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the public piazza its bill was hung up announc.
ing the night's performance not in mere words, as with us, but with a picture of the size and colors of life, representing the last scene of the play. Two fierce looking desperadoes, with their names of Rodolpho and Gongonara painted over their heads, were crossing their swords in mortal combat, while beside them a forlorn looking damsel, named Annunziata with uplifted hands and eyes was awaiting the issue of the duel of which she seemed the object. The painter had shrewdly left the issue doubtful, so that those who felt interested in it might be compelled to come to the theatre to learn it there and to pay for it. The more economical ones could amuse themselves with the feats of a juggler, who was performing in the same piazza and every few minutes carrying round his hat for contributions _a very effectual way of dispersing a mob in all countries. The inn was here named Croce rossa, which at once recalls the Rosierucians, and, indepen? dently of all associations, is so infinitely more harmonious (like every other sound in this de Jicious language) than its English synonyme, Red cross. So too a dog was here musically called Tcsta.bianca, while in our tongue he would be plain Whitchead. But the language in Italy needs to be musical, for the women who speak it have voices like ravens. The majority of them talk like a bass-singer with a cold, calling to a friend across a river, and when they get into a passion, which is no rare occurrence, you begin to think that deafness is not so great an evil as is generally believed. I have heard an old woman on the Mohawk scold in Low Dutch, and thought it the climax of discordance; but she would be hushed into silence before the tor? rent of harsh sounds poured out by an irate Italian donna. Early rising, which is generally a minor virtue oftencr praised than practised, becomes a painful necessity in veiiurino traveling. Before day? light, a servant who wakes all night and sleeps all day, in true Itatian fashion, brings you a light and is generally surprised and shocked to find that you have thought it necessary to fasten your' door, not by the lock, which never has any key, but by some piece of furniture or other con? trivance of your own. If you rise, forgetting that you arc in Italy, y?u step upon an ice-cold brick floor, which has never felt a carpet. Every thing else is equally uncomfortable ; and when you assemble in the saloon you shiver over a tantalizing fire of green twigs, till your coffee and carriage are at last ready. You start off, just as daylight is breaking, ill-disposed to enjoy any thing however beautiful, till presently the sun peeps over the eastern horizon, and his first gleam is as potent as the spear of Ithuriel in banishing all evil spirits, and when he has fully risen, his jolly red luce and golden beams soon put to flight the ill-humor which is so apt to be? set any one who is so irrational as to get up be? fore the world is well aired. At Codisotto, we again changed countries and passed from Parma into Austria. Here our passports were reexamined with great care, though we had entered Parma from Austria. A child of five years was in the party, but his | name was not down on the passport, and the officer made as many objections as if he thought the infant a dangerous conspirator against the Imperial Government, and looked in its face as carefully, as if he were Lavatcr himself, deputed to discover from the child's phisiognoiny whether he were likely to assassinate the Emperor. He finally decided that there was no imminent peril, and allowed the dangerous infant to pass. To give Austria its due, however, it must be ad? mitted that the petty annoyances of passports arc very endurable, when accompanied by such good roads as mark the entrance into that coun? try. The change is marked upon the line of boundary though that is merely an imaginary one, and the moment that you leave the domin? ions of Maria Louisa and enter those of her brother, you find the road wider, better shaped, formed of broken stones instead of brook pebbles, protected by granite pillars at every twenty feet, and measured by milestones, always such interesting objects to travelers. The distances in Northern Italy are divided into Geographical miles, sixty of which make a degree, so that here the scientific, nautical and common miles are the same ; while in our measurements we follow the bad example of England and absurdly divide the same distance into GO parts at sea and G9$ on land. At Salicctto the Po is crossed by a flying ferry, the^arge boat or * scow ' being attached to a long rope the other end of which is anchored up stream and its heavy length supported by smaller skiffs, while the rapidity of the current sweeps the boat across the river by a very pretty practical illustration of what mathematicians call " the revolution of force." The boat was laden with casks of new wine, which in this stage of its fermentation tastes very much like musty new cider. For many miles the road lay through low and swampy grounds, over which it was easy to sec that the swelling Po, "Rex Eridanus" often exercised his rights of sovereignty, and at length a mass of towers, and high buildings was seen rising, like the turritcd Cybclc, from the waters, and this was Mantua. The city is surrounded by fortifications, ram? parts behind ramparts, which make it impregna blo except by famine or treachery. It was once called M Mantova la gloriosa" and was the scat of the magnificent Duke Gonzagas, but Ovid announces its chief glory, when he says " Mantua Virgilio gaudet." Here was Virgil born, and here has he pla^d his Tityrus/'patuitc rccubans sub tegminc fagi." * Propfvr aqu.im, ttrdit ingeai uM fletibiu errat Miucius, et tt'u?ia prxtexit ?raadiue ripu.] The Mincius is still called the Mincio, and still M wanders in slow windings, and protects its banks with the tender reed," but its sedgy marshes have no beauty except in poetry, and not a sin? gle vestige of antiquity remains in the city, ex? cept the mere memory of the name of Virgil. His statue, with a countenance full of serious beauty, and wearing a laurel crown, is seated under a Gothic camopy, in the wall of the Pa lazzo della Ragione. The only antiquities at Mantua are those of the Middle Ages, which a traveler in Italy learns to look on very contemptuously, for any thing less than a thousand or fifteen hundred years old seems to him a mere thing of yesterday, and he forgets that in his own country a house of a hundred years is an antique curiosity and a stepped down j Dutch gable end is a picturesque rarity. Among the towers of Mantua is one built in 1302, half? way up which projects an iron cage, which was the pillory of those times, and in which criminals were exposed for three hours on three successive days. A similar cage is shown at Piacenza upon the Campanile of the Cathedral, and is said to have been affixed to it in 1495. Before we accuse the Italians of barbarity we should j call to mind that in England, a lady, the Count | ess of ?uehan, was so exposed by order of Ed ! ward I. In another part of the city is the Pa. lazzo del Diarolo, which is so named, not be? cause inhabited by old Nick, but because built by him in one night. The magician obtained this favor from him by the witch-hazel-rod, which even at this present day is sometimes employed to divine hidden springs and treasures. The Palazzo del Te is the great lion of Man? tua. It is usually said to derive its name from its resemblance to the letter T, though it is really a square, hut its appellation is probably an abbre? viation of Tfjetto, or canal, a very necessary thing in that swampy spot. All the rooms of the Palace are painted most magnificently by Giulio Romano with various mythological sub? jects, interspersed with fanciful arabesques. Tiie ceilings arc carved in medallions and rosettes rich with gold, scarlet and blue, and in their centres arc paintings of some fables of antiquity. In one Phreton is seen driving the horses of the Sun ; in another Cupid and Psyche are going through their romantic adventures, and in all, every little corner is filled up with some pretty fancy. Flowers, fruit, birds, griffins, centaurs, and genii are mingled in picturesque union, and every wall deserves to be studied as a volume of painted poetry. But the "Hall of the Giants" is the most remarkable. When you enter the room you almost start back in afright, for you secin about to be rushed upon by the painted rocks and mountains which arc falling upon the Giants who have warred against Jupiter. The dome? like ceiling, the walls and the carved surfaces which connect them, are painted like a panorama, so that you seem to be in the very midst of this "wreck of matter and this crush of worlds." In the centre of the ceiling is represented the Temple of the Gods, and you can scarcely credit that it is painted and docs not recede into the room above, for you seem to see up into its interior between its columns and above its balconies out of which Apollo, Mars, Venus and the rest are looking, while Jupiter is thus destroying- the rebellious Titans. The Giants arc twice the size of life and the rocks which crush them arc proportiona bly large. From under one peeps out Poly? phemus with his one eye ; another mass is sup? ported by a strong fellow who has fallen under it, but arches up his back against it, like a cat at? tacked by a dog. One fallen column is so won? derfully foreshortened that you seem to sec under it, and all the rocks appear to project from the walls. Between the ruins, you get glimpses of the open country with the terrified inhabitants flying from the scene, but you are in no hurry to follow their example ; for although this Sala dei Giganti is not of a high order of art, still in its own way it is an unique masterpiece of deceptive painting. The hotel at Mantua, the Leone d'oro, has one peculiarity which we arc not likely to sec in America. At the foot of the staircase are painted the titles and the arms of the various noble per? sonages who have stopped at the house. Among them were the Queens of Sardinia, of Naples, and of Denmark, the King of Wirtcmberg, the Grand Duke of Modena, the Queen of Greece, 11 under the name' of the Countess of Misso longhi," and the hereditary Grand Duke of Rus? sia, " under the name of the Count Boridish." After all this parade of dignities we feared that we rude and untitled American citizens would fare but badly, but were very agreeably disappointed by a collation worthy of all praise. Mantua was left by the Porta Molina, the road through which passes over a dam which divides two large ponds, one of which is at a higher level than the other, and as the water falls through, it turns the wheels of twelve mills, distributed along the bridge, and dedicated and named after the twelve Apostles. Each has its appropriate statue in a niche in its front, and it has been well suggested that 44 this mode of designating the buildings shows how entirely the idea of the Church entered into all the concerns of life in the Middle Ages, when it was more natural to desig nate the various mills as St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. James, &c, than as number one, two, three." Beyond the bridge come the ramparts, and the road winds between the strong fortifications, from which an advancing enemy might be anni? hilated, till it crosses the last drawbridge and then passes many scattered villas which soon give place to a dreary waste of swampy rice fields, intersected by ditches and shaded only by gigan? tic reeds. For many miles this fertile but un? healthy country remains, but improves as you approach Villa Franca, a curious little village, founded in 1199. As you near it, you first come upon an old castle, four hundred feet square, with a tower at each end, and in the middle of each side, and battlements between. It was once a place of great strength, but now is dilapidated and deserted. Beyond it is the village which lies upon one very wide street, which has the pic? turesque old castle at one end, and a prospect of the magnificent Tyrolese Alps at the other. Small as is the place it contains several churches, one of which is copied from that of 11 santisshno Redentore, at Venice, the masterpiece of Palladio, and seems strangely out of place here with its grand dome towering above the petty buildings which surround it. The village has also two inns, one of which has a sign of 44 old hotel and new landlord," and the other one of 44 new hotel and old landlord." It would be a good question for a debating so? ciety to discuss which of these was likely to be the best. At the recommendation of the Vetturuto we took the latter for the night, and 44 bad at best" it was. Dinner appeared after two hours' delay, and though it was varied and abundant, none of us could cat it, so very strange were the tastes and forms which they contrived to give their meats. As a last resource, and, to ensure something clean and unseasoned, we ordered hardboiled eggs, but all in the place had just been used up to make an omelet, which had been so flavored with garlick as to be uneatable. The landlord seemed very anxious to give satisfaction, but did not really know how, as the village lies entirely away from the usual traveled routes. It was therefore a truly Italian inn, and it was mnrxmrntin Wim.""".""??"""?|| 1 |ymiiiiiiin_jgjgg [ worth while to have for once an opportunity of I trying such a one, but it is an experiment which we had no desire to repeat. The beds were haw ever excellent, like most in Italy. Mine was by actual measurement exactly seven fect square, so that a Moslem or any sutKirstitious person could sleep with his head to any point of the compass. Large as they were, they were well filled as usual with those miserable little creatures which mar tvr all travelers in Italy, so that they were gladly quitted at daylight the next morning, when a drive of two hours braught us to the classical, romantic, and picturesque Verona. YV. M. G. Lowell?Jlaniifactnrt:??Waires of Work? men?Their Intelligence? fcltlitois. &>c. Corrts;'cndface tf The Tribune. Loitkll, .\Urch 2. ISM. This city, in its palmiest days, it is said has scarcely ever presented so lively an aspect as at the present time. Nearly every person wears a ciiCfriul face and the brightest hopes seem pic turcd upon every thing moving. Another new Manufacturing Company has just been incorpo? rated called the Prcscott. It has already com? menced operations, and within twelve weeks, it is believed will have erected the largest mill in The city,?together with many other necessary corresponding buildings. If there is a healthy population on earth, in every sense of the word, 1 firmly believe Lowell at this time contains such an one. Such a thing as a suffering men? dicant is seldom, if ever seen. There are it is true out of 25,000 people but few really wealthy, ! and there arc less poor people?who are called poor in New-Engl*nd. The companies are making very good dividends, and my impression is, lhat this ought to raise the wages of the ope? ratives?and it has been done in some instance*? still the girls receive wiiat would be called in any other part of the United States good wages. A more virtuous community does not exist. It is a fact that so rigid is the discipline and police that not ahousc of ill-fame exifts in the city. Mo>t of the operatives arc well educated, and a large portion of them only work a part of the year, spending the rest of the time at their homes irUhe country. One of the paymasters told rnc recently that of the 900 whom he pays there are only some ten or twelve who cannot write, and those arc foreigners. So there is no reason to fear for the manufacturing population at present. There is a moderate quantity of fashionable and genteel here, still it is envied most heartily by a portion of those who do not " circulate" in the same circles. There always will be dis? tinctions. There are a " genteel sufficiency " of Newspapers here, and mostly flourishing as they ought (including " Life in Lowell," whose editor is in jail for libel, after receiving a tremendous flogging.) The Courier is most certainly a well conducted paper. You find Schooler, the senior editor, is figuring to advantage in the Legislature. Though 1 have no acquaintance with him, I know enough of him to pronounce him a man of talents and line feelings. I like him for the course he took with that unfortunate Eider Thurston. After he was convinced of the El? der's integrit}', as nearly all unprejudiced minds are, he came out in a manly letter and said so, and it has done much to assuage the grief of a persecuted but mighty unlucky man. The junior Editor is a young gentleman of much promise and writes well. The Advertiser (Loco Foco) is well edited and by a handsome Co? lonel. The Lowell Offering is " going on pros? pering and to prosper." It is currently reported that the fair proprietors and editors will make this year ($1,000 each, besides w/tat (hey tarn in the mills?God speed them ! Henry Clay will sweep all before him in this region. So much has llarry of the West done for the North that his friends are uneasy and impatient for the onset. Snow fell here Tuesday to the depth of twelve inches, though 'tis melting fast. There has been constant sleighing here mar four months. I left New-York Friday last, and amongst the passengers on board thi * r.w Haven were the Rev. Messrs. Muffitt an- icrpont. 'Hicy chatted most sociably to my ? ^ial gratification, for the space of three hours Ihough I did 'nt sleep with them as Botts did win the President, I occu? pied a small part of the boat where there arc only four berths. Your truly, H. Stock Transfer Eooks in tills City? To t!it Editor of Tu* Tribun- : The ease and facility with which the clerks can fill up the Certificates presenting Stock in va? rious Corporations, and the inattention with which the officers affix their signatures to them makes every one who reflects, aware of the inse? curity of the present mode of transferring Stocks. The entire Capital Stock of some of our largest Incorporated Companies is practically at the mercy of tho Clerk who has the care of the filling up of the Certificates. A little ingenious dishon? esty at this source would easily create the same trouble that Levis made in the Bank of Kentucky stock. The Western Railroad has just estab? lished a Transfer Office in this city, and should make a new rule in the form of transferring Cer? tificates of its Capital Stock. It would be an easy matter to do away with the great risk that is now borne by the stockholders in our various Incorporated Companies. Half a dozen Certifi? cates could easily be filled up,and the officers,when in an inattentive rnood, would sign them as is usual without reading or looking at them. Each one might represent five hundred or a thousand shares. A. Condors.?Three nf these remarkable birds have been brought to this country by Dr. Roberts, from the Rio Negro, in Patagonia, which arc be? lieved to be the largest and most splendid ever seen here alive, measuring from eleven to twelve feet across the wings. The two males are thought to be upwards of twenty years of age. The Chilians say that the Condor breeds once in two years, and makes no nest, but lays two large white eggs on the overhanging shelf of a bare rock. The young ones remain covered with a black down like a gosling, without the power of flight for one entire year, roosting with the parent ; bird on the same inaccessible cliff. The method of taking these birds pursued by the Chilians is to place the carcass of a guanaco within an en? closure of sticks, on a level piece of ground, and when the condors are gorged with this most at? tractive food, to gallop up and Surround them? when, not having space to run, they cannot give the body a sufficient momentum to rise from the ground, and are easily captured. [English paper. Inundation of the Zuider Zee.?Previous to the latter part of the thirteenth century, nearly the whole of what is now called the Zuider Zee was dry land. In the year 1287, 12,00? squaie miles of territory were inundated, and 80,000 persons lost their lives by the catastrophe. In 1570 an inundation occurred which cut off 100, 000 persons. Since that period similar disasters have been less frequent, owing to the contraction of dikes to keep back the swollen waters. In j 1809. however, owing to an unusual rise in the Rhine, during the prevalence of a furious ?ale from the North-west, the surface of the Zuider Zee was elevated several feet above the highest tides, the river dikes were destroyed, and the destruction of life and property were tremendous. | In the winter of 1S25, Amsterdam itself was threatened in like manner ; and it is said that if j the tide had continued to rise for fifteen minutes longer, this proud and rich city, with its 20?,- i 00U inhabitants, whould have been submerged. | As it was, the destruction was very great in a pecuniary point of view. J ^ What it* this Association? There are a great many plain people who arc sadly perplexed to know what this doctrine of Association is, which its friends and adversaries are making so much pother about. Some tell them it is a new Religion ; others that it is utter Irreligiun : some declare it Owcnisra, Commu. nity of Property, general Licentiousness, 6lc. &c. All this is not surprising. In the first place, the peculiar views and theories of the advocates of a system arc almost always blended with th< ir ar? guments in its favor; then it is difficult to set forth a new and vast idea without using new terms, or old terms in an accommodated sense, which is liable to even honest perversion. (Thus when .Mr. Brisbane asserts that the Passions? meaning the impulses, affections, desires of men ?may be so tr.iined, disciplined and directed as to produce good and not evil?there are enough ready to insist that he teaches that Angler, Hatred, Mal? ice, Envy, Lust, are good in themselves, and may be made to produce the best results.) And then again, there are thousands of the influential and honorable among us who deserve their wealth, power and consequence from usages and prac? tices which Association would interfere with, and they arc even more embittered and uncon? querable enemies of the idea. So the world wags on, the mass of those who abuse the theory confess? ing that they have never read, and never will read, ten pages on the subject; and many honest but feeble persons frightened out of the disposi? tion to inquire by the tumult of obloquy which is kept up against the new doctrine. ?The following extract from Mr. Parkk Godwin's Lecture on 4 Constructive and Pacific Democracy,'' (which has been published in 4 The Present' and 4 The Phalanx,' and will very soon be issued in a cheap tract by Burgess and String? er.) presents the gist of the muttenso clearly and simply that we hope it will commend itself to the consideration of all candid inquirers, and even of thousands who have been honestly prejudiced against the idea of Association, viz : PART II. In the first part of the Essay, we came to the conclusion, that the only remedy lor the existing distresses of Society, and particularly of the working class, could be found in soine plan for the uniting of material interests. We said, that it was possible for the intellect of man to devise means by which Labor, Capital, and Talent should be made to work together, and for each other, instead of against each other, and through which every man would labor for his neighbor. But thus iar, our a'gument has been mostly critical; we shall now attempt to make it con? structive. ? I.? Organization. One fact, as much as any other, strikes us, when we consider the material creation of God. It is, that this whole universe is made according to a law of organization; that there is nothing in itincoherentor at loose ends; that from the planet to the plant, from the stars which arc the suns of worlds of unimaginable magnitude, to the insect whose body is three million times less than a visible point, amid the endless variety of forms and existences that link by link supply the in? terval, there is an organic law pervading the whole. Beginning with the rude masses of the mineral kingdom, which seem like mere acci? dental conglomerations?the primitive elements out of which the higher kingdoms are. to grow,? we soon see in its tendency to crystaliz ition, the mute faint prophecies of the more definite orga? nization of vegetable nature. At the summit of the vegetable series, we again discover the out? lines of the more intricate and finished structure of animals. While in man, the crown and chief of the material world, we b?-hold the consumma? tion of an organism perfect in all its parts, and perfect as a whole. It would be delighful to in? quire into this law of organization, and to show how, by the organic series, the Creator has dis? tributed the harmonies of the universe; but it is sufficient for our present purpose, to point out its existence. This immutable and eternal fact, is impressed on all we sec, that nothing is perfect which is not organized. ? II?Moral Organization. Men appear to have been aware of this law, in the efforts which they have made to carry into effect their various religious, literary, and social projects. At least, we infer so from a superficial reading of their history, from the earliest time down to the present moment. Nearly all the con? troversies which have shaken the world, have related to the question, as to* what was the best mode in which men could organize themselves, either as a State or a Chureh. The question of Government, which has been the bone of con? tention at all times and with every people, re? solves itself into a question of organization, that is, how the political relations of mankind can be best adjusted into a system, which would give the largest liberty to the individual, and at the same time preserve the unity and strength of the community. The question of the outward establishment of the Church has been a mere question as to the right method of organizing the spiritual relations of priests and people; and, in? deed, nearly all the enterprises that men under? take, seem to centre and end in an effort after a more complete organization. When a man, a sect, or a party have any new idea to propagate, it is common to begin by organizing some body which is charged with the task. Or wc might rather say, that the very existence of sects and parties is a proof of the strong tendency of the human mind toward combination and organic effort. Thus we have armies, instituted for works of destruction, which do their work most effectually; we have missionary societies, which send their agents to the remotest regions of the earth, regardless of tropic heats or actic colds; we have academies of music in which are de? veloped concords of sound the most grand and the most melting; we have institutes of learning, where the accumulated literature and science of three thousand years are made available to any capacity; we have Bihle and tract societies, that scatter religious truth like seed on the wings of the wind; we have trading and banking corpo? rations, that lay the wealth of the world under tribute, and heap up for their projectors vast, untold treasures; in short, on all hands wc see the giant, miraculous effects of systematic and regulated co-operation. Yet these instrumentali? ties are meagre and incomplete developments? mere aggrcvations of men, like the simple co? hering particles of rude matter?hardly approach? ing a formal organization, yet demonstrating, with resistless force, how great would be the vigor of a true and living organism I For if such things are done in the green tree, what shall be done in the dry ? ? III.?Industry alone without apian. And here we are struck with a notable anomaly in the midst of all these arrangements. It is that wlule men have resorted to associated effort in the execution of almost every kind of enter? prise, it has never occurred to them to organize the human forces, the vital energies by which alone all useful results are brought about. Wc mean that it is a strange oversight in the posses? sors of these forces that they have never thought of combining them for their own benefit. It is true, that military leaders, that Governors of States, that capitalists and speculators, have well known the secret of the mighty power of united labor, and have availed themselves of its advan tages. But the wonder is, that the men of in? dustry themselves have at no time, unless in I the most narrow and feeble way, arranged that cunnino-nrss and strength of muscle, which has been their only wealth, which indeed is the only source of wealth to mankind, into something like an organization. In the sphere of labwr alone, has the world remained in the state of isolated incoherent, cut-throat individuality and compe? titive antagonism. The simplest forms of mere aggregated effort have scarcely been applied to it, s.tve under the domination of some severe task? master or despot. But why should not industry be organized 1 Why should not laborers band together for the accomplishment of their end ; not as^a class merely, not as a political party, not for selfish or temporary purposes, but as the great, collective, eternal tower of Production ? \\ ill any one say that such a thing is impossible ? Can any one point out in what respect industry is incapable of being united and harmonized ? No; the impossibility is in continuing it in its present condition oJ duplicity and discord?in? efficient in its movements, at war with itself, monotonous, convulsive, repugnant and dis honorable 1 The time has arrived, when it most either come to an end in violence, or receive into itself a higher law. Now, what that law may be, is precisely the question of this epoch ; it is the question on which we arc engaged ; it is the vital, all.important problem, on which hangs the fate of our modern societies. We have got so far into the future, that we can say boldly, that labor must be organized?one way or another, the thing must he done. It is the impregnating prin? ciple of the coming time. As the personal Christ of old, who is our redemption, sprung from the family of the Carpenter, so do we most earnestly believe, that His second coming in spirit, for the salvation of our poor, decrepit, diseased and wretched societies, will be through the Family of Labor. ? IV.?Practical Examples. We have said that Industry alone has re. mained incohx rent, but we are reminded of one or two instances to the contrary, which may be regarded in the light of those exceptions which confirm the general truth. We refer now par? ticularly to an exemplification of unity of inter? ests that grew up among the cheeselmakers of Jura, and a little more remarkable instance dis? covered by Dr. Urquhart, among the Turks of Ambelakia. The former case is told us by M. Considerant, of France, who speaks from his own knowledge, to this effect. In the mountain of Jura, where the climate interdicts the cultivation of the vine and grain, and where milk cannot be sold in its pure state, owing to the distance from the cities, it is converted into cheese. It was the custom not long since, in every village of this region, where there were some twenty or thirty families, owning some two hundred cows, for each family to make its cheese for itself, and to send to market for itself, thus every day making use of some twenty or thirty utensils, some twenty or thirty dairies, and of the labor of some twenty or thirty men, both in producing the article, and conveying it to market. And in most cases, to say nothing of waste, the cheese produced was of an inferior quality ; while each family coming into competition when they came into the market, was obliged to sell at the lowest possible price, so that none gained by the sales, while the majority were losers. What did these brave mountaineers do in these circumstances? Why, they fell upon the very rational principle, that it was not wise in them to be picking each others' pockets, and would be much better could they assist each other as good friends and neighbors. So they hired a small house in the centre of the village, composed of two rooms, one of which they con? verted into a shop, and the other into a dairy. In the shop they erected a huge brass kettle, large enough to receive the daily milk product of the two hundred cows, which milk was made into cheese by the labor of a single man called, the fruiterer, without further trouble on the part of its owners. The quantity of milk deposited by any family each day was notched upon two pieces of wood, one of which was kept by the fruiterer, and the other taken by the family ; by which simple method the strictest account was kept. When the cheeses were sold, they were sold by wholesale, without losses through compe? tition, and with a comparatively slight charge for conveyance to market. From the general sum received for them was subtracted the rent of the house, the price of fuel, instruments, carriage, and of the work of their fruiterer, after which the remainder was divided among the families of the village, in proportion to the amount of milk contributed to the dairy. Thus, with one-thirtieth part of the labor, and a thirtieth part of the ex? pense, they were enabled to receive a thirty-fold return for their product. This practice, begun in the hamlet of Salines, is now the common cus? tom through all the higher provinces of the Alps. It is a simple but most significant illustration of a great truth. The other example, for the details of which we must refer to Dr. Urquhart's noble work, "The Spirit of the East," is found in the commercial municipality of Ambelakia. There, with a pop? ulation of lour thousand people, all the manufac? ture and trade was carried on according to a joint stock principle, no distinctions of interest existing between capitalists and laborers. It grew rapidly in importance; its fabrics became so celebrated, as shortly to absorb the best mar? kets ; and it annually divided from sixty to one hundred per cent, upon all its investments. Thus a weak, insignificant hamlet, in what is com? monly called one of the most despotic of nations, without a single Held in its vicinity, with no ad? vantage of position, with no local industry, with no commercial connexion, in the neighborhood of no manufacturing movement, neither situated on a navigable river nor on the sea, accessible by no road except a goat-path among precipices, its industry unaided by the secrets of chemistry or combinations of mechanical power,?did, by the simple fact of a union of interests and a union of sympathies, rise to a degree of outward pros? perity and internal harmony, unparalleled in the history of commercial enterprise. External causes of violence, and the invention of spinning jennies in England, contributed to the dispersion of this hive of labor and productiveness. ? V.?Suggestions and Projects. Is there any reason why similar combinations should not take place among the workmen and capitalists of this day, when industry is so much more developed, and the facilities of intercourse so many and important! la it not the plainest matter imaginable, how immeasurably the labor? ers of any trdde or craft would be the gainers, if, instead of working against each other as they do now, they should contrive to concentrate their energies in obedience to some law of mutual in? terest ! We can easily conceive of a variety of modes in which the principle of a common interest might be realized. The shoemakers or any other class of mechanics might, without much difficulty, form themselves into an union, under discreet and liberal laws, for the prosecution of the differ? ent branches of their trade. With a single large building, somewhere in the centre of trade, with a proper distribution of labor, allowing each man a payment proportioned to the kind and amount ol his work, with the advantage of having all the departments of the art conducted near to each other, with the best tcols and materials, buying by wholesale, and at all times commanding the markets for its sales, such a league would inevi? tably lead to the fortune of all its members. But the advantage of an industrial formation like this would be greatly extended, if the club of shoe? makers should be so enlarged as to embrace all the dealers in leather. How much could be saved in house-rent, fuel, waste of material, loss of time in passing from one place or oi to another ? Or take the business of rww^oS publishing, as an example of what nughtbe complishcd by a right division and combing of employments. Let the editorial deparinS constitute one group of laborers, the comnS and printing department another, the pubfiS would not soon grow into an extensive^ wealthy establishment ? Ncxi, let there beadS to it, a department for making paper, and a j? partment lor casting type, (so that what was ? fore only an aggregation, would now tecon*. Group,) and its economies would increase wlta, corresponding increase of efficiency. Yet a'?T pie group, of similar pursuits of this kind wJrS bo nothing compared with a series of ^> J? with all the additional force that would!* ? rived from the enthusiasm of contact and rivaL-v Now, it is a series of cooperation? that w propose, as the means of our Social Reforms" h is not a mere league on the part of the foUowtti of a particular calling, it is not a treaty 0f amir, between the members of distinct classes ; not ti? promiscuous commingling of all branches 0f trade, that we vindicate ; but it is the voluntary union of the whole of Humanity, on definite and scientific grounds. We contend* for the solidarity of the race in organic forms; wc desire the on; vcrsal association of man, according to an Dn;" versa! principle we aim at the thorough reorga? nization, not of a segment, but of the whole of Society, on a basis of individual independence and freedom, and collective harmonv and oro, gress. ???**,' "J* Letter from Mar Yohaxxa.?Extract fn<m? letter written by Mar Yohanna to a friend ip Boston: -"Ifyonask about thia country, the Mohamad^ oppress us v?ry roach. la the mountains tli?^ )4 mtubcj i fusion tmoag the Nestotiaos aud Kurdi? i We i>ISy vj?, (hatGod may help tUem. 0 mv liturlriend roardwdhu place is* Christian land, our Undo lso good I r Ch;Ktuli to live ia. Your hud is bibl-Un-1 and t 'bun hrj |U(j ^ Chrlstiaosland. In your conutry there is ten man) tttcka hut our country sword Und full of blood 0 my dear fce? pray about us, probably God d^livrr u> from the pew^cf .Moh.imim-d.ms. \ours toil,', KlUKM) Ma* roHASSi.? Enlar^emeut of The Daily Tribune, We joyfully announce to our Patrons and Readers, but more especially to our long-suffering Advertisers, that The Daily Tribune will km. larged fully one.fourth at the earliest possible moment?that is, on the 8th of April next, or at the close of the present Volume. Wc have de. layed this step as long as possible, but the pres. sure of Advertisements upon our columns learej us no alternative, and we only delay so long to finish our present stock of paper andpreven! breaking in upon a volume. Meantime we eha? publish a Double Sheet each week, to give Rooa for Literary Readings, crowded-out articles, Lt gal Advertisements,'&c. We hope thus tobe able to treat our Advertisers fairly for the pre? sent, and faithfully after three short weeks. W? trust they will continue their generous patronag?. Our new Power Press for our Daily Pape prints some 5000 sheets per hour, enabling u? to get in all the news by the midnight Southern f Mail, and yet print our whole edition by 6* A. M. THE NEW-YORK TRIBUNE Is published every morning (Sundays except? ed) at The Tribune Buildings, 160 Nassau street, on a large sheet, and furnished by Mail i j the low price of FIVE DOLLARS per annul, payable inflexibly in advance. Although ii forded at one-half the price of the Ten Dolk Dailies, its range of topics is as wide, and ii amount of reading matter not less than the an rage of theirs. To Merchants, Millers and business men go. rally, the Daily Reports of the transactions: Produce, Flour, Provisions, Metals, Good;, Stocks, &c. &c. arc of the greatest importance. Wre shall be able to print fully one.fourth owe News Matter than hitherto and allow an equ! increase of space to Advertisements. Thoac^ think The Tribune worthy of support will deep our many obligations by an effort to increase * Subscription list. (LT An Evening Edition is published tHi afternoon in time for the Mails, which conW he News received by the morning Maibss1 summary of the Markets and Stock Sales cj? 2 o'clock P. M. I O" Postmasters are authorised to remit b*. eys to Publishers free of Postage. Subscnp^ or six months will be received at the Barne.** viz : $2 50. Address GREELEY & McELRATH. Publishers, Tribune Buildings, New-Yori ?Alte und Neue Welt.? (Old and Nrjo IVwld.) A large and handsome Weekly Whig paf* in the German langsage, will be puWiiW" The Tribune office on and after Saturday, M?? 14th. It will be as large a German pf* there is in the country, ably edited, and warff-! advocating a Protective Tariff and the# tion of Henry Clay. Many of the Editor^' The Tribune will be translated for its colas* We trust it will be an able auxiliary to the & Cause. . Wc appeal to all German Whigs, who can in any way aid the circulation? paper, to do so from the start. We are to publish it for the Good of the Cause, and? no hope of making a farthing by it: ^^fZ friends see that, beyond our own time and we lose nothing ? Terms, $2 from now & ? vembcr next; 6 cents a copy, (in the JJvJ able on delivery by carriers;) $4 per honwj Newsmen. We are making arrangem*3-5^. serve the City thoroughly; meantime ** be happy to receive the names of 8ub?c. ? j this office. Life and Speeches ol Henry CM' Another large edition of this nnpiw^ cheap work has just been printed, and lishcrs are now ready to supply orderst?^ ^ tent with promptness and despatch. * is in two octavo volumes of *V*vj?L$ pages with steel engravings,.and is ^/ French style, paper corers, for a single *l price 80 cents. ?;ir tid*.** Bound in boards with cloth backs acd wholesale price 95 cents. ^.y^fr Bound in full cloth with stumped ud=*. ?? price $120. , -t ?hol?*1^ Bound iu full cloth with gilt backs, $1 ^ ?ot^ We are constantly recetviuj cru.n tm direction* to have it forw urded by mad. 1? yjMT cost double the price of ?M book, and we J*? ?jW who may wish to obtain it to send UKW ?raen chuits who may be visiting th? cities far I'3***' y tPJk XT' Wherever a club of twelve or W?V^S* on'erlace, merchants or others who iQiitw . rsceare th?a at the wlxolei^e^rice^ McKb|$>