tack and thai-
other on the starboard tack, appar-,
enuy neaamc away from each other,
but In reality ndearorlnsr to advance
aralnst the wind, mcetlnjf each other. 1
arain wnen uiey spilt tacks gauv
and come back heading toward the
unaginary etraicnt line of the course.,,
To sail from oolnt to tlnt with'
tho nind blowlnr approximately M
across the course at n to-derraa nn.'.-
trie to tho direction In which tbn -i
boats are salllnir Is known In salllos;
as "reaching." and here again the vesAsgR
sel a progress In a dlrootlon opposite .
from that from which the wind comes
by hauling the sheets close (drawing
the mainsail along the centre of tho
yacht) and "reaching for the mark,"
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