Newspaper Page Text
TIIK STUDY OF MAX.
I A HKAVV TASK WELL DONE. A HISTORY OF TIIK MENTAL '".HOWTH OK MANKIND IN ANCIENT TIMES. Bf .h>hn ?S. Mitt,;!. Four volumes. Pp, .*-:. J7S, 398, fi. ll' nry ll '.t * Co. Though thc mass ol nw! "i.i! whk*ta Mr. liitt'M has worked over is rwy gnat, his method of arranging his fa. ta ix Simple, ll- screes -with others in iBaklns three grand stages i-i the progress of hu*nanlty?aavaa*elsiri, lieathen bar? barism anal civilisation. Only tba Aral division ls milly hann.,r.-ii.-,,iis it*, tb* way it i.-' described. When lt comos io barbarism ami civilisation, tiio work soon divides on aortal or nalia.nal lino.-. Possibly tho case would b- Hi'' s..n.e With savagery if it could i- thoroushly UBderstood from the point of view of civilisation. T.> a white mun all ladmen !"a'K alike, and thc easiest Inference is thai they act alike. Bul they flo not. They vary as much Individually as their civil./.e.1 neighbors. In tlie off, rt to Imagine Hie practices of the remote progenitors of the civilised races, Mr. Hlttell Itnaaines thom to have ben like the rude races of the present day. The amount of informaii'iti that bas been gathered about tbese modern ravages is overwhelming snd Mr. Hlttell has >ihowfl extraordinary skill In sununarislns lt between thc covers of a volume of al.a.ut four hun<ireii pases. He collects what is known as to the peculiarities of tb* various agroups .af un* civllix?al men betonsins to the black, tbe yellow i t nnd the white races, ii.-t only those of the pres- I j ent day, but ..f tbe prehistoric past. With the . f savage time has almost Bto id Still, and he ls but ; little susceptible, mentally at least, ta. differences of geographical CODdltlona Thee* are startling considerations, because they are presumptive evidence against the possibility .if evolution upon which Mr. Hlttell builds Upr tbe vast fabric of his ethnological system. The modern savage rarely shows any desire for Improvement. If the same was true of those savages from whom the more cultivated races have aiiscn, then it is Mflcult to account for the beginnings of the movement toward civilisation, Moi cover, if a rjroup nf savages becomes civilised nowadays the result ls due not to ordinary causes f.i h ks have been acting upon the group for ages. but to the extraordinary and accidental cause which brings the group into contact with better educated people. Were it not f?>r **uch accidents at intervals civilization would apparently never have boen diffused. But at the outset, tbeoretl cally at least, all men were equally Incapable, equally brutal and equally Ignorant. If one devises a series of divisions in the life of the race he finds that pome groups at thc present moment, sav after half a million years of effut, have reached the rank of hunters, others that of farmers, others that of shepherds, while others, no better than the rest at the beginning, in? dulge in ail the variety of modern civilisation. He will find that some have got as far as poly? andry, others as far as polygamy and still others to monogamy legally enforced. Some have meagre BOttoas in the domain nf religion, others profuse pupi rstltlons; and the Ignorant seem to differ as nina h among themselves in this matter as they do from people of better training. The inference from the confusion which be? longs to the mass of details collected by Mr. Hlttell. not to his arrangement, is that human evolution, so-called, is na>t a necessary fact in the history of the race, but an accident. The sus? picion crosses the mind as on<> passes from Item to Item of the thmiFands which the author has arranged, that all t'.e infinite results of civiliza? tion rested once on the mere turn of a life. What has existed to prevent the spread of the 1 lah..man Kmplre over the whole of Africa? Why did it hapiatn lhat the inst raActeat cxsttfederacy <A Northern icdmen was n..t organised until shortly >efore the coming caf Europeans? Nobody can ?mswor these questions, but lt certainly looks as if what is usually called human progress was i>y no means a necessity In the hist.ny of the race. An Interesting article, perhaps a book, might be written ob disease as a fait.ir in the origin of civilization, lt is certainly suggestive that the flrpt Indications of self-conscious move? ment in mankind characterised som* of the Un? healthiest spots on the globe?tlie valleys of the Kile, the Euphrates, the Tang-tae-Klang ami I the Ganges. Was the genius which lighted th" way to civilization at the outset the product of a normal condition In human lite'.' Has the p. r feotly normal, healthy, contented man ever helped the race forward at any time? These are not trifling questions. They touch the heart .,f the subject. Kvery one who has meddled with the sciences ol" humanity knows how tentative they all are and how difficult Ik anything like a generalization, lt ls a convenient hypothesis that primitive man went through stages of life such as have b-en suggested by Hie state r.f modern savages; but lt would be rash to assert thal anything of the kimi was actually true, lt is simply from the civilised point of view that the lowest form of culture .-caius to be tba', aaf non tilling Savagi a In the actual life of horne races this stage may have followed others presumably far higher, just as a group of T.xas herdsmen, who, as far as occupation ls concerned, ate on the cJlture level of the Brat children of Abraham or of a modern Tartar family, may be indivldu ally Spa rillWS of the civilization of New-York or London. And linly by an artificial standard can !t be said that there has been any 1 mu kward movement along the supposed evolutionary lines In either case-. Mr. Hilted himself betrays some misgivings when he contrasts the political sys? tem oi i-aha-iney with that of the Iroquois Con? federacy, aad points out that according to the favorite ethnological theory the former is a great advance beyond the latter toward civilization, Science that upholds such a parada.x ls not wholly trustworthy. One thing is certain. Tlie League of the Six Nations was a natural result of the federative t' :.?!> tn i< s Invariably shown by the American Indian. On the other hand, the bloody Daiioman monarchy ls as unexplainable fr.au its African environment as it would be in Europe or south Ann rica, if it can evei be shown that tho old Phoenicians had a colony in South Afri''a then the incessant massacres of Dahomey and Ashantee will be accounted for. There ls one broad mark between the down. right savage an J the barbarian -thajugh lt, too, ls sometimes overstepped'?and tbat Iles in the treatmen: of metals. Tin* American Indian put a high value on copper and yet never learned to smelt it. He hammered tia- native ors int', shapes that wert- useful to him. Mr. Hlttell deals with possib'.e exceptions in Africa lay supposing tint certain negro tribe;, learn..! metallurgy from the whiles. He does not allude io the ancient mines and smelling worLi found in Mashonaland as having anything to do with the use of metals by negroes. But In general the savaga- in all iierioils can be relegated to the stone age. I-'i'..m the hist moment that man attracts the attention of in? vestigator* he is found to be in possession of taiols end weapons that will make an incision in a ire.. or an animal. He has Invented missies f ,r qm in war and hunting. He can talk. He can make a fire. He belong* to a rudimentary ki "..;. whl.-h ' unites in offensive and defensive war. He ls familiar with the principle of blood revenge, and ' he betrays often with strange contradictions a ', belief in magic and in the nlstencs in orv or less prolonged of the disembodied soul. As a savage he tried all the climates of the globe and all the natural conditions of life known tither t. the barbarian or to the civilized man. "He became." saya Mr. Hlttell, "an -x-.-ellem hunter ami nsh crman. He supplied himself witta clothes and dwellings. H.- acquired skill In agriculture and navigation. He accum -lated stocks of food - (that ls. hS acquire I the habit of providing f.,r hi* necossiti-s hef,,r.o ...tel.. "He bmit large vil? lage*. He maintain.*1 communities, in which density of population. Mlmulate.i thought, favored the lively circulation ? f ideas and aided progress. He devised rules of ft lliiness to guide the inter? course between equals, between hout and guest, between chief and subject. He organized groups bound to def*nd their members, and he gradually enlarged them. He ^tabllshcd slavery, nobility, id Htr..n-- govrrnrnent Ha Invented a>fenalve ii mor anti fortlflcaUona. Ha used strategy ami % ade binnings in tactics. He adopted the..- ? t gical creeds and ecclesiastical systems. He had l ?r .-monds of Worship and a rudimentary coda I I morality." Thus the heritage h.* bequeathed , i i his betters was an ample one. He bad d .BS 1 ib-h in every department of culture. It Blight ' i *11 be said lhat he outlined the boundaries of s iiman endeavor nnd left to his successors tlie , ?k of working up the details. Bul it la Im- ( isslbls to say what country or what rac* was t rat to .bs "over or invent thc methoda or appll- < ices of which he made lise. Where fire was , - ral tamed by man. who Invented edged toola , nd weapons, who first bent (he b iw or aped th- j .,d\e r g, nre questions which cannot i > answer*.*!. On these points modern curiosity , ?ps just when that of an clent investigators did. i Dd in the Study of the origins of navigation the lOdaTB Stha .logia! says in prose what Claudian . lld in verse: j ? Invent.i s'r-mt prirnu* Til nave prof und um, Bt rudlbus remls s illlcltavlt a<'ii.t*r. Qui aubils ansi's c-ommlttere flatlbus alnum, Unas natura negat, praebult arte vjae; Tranqulllls prlmuin tr. pi hf M cnxll.l.t undia Miora securo iramlte summa burns; M ix longos lentara sinus, et llnquers terrsa Et lenl coepit pandere vela Moto. Obscure as it is. t*ke Phoenician legend of tha righi of navigation Is, as one might expect, more eflnite than that of other races. It even enl un -I Upon names. For example, one Usoos 4 Bald to hav- traversed the sea on a lot- acct lentally adapted to his purpose by fire, and even . have dlacovered the principle of the sall by prcadlng a rawhide to eal h a favoring breexe. kfter him, or perhaps identical with him. came illlcMoS -the word is .said to mean skipper? rho, as tba inventor of metal weapons, was in a lositlon to carve out of the l'i* what would i,.w, In imitation of certain modem savages, nb called a pirogue. lt was only after ac lualnbuics with agrlcuHure that the ICakbeirol, aniiliar figures to both Tyrlan and Creek wor? lup, could cultivate hemp and make the tow for taila and cordage, and thus fit oui a real ship. ither partlculara in tha narrative of PhlkJ of lybloa aiv slgnifii-ant. if not conclusive, hints if tbs traditions relative to early Inddenta In luman hlal .ry. Ths primeval Usoos had to kill ??-.isis without a weapon ? That ls, without a rontiivancs of his own -and he used their skins 'or clothing; but a little later Agreua and lalieus appeared as real hunters with thr..w 'tioks probably sharpened in the rue. The n<-xt itep f-memt'eied by the I'll,.eui.ians was hunt iiK willi net nnd hounds. That ls. they had mddenly leaped from the most Inefflcleat methoda o processes already long familiar to tho [egyptians. Contact with an advanced race lad done for them what lt always does for lavages. The term '"barbarism" as used l.y Mr. Hindi ncludea the entire historic life Of the Uld World town to the time of the Greeks aad lbs nations if the sub-troplca] regions In America. Th.- most tdvanced countries were Egypt, PhOxealcta, Syria, tobylonla, Aasyria, Hlndoatan and China. To hese the author somewhat dubiously adda labaea In Boutheastern Arabia, Bunnah and *iam. lie points out that the advance from lavage!*) to barbarism only occurred In regions rbera the winters were mild, or where there raa possibility of contact with such races aa tad already made .s,.n,.- progress. Ths Imperial tystein dominating wist territories was indls ?enaable to the evolution of distant tribes. Al he outset laolatlon served to guard tha (.-nus ?t early culture In regions like Bgypt, Cl.ma, labylonla. India or those Inhabited by the Aatei x ind the Qulchuana Tools of bronte Improved h.- methoda ..f hunting and tillage, favored the prowth of population and the collection >.f armies. Hen now learned how to cul and quarry st. na, ;o raise vaat buildings, ta defend dttea wirti massive wulls, to dis long canals and tunnels f*>r Irrigation. The barbarian artisans Invented tho square, the iev-1, the plumb-line mid tte- car? penter's rule. Th.-y Invented porcelain, glass, paper, gem-cutting, and .Ul th*- forma of writing, including the alphabet. They dlacovesad tba ale men ta ry facts of mathematics and astronomy. "If we wish." says Mr. Hlttell, "to pl. k out a few of Hie greatest schlevements of man while In th*- condition of heathen barbarism, we shall lind thal they ar., the production of bronze and Iron, the cutting of stone, the Invention of thc square, level and plumb-line, tbe building of titles, tbe organizing of nations and lbs intro? duction of the alphabet. Ties.- are worth* suc ceasors of ""peech, tamed Ure, edge tools of il ind tillage for which we are Indebted t*> savages. Public records asui -Britten laws be? came part of the govei nmenf. The admlnlstra tlon of Justice b?*came the duty of pm.ib? is, and in Mexico was Intruated to Judges holding off! ?? during good behavior and drawing salariea Evan more wonderful was the Qulchuan government Its system of aastmllat. Ing conquered communities, and of admlnlaterlng public tgy.tiis so rhat I bera sh..uld ba no ld le ne sa, dissipation, extravagance, pauperism, ..* profes? sional crime have never been squalled In civilised ?taters." in coming to the study of Judaea. Ore. id:, and Christianity, Mr. Hlttell reaches s iion.aiii mora familiar to the gen.-rai reader. A primi necessity of ins system ls that ail changes in human history shall have taken place fi "in purely natural causes. He eliminates tbe super? natural al every Hep. His dis. uselon of th* Jewish polity and ol the literature of Ihe Old Testament and the New takes the form of minute, elaborate, painstaking and wide-reach? ing criticism, ths object of which is to show that a divine revelation was not only impossible but needless. lid conclusions remind one ..f those reached by Renan Whatever controversy may be ilise,! by bis book, it will h.- acknowledged riiat be has spared n. .ff,.il and omitted few details thar -rtrtngthene 1 his arguni.nt.. ll>*als,. seeks to limit thc- dalma for Christianity as tba creator of modern civilization. His four volumes are a monunient of pail.-nt industry, in spit. of tho multiplicity of facta to be mentioned and considered, they are ano blghlyattractlvereadlng. They will be a treasury for future workmen. Such a summary was badly needed, as every on. cari testify who has meddle.I wltlh any one ..f the themes v-.hl.-h fonned a part of Mr. HHtell'a schema. Indeed, tbe list of books whi.-h the author has used ls a proof of the s.altered c*>n ditioif, Of knowledge on the nipr>-nie topic of humanity, * II rx L KY'S CEITICISM8 AGNOSTIC AKD CHRISTIAN POINTI OF VI KW. SCIENCE AND CHRISTIAN TRADITION. Essays by Th,.rims II. Huxley. Pp xxxlv, dt, l?. Ap? pleton A I'n. RBLIQION IN HI8TORT AND IN MODERN LIFE. Together with an Essay on the Church and the Working Classes. By A. M. Fairtoalrn, l?. Di, Principal of Mansfield College, Oxford. Pp, xv, BL A. i>. i'. RsutsMph <v CO. There to more than the usual amount of in-w wrltlng in tlie fifth volume of Professor Huxley's "Collecb ii Essays." He Indulgaa, for example, in a preface which rivals in length nome of his essays; and ba lias besides b prologue prepared last rear which almost amounta to a aummary of the various papers, which mak.- up the re? mainder of tba book. Ties*- places show that now as before ha maintains his militant atti? tude toward the Bible as the work of Divine inspiration. But he feels the need ,,r apologising for at tic)..s wholly eontioversial In manlier and material. Hla preference at one time was against republishing them. "When h.- had vanquish...! that thought, thara mm ramataed th-- possibility of rounding off some of the sharp corn, rs and suppressing any indications of Ill-temper that might exist. But his final verdict was to leave the papers as they were. This waa a wise de? cision. Th<-se saaaya ira reminders of an In? tellectual conflict willoh has bean going on for a loni- lime, ls still In progress, and which does not seem to have been ntt.-nded with fatal Injuries to any of the combatants. Professor Huxley b* trays. In his preface, more, sensitiveness to thu attacks "f tho?.* who wera toara guerrtllaa, or skirmishers, than to th.- blows (,f ;l redoubtable adversary Ilk'" -Mr. < Hailstone. II,, takes -atina to d-ny that he ev.-r went out of his way to dis? play hatred of Christianity or of tlie Hlble. and insists that lt was tba dominant *e<i,.j,<astlrli>m of his early days -which, as he believes, without any warrant from the Bible itself, thrust the book in his way. The passage in which he describes the condition of arTsirs as between re? ligion and science at the outset of his career i rather figurative. Everywhere, he says, In estigation in paleontola.gy and biology was arred by a high fanes on which was a notice oard: "Na. Thoroughfare. Hy Order. Mosea.M teproaches caoncerntns his more recent meddling l the affair of the swine of Gadara, ta* answers y Insisting that the historic herd was driven i his way. His controversy with Mr. (Had tone on this topic fills a considerable part of the resent volume, anal th- preface is devoted lo a lear statement of his present opinion as ta) he current criticism of the four gospels, nf OUrae, he only gives one side of the >-?'?". "*-v-;l> ii his excellence as a scientific investigator, li? an harallv claim tbe merit of impartiality. But cceptlng tbe data furnished by lbs least con ervatlVS Of Biblical critics he certainly put the onclusions more forcibly than they have ever icon pul by anybody else. with all this he still c,,iveal,s. as ho did rears tgo, the transcendent importance of the Bible is a book of Instruction. It ls to his mind, not ess than to the min.ls of his opponents, a vital ?lenient In English life and literature. What ?ver tho defenders of the Scriptures may think if his arguments, they will probably agree hat. if his pian wera canted out, the Bible vail iia.t lack reader*. Anal thar ls the main liing. lb- still frankly Concedes that the most mportanl features of civilisation in Pro>testant ?ountries, particularly tho love ?>f freedom, can ,o trace,i to lessons learned from the Bible. And ie does not sae v. nv any more than he did forty rears ag. tho prospect of a time when tho world, especially that part of lt which owns the rn at English version ss a pre rlous heritage, srlll ,?? able to da> without lt. To Principal Fairbairn alee the Bible is. ab ive ill, the Instructor of mankind In freedom anal in human equality, lb* aloes nol dea| muck In tuestlons Of inspiration, tha.ugh li ? does point mt that lo denv the pissibiiiiy bf revelation ls IO d.'tlV UM eXiStel.ee nf Q KL POT Ood COUld not h.- and not be as free ss He i.-> omnipotent. Dr. Kairbairn's biblical criticism does not de acend to detalla He sims to agtve men 9 i-raeti -al lesson, and his argument take* th* turn nat? ural to his purpose, Bupposlng himself, for rx ample, to be addressing a group of doubters wh,. raise questions ss to the condua t of tbe sn Clent Jewish people, and th.- .h.ira.t.r of tie law which they were expected to obi jr, lie (mints oul that ma.st .titi-ism ls its own answer. The cruelties and Idolatries snd licentious out? breaks of th.* .bus .ne mada' prominent by th.ir Infrequency. Bul if Ihe Phoenicians were In question, it would be seen thal Itaelr whole c ixtt r was marked by human sacrifices end br- unmen? tionable ciirc.es. To ensure the Jews ls to viv that they wei" li.uti.l t? > be i..-uer than their neighbors. This is equivalent la prai lug the law under which they lived. In the san. av to emphasize the contra--: between the , indi tlon of humanity In ancient Um* snd in the m idem period ls to commend Christianity. The author, who is no friend to the union "f Church snd stat", maintains that the failures of Christianity w.re due to fha- Infusion "f heathenism which was shown In sacerdotalism snd In the per* version of Ihe Church lo the purl ses of a po* litlcai machine. Originally Christianity was pn organism without a pries th.1. arni lo regain its hold upon the wo ii al Ibe present day it must return t.. something like Its primitive sim? plicity tr. membership should be pervaded by the feeling of equality. With the growth of democrat y In the Rtate thia revel don t ? the primitive conditions In religious li.'-- !???? .mea dally in "i" necessary. A State Church he holds to be, in the n itui** of things, a limited organism, the adherents of which must In the oul ome be found only among th* aria* to -ra ry. Il i sn retain its h ai.i on Ihe i only ?.. long as th- arisiooracj wield political power. The Meals of Christianity ar- such as ? an be realised only when all arllfl. i..l ?; Cons between niau and man have be. n d*sti I If tho churches d ? n >' n ev exert th* which they ought, lt is I.us* 'hoy have nt k-pt pace with the so, |Kl pr ?gn ?? of ihe w<-rl i \. tor the future, i?r. Fairbairn betrays nu glvlnga COUNT TOLSTOI. HIS ARGUMENT FOR SON RESISTANCE. .Tl tan ins nu it hu i-li .-a Im pu en op ar tha WI tel wi w fal a Kt. an V.I 111 I til -?? ttl tl' cl fl Till". KI NO DOM OP OOD IS "1TTTHIN TOP Christianity Sol ?* a Myall.* Ni rn rr.-.rv ol lat. Transl it* l ' ' I nett Pp. a . M. Th.- .'.?s ;i publishing ? ?? This is the dream of an enthusiast.. Th* - ak* i ? aa . ??? of faith ,? i th* aa* ? I dead or In a traneeltke sluml i vi al letoi was quoting th* sayings af Christ, ha m.gt.' well repeated the questl n, 'I'a men rather grap. thoras <.r figs of thlatl**?" Cai ll ? \; tie- rich fruitage ,,f prc, Christianity f eratic,- Whom I | ' , favorite phBo<aophy? Hfhen people deem then undeserving", thi rant Ipatl ? of rearard are amati; and this is the eondttlon "f humaalty al th* pr.-? ent <lay. Y.-t mea are 'la-ln* more for eats ?>th? r now than they ever 'iii befor* Chart! fa.rm thal can be Imagined is abundant. Bul lt i* not act omi...m. .i with thai painful can f ? own soul km.wn to other centurle* li larks that Individual hopefulness irhlcti ai ? I th* mia iri.-s of lh? Middle Ages In Western Europa and which scrim to i.- n,.- aolaceef Russia now sa rep resented In th* i>erson of fount Tolstoi. Ru ii .. i.k ,.s tii.it under a .nalderatloa coull hardly bc Imagined ns tba w.rk ot other then a H i >? lt Indicates n state of oelety which is long past I th.- r.-?t ,,f Christendom, ll i* true tiwi the endeavors to illustrate ins criticisms on modern Hf* i.v allusion* t,. the eoantrlM ,,f Western Bu i |." and ta. America: btu ll will i..- ptah) lo all <<t those concerned lhal the** all islona hava mora than literary vaaru*o< ia While n in impoaslUa to char,- Toiatofa antici? pations of a golden bk*, it must bc agrei I lhal Ihe method by which he expects ll t , be brough) abo ii is strictly within the linea laid dows In th* Kew Testament. He lo'iks for n,i violent outbreak sgalnst the world aa lt ls. Hla anarchy would be a v.ry different thing fr. rn that pf th* bomb throw lng miser.nuts, whose fat,*. a<*v*ttbeless, he de ploTcS. lb- da" < MM Ca.tl'brilll g, 1,1,1st I lt (? .1 Ill/a Hon. but he does net think it tlie moat efficient means of r-futin. Hla opinion ls Hist every mas who thought it wrong to b.-ur anny, to punish crime, to pay tax<*s >.r to support, except under compulsion, n government wi.i. ii ha knew t. bs m.bc t and H. iles*, should calmly aet his fa.-,. against these things. Whai ona man did others would do, uri the fore* of tins p>asslv* resistance would at last be. ome too atrong to ba overcome. The Idea Is not fresh willi COUHl Tolstoi. It ls fa? miliar to the Friends, to the marni,, rs ,,r peace bo* detles, anal lo Innumerable sects of p Unionists, par* tlcularly in Rttssta. ii" himself glvea so many es ia of liullvlilual uctlajn such as h.- adVOCatM as nu-ht render hie own book raperfluoua There is not much us.- in preaching what everybody already knows. The suffcrlnK end am.a,yalu,. ( , which those are subjected who passively opppga What they consider evil-doing becomes less as tba years go by, even in Russia. Public .ipili..ai luis slowly formed un the side of these people whose Ont) fault is their eccentricity. The Oovernment which used to punish (beni severely hms found lhat lt only Kaye th-in the martyrdom which they longed for. without formally aackaowtaedglag that it ls in tier taffong, lt has Kraalually leeasned Its severity. it en.i.uv..rs ta. hanan.- such eases mcratly. But In spite of every efTa.rt. they b*C0B>S known nnd the prlncipie Buffered tnt Kains now adherent*. Cer? tainty preaching ami suffering w?r? among thc most iii|p'irtant factors In the early success of Christianity. But as fount Tolstoi observes, the mass af munkiiid have no prtferenei a for good or evil. They fall on the s, jg of (he party which ls stroiiK-'st. Atel when his passive oppoaentg of Wnmg become aver so slightly prapiiadsisai. th<en the mass will ?..I.il.l. tm th'ir si.I,-, tl,.- Kr. .it BMp of humanity will rlijht herself ..nd Iwgh) her \,.\ - ano un prosperous seas. U'.r- there not Just such dreams a Ihoiisati'l years ago mid two thoUSSn I years hk.), In aach case accompanl.-d by presm;.?H of tbe approaching end of the World'* If Count Tolstoi ls more ralgnal than th" Anarchists or the Socialists, he ls equally silent on the wild visions of the Chlllasts. He anticipates BO millennium which ni,-n cannot CMSt* for themselves. For thone of us Who lack faith, wnltlnx costs nothing. The burden Of Ta.lstol's thought ls that Injunc? tion of Christ, ?'ii<*?,ist n-'t evil" ile translates it Into a prohibition C*f war, of capital punishment, and of UM support of Kuveriiment wi,I. 1. provide* for war and punishes criminals. Ha aiwells long on the miserable slat* of mankind at the present day by way of |adl>Catlag tb* ponsll.illti, g of uni renal pases. His vision is that of the anehMl llehr.-w. who saw all the world turning Us BWOrda Into plough share* and Its spears imo pruning hooks. Neither that ancient prophet n..r th,..,- who ?folioW?d him saw any such thing happen hs they had rarenaKivl. Put In the matter of war sini-thliig really has happened which is Important. The In tarvalg of peace hav* b?conio lunger us thu* has sneed. Public opinion lia* made reckless wars uossible. But Tolstoi inveighs against the stan I anales and tha military preparations of lu? is, ll- gaea too far even for bia own argument. la tisilsss to accuss of guilt tin* majority of tbs nan race, lr cannot b>* tried, censured nor pun? ed. Th.* majority of mankind insist on aatlonsl l territorial division-, oa dlff-rrences of language nh could be obviated in s generation If ..ll ..1*1 ree. These things innis.- human harmony Impos- | le. Th- srai ' government in th.- -rorld ls the trument, not the rontroller, of md elementary Mic opinion, 'die arm.es will stand until Tolstoi I hi* r>esj*e-lo*rmg sectaries cureate a new public alon. Ile acknowledges that persons in power ? as anxious for peace as he is himself. Bul v do not s.-e how to let go the preparations for r without endangering society. When Tolstoi ls them thal tho presenl stains of society is not rth preserving they look at nlm Incredulously. ?ll th*-v may. They do not share his absorbing th in humanity. \\'h*-:i they give up a usage or law, th.-v wanl something In its place, and Toi- ' ii gives them nothin*:. aol even 'h.- promise or vining until society has rejuvenated itself. Mesh ld. ns if appears, the vast armament of Burope the main thing thal prevents war; and ir is eel*. nly better lo pay much money to keep sn srmed iee than to pay a vastly greater sum and have tbs r in'o th.- bargain, in all other greal Ins unities of ? past, .1 dim.ix ass b.-.-n found for the dlsesse. en human nature returned to a normal condition. len Burope is at tho point ?f breaklna down un P Its loud Of armed men, thi-n Tolstoi's public Inion will !>.- ii". Hil. Meanwhile, lt may be ob- ; -vt.l that nut a single precept of Jesus has ever rn put into practice willingly by th** word. Chris a or non-Christian. Ali his commands hsve been .ls. ,1. but they have been sdopted as rules of life ly when there was no otto r resource. Tbe same lng will happen In th,-* matter of non-resistance. i'mint Tolstoi sei a a wsj. of making peace indls nsable to all thc worw kt bun point it out. rerj body is ready for it. LITEIiAHY NOTES. klr Kipling luis done an admirable plc-e "T w irk lils sketch, "Her Majesty's Bervanta" which has ida a double aapearance In this country, by th" vf, in the pages ?.f "The Pall Mall Maaaslne" and a Harper periodical. Ir is the band "f ? master ut bru.;,-. ..ut the strongly differentiated char? ters of tha troop-horse, the mules, ths bullocks. s ci.ri, the elephant and the lin!'* dog; and S Story mur. les with a. .-ulinda" hu ford to the maa or the greal review and tbe lesson I nu tbs beginning the lesson which holds the ? r.-t of British power. klr. Kipling, If ls said, h is decided aol I .1.:: -s fr,,m li! .- own WOI BS. Till- ls " ubt, from the point of View of the man who tarama preserve his health nnd his literary power. I.- ?k I pi the qui -ti"ii aa a maller ..f money, there la lind doubt thal th.* young author would make fortune erith such reading" He could command a own price. Another report concerning Mr. Kip ii? ls to -li" .ff ct tti.it lu- Intends to establish a w period les I la England. Ile woad probably ak? un excellent edll r, bul i" would be si tte* ;.? r.*-c of bl * < re itlve worh Southerners still ma v la i I men I against Mr. \v. Cable au*: strongly .mel.-nm his xxrd rt] ijusi io tb*. South. An editorial writer for the kmthern Magazine" declares thal "the Northern liters ?tn. have dealt In fiction with slavery or * remoter i .nseqiieneee have, arith less of ?Mi? llion t-> forbear, been more generous ns areli ax ster." And h< ail la some cordial words of praise ri: ;?? do::, , , *,!,,,,?? Mrs, rorke, srlfe of the Dean i ( W rc. Her, once scribed sn smuslng lncld?n( ol her scqualntsnce i'd Tua. kersj She bappei I, ahi kid, rig one evening between Thackeray and ' d mnlum." whose build ? ?? even m-ir.- gigantic .-i-i Thackeray's own. Conversstlon, from '..in? ns., unkn ?? n. ta as . ? r.- ? ? -. med to ' I ? - "i oik... a hy uro you , sp. ni"" ' I ? n .'. rwhi Imi d i y tl - gn you In d' Ing r:?ht ni* 1 left massive frames, Thereupon, moved by n.ti ..-1 h*n| r snd "J ic -t." all 1 fr-un ? nd sal n tte ground a. h.-r r*.*ct. *"..s allghl token of I I id; equ illed _ ll fella' sltrurion traveller sharply rrltl ?ea In th*- March "Cosmopolitan" Ibe way In hlch l ?? !??',!?? . Nea Vorkera perpetually post .ii- Ihe good of life "They maka money," he lys, "but I ? -i ? money, for then d n ? ich thing tbe seni .'.:?? possession of mon irdly of the I i ifi.it m.,n.v e.in buv. They -ck enjo-- - ?!.. v find e\, Itement, for Joy ls '???I. ai I like every geo t gift, > ..mes nsonsht, -it". I toefl pursuit. They know thi*. as md in ? ? rtala mom. nts of d< i the hours of pam, tu the days >,f sorrow, tiiev ?ailsa lt. bul al other time* they Ignore lt. if i.v did 1...1 Ignore it they could tT-.t Ure, td-v say, rid the} appear t>. think tha' bv Ignoring lt they ll ?ugh lo ms itiri- i* i othing ti ul i their ? Mi i mg lid ?n Inspiring subj. * f..r ht* new ? .*. They Held ths Dass t t King Jami hs taking snd holding >.f a fortr.-?s by f..ur -. .. g might vs ?ii bimi; toto brina lines qulver ig Bflth martial Ure; dir wa do aol And much that Int!..tuui.il.P- Iii Mr I.tiiil-x prodUrttOB. It ls a Ity lhal Mr Kipling .-Atv. ts really the orrly living allad-writer \x,.nti reckoning wilb) does nol try . theme Mi ii fa piece of verse would hare been mora tti-.il'- if h.. had either raalntalaed his Northern laleol Ho...:kIi..ot ..r discarded ll altogether. Ths Pituri- H m unevenly distributed thal it mrs ,,n i<- reader. Hers i< the conclusion of the ballad: 'Ins Jsmes he bus *. ut them guns nn.i men. nn.l ihe \shij;s the) guard ibe Baas lui thej ni *??.ltd ? at. h the ("availers, who took toll ..f Ships tiiat pat I hey fared -*.ti-i snd free hs the t.irl* o' the sea, and nt nlk'tii they went on the wing ind th.y lifted the k\.- ,,' w hlgs fir .iv i nigh, an i they revelled snd drank t" the Kins. Ttl. n \\ allie W.itibe.n 1 send* bl* ship* to al.-f<e the Bs s in form, ? nd ti-t shall [hey break Ihe fortress down, and syne the Roes thej ll atorm if ter twa days' fi?ht the) ned ta th" night, and glad emu. li t<> go, vitii their MgKhiK rent, and their powder spent, and mi ny a mun laid low. lo f'.r bun: years thr.lld they -weep tbs sea; nut m closer wno h was set, iii aaa food had they, hui twa ounce a-day o" meal sras the mats! they'd get, ind men Bghi but tame an aa empty wat***, so ilu-y s.nt a Baa o' iru.*.-, ind blithe were the Privy Council then, when thi Whigs had beard that news 'wa Lords they sent wi' a strati* Intent to bs dour on each <'availer; int wi' French ..ikes ii**.*, and hi* last drnp o* wine, .nd mi i.n. io,i make them cheer, in tin- musales o' guns he pul coats and caps, nnd he set tin-ni abool tbe sra's. i:. i tha Whig* tl.ht then he had food and mea to stan.i fol the KlghtfU' I'ause. lo be gol a' ha rraved, and his m*n were saved, .md nans might ss y them nay. VI' sword lo side, and riai,' ..' pride, free men might they gang their way. 'do might fan lo France, they might bids al hame, and the Inlier th*lr grace to buy, Yuille VVanbeerd's purs- maun pay the keep o' th.* m. n thal did lilm defy! len n.ver hae gotten sic terms a* peace since first ni.*n went to um. ks gol Mal*, buri,.h. .md Middleton, and Roy, and the young lumbar. ia<* I drink to ye her.-. "To the Young Chevalier!" i bas said ye an auld man's say, knd there may hae been mightier deeds o' arma, but there never was nan.- sae gay) The first publication of the Columbia University 'r.-ss, represented by Macmillan & Co., will be a '..lum,, of 'Classical Studies la Honor ..f Professor hjisler" The issn.- ..f this aeries of papers by ormer pupils of professor Henry Drisler win celt. .int.- tli*- nftleth anniversary of hla connection vith Columbia Cotleee. Ths poets of Qreat Britain have, ns a rule, been 'niversity men though aeither Oxford BOT rum ?ridge eon claim "Will Shakespeare " Neither fnl reretty, strange to say, is strong in action. >>.\ "ord lu.s ..ri record bul two novelists of note 'har!.-* Reade and Blackmore; while Cambridge toasts *u. tte- chief of ths Bia being Thackeray ucl Stern.-. Miiuy nt the b .obi * of n?..lerii s.-I.?li? llie though! ara not, wa are reminded, aa tba roll .r either University. i*i i.-iti.-x, Slr Humph!*) Davy, rarada-r, ..li David Brewster, sir Roderick Murcbl 'on, John Stuart Mill, Professor Owen, Slr J. IJ. iiook.-r, mni Professors Huxley aad Tyndall wer.. tot Ualverslty men. 'iii- Canadian poet, Charlea 0. D. Rotarta is rylng tn* hand al a long novel sn sttsmpt whkk .nu ti hive aa Irresistible nt'ra'lion, .so.in i.r ats* f..r most modern writer* ..f v.-rs.-. In tba April number <>r "The Century," Mr John; ! NI "olav. ? ho was one of Lincoln's private secre? taries, will h.iv- .,n intsraatlng srticis ea lbs p.i.uv sipsrimenta of tba BasansIpator, Tina sill be iUustrated by ssveral poetna aad biters .vritt-n by UBCOta In hla early innnhood. nnd by uTsaiasatary aotss for lectures. One af these frag nrnt* la devoled to Niagara Kails; but whether Lincoln contemplated writing nn entire lecture on tu- subji'i-t of merely Intended to Incorporate his ?efle.-tlona aa the cut-r-u-t In BOBBS other address. loes not sppear. Ah Mr. Nicolay says, lt would bu Jnjuat to devote any serious criticism to these cf forts. They must ho regarded, be declares. In the light of mere recreations to satisfy the craving for B change from the monotony of law and politics. What has been preserved of the philosophizing on Ni..Kira ls interesting merely because it ls from his pen; lt has little trace of th- keen Intellect of th- man developed by the emergencies >.f the Civil War. _ It is pleasant to I.rd the statement or* Mr. Thomas Hardy lhat be has an Inaexhaustlble i in? ply a.f material for future stories. Mr. Hardy, ir is noted, has abandoned tobacco, wherein he is unlike Alphonse Daudet, who rays that In WrtUag he his always found his capacity fT work diminish as the tobacco In his pipe burned lower snd lower. Mr. Hurdy thinks it is a mistake for a man to login publishing when he is very young, .as his Brat .?(Tor's ar.' alfflOat WK to ba' Imitative. On the question of training f< r a literary man. he Mys: "I question the advlaatDlllty of Jimrnallsm. lt ile* strays the spontaneity, I am sfrald, of his Impres slons, le.ds him to take too professional a eli w pf life. If I h..'I thr.r four novels before me?one b| a Journalist, another by an engineer, anal an? other by a farmer-I would back either of tko lat? ler against the Journalist's fur real genuine interest and freshness, Of (ourse, there ls Journalistic work of various sorts; a man who waa writing the mon^y article or political leaden WOUld probably be able to do Imaginative work quite inaicp^nak-nMy of that by which he was earning a livelihood. The literary. man must have the ricans of support while he ls preparing for his work. It'it some standpoint In a totally Independent profession is best. I fan ey, for that, or course, I tte not toner* th.- tr..aie value ?t lournallsm to a literary earea-.-. One is at a seri ? i- disadvantage, from th" log-rolling point of view, In starting as I did, quite unknown tai the pri a anl the j res.- will. A new author WhOS* frlenals are in Journalism naturally finds tha way smoothed fa.r him." _ The edition Of Sterne which J. M. l>-nt & Co. ar.- bringing oul will be romplet* in six volumes. They hsve also in preparation a charmine little Illustrated edition of Mme, de stael's "Corinne." Mr. Oeorge Balntsb'ury baa errltten an Introduction for this edition. Rolf J'.oldrewood. whose ?t,,rlei of adventure are alway* more ur !, r--s thrilling and d<*cidedly artls i'.- tn construction, la about to bring oul a new li is to be ? alli l "A Modi rn Buccaneer." TI T cur ety the yes be il c H i erea n n Um allia cen Tu. Ter roe ma or bell Mr. ren i'lVi sh a of I Tlv sec l-'lf T i rn tha Its it. sue fus "le Inc T lng lt Tl ?? cond volume lu Mr. P. Marlon Crawford'e s.:;.. ol novell Illustrating New-York life Will be publish" I tn the autumn, and will bear the title ol' "The Ralstons." Se |>-s arl EAT MAGEE. Ia na ?',\1"S, in Ti mple Bar. "Walkin' wid Pat Ma :?'?? I ...wu by the Tullagn I -.\lhial whare vere aettln' yer* shteps,' aiys he, "Leal yea pul yere fut on s frog. t'roga la ti,.- dlvll,' he ia* . ?i'm thlnkln' ha nays mya he. ?Av I parried >-z over t<. yondber wall The sorrow a rp.g we'd ace.' -aluin' wi i Pat Mage* Atop n\ a |. oi?? bulli wall, 'lt ?? unalay i am In nie mind,' mys ho, lihreadin' .!,?? atone* might fall. Stones ls the dlvll to slip, I'm thlnkln',' he a..ivs. says he, ?At I gave yere waist a bli av a clip The sorrow a fear there'd be.' "Talkln' wld I'at M i ??. \\ ld the arm av him round m.* waist. An' the r.-i s.n. alnkln', 'Agrah,' sacs he, wm v.v. Iel me spake t.. the praste? Delaya i- the dlvil'a delight, An' i'm thlnkln',' ie- says, mya he. ?A ? th* two a. .- settled the matther to-night. 'Tia married n> \t w-.-k we'd be.' " Bl I IEE Til AX SOCIALISM. MP..-. ..inn WT. Titi KOVBLlaTR 81 ':: !'. TUB PLAN ' ll From Atalanta. There la a certain laying of Mr. Harrell's, a man uno h allow. I io kn iw what he la speaking about, to the effect that to elevate lb* masses as masses l-i an Imtiosslbie achievement; but io 'gel hold of ?.ri" man la one man's Work, fairly possit,!??, mil ? t., ha done. 1 do not r# oil* I th* w.n.ls h- u**d, laaat this w ? Which 1 'ak.- up th? in.-aneri) aad Joyfully alnce lt is a prin hav* humbly attempt. I ta preach with les- au? thority, anal Which was the maxim and rule aaf Oil* to whom I owe my Hf* as l anything lhat ls ga.,*i 1 in lt. This lady, an obscure person enough so far ? as the wrl I ko. -:, bul ' i me one "f the ine-st gr.*t of human ;??:?--. *'as far from wealthy, aa 1 could nol al any tim* contribute much In m<>n?v to any fund* f ar Ihe i.r nor did ah* ever, thal I know. , us.- ni ,t obnoxious wonl. Her opinion was that i every lunn 11K.? - her own, ranalstlng of sons and daughters, rulttlled rs duty b*si by taking charge, - . 1 ir a< was apo**lble, of another family am mg those who ar- perennially in want of help. This charge aril overseeing whs done In the most sim? ple and r.Mr.il way. The '.othes, for Instance, of the children In tha better hous* made h mosl sd ' rn I rabi* provision, when thej srera outgrown ,,r ? ??. f.T rt.hlldren In th* other. Hoots could b" mended strongly for the.f the poorer whl. h wei** nor quite am tri enough for tba richer di.-.nen knows how far from helm; ri till boy. The young ; lady's morning frock mad* a best gown for th* i girl suing out to aervlce, The mother** garments, wh ? never look! I li ll in well, whatever Heir '? age -.as. equipped In their later days the other ; mot he* Nothing could be more Blinnie air more entirely practl<**ble than thia arrangement, lt is a ' syatem that could be adopted at once lu hundreds ,,f houses, without disturbing any habit or coat? ing much trouble tyan Th.ti, if the p".?r father happened to be out of work, which was alway* a possibility, the other family moved heaven and earth, ao far as that was possible, to get him som.-thing to do. When the boys anl girl* wer* ready lo n>< "out." th.-v were helped io Uni plac. \ and recommended or even guaranteed with such aid In the matter of outfit ,.r aa wa-. ).o-sii,:,. ii is. no doubt, an esoellenl thing y\ bundi. - ? t old i lothi a ta. an Institution, bul ,,r it ls far moro int.i. stine t,> pxpend them on th you know to contrive tarhlch will suit john. and which Mirv, and to . arith your own eyes how well th.", look In th, change and transforma? tion. I remember distinctly the ci'dual change which r-ccurred In a family under the operation of my motin as syatem. The} came under h.-r notice in the most ennuis circumstances. The wife was a young, strong, wild, good-hearted, undisciplined ire, hal gol Into aoaie terrible scrape through sn assault upon snottier woman who. sh,- had sop? hi ! taken from her her huaband'a aff", tlona the husband, a young fellow of a roving dis? position, >x soldier, worker al the docks; often oul of work aril generally In mischief, bul with no i particular harm In him. The husband hal got a few 'lr? ?-' Imprisonment for some shara "f ala In 1 the fray I do ti"* know what and carn* ".ir rather , sullen, unite down hear'' t. aril ready for arv d V I iltry. II* strayed "ff naturally t . thal heart-break i lng work of the docks one day In work, another -.int' ring idle, a prey lo ? wry temptation, it be? ing all uncertain whether the occsslonal day's wages ; would ever tm-l its way to l is wretched lime hom. The ia t f can remember of this man was as the ; tnoKt [-' s[.table verger of a church, weil cloth, i. j well h" i?'i, with a family as respectable as hlm ; self growing up In all the most excellent way.-, .mal taking t' virtue as r,, their natur.il element i Marv's fun was naturally subdued In this admir? able milleu; bul sb.- was a kappi woman with her children about her. and owing nothing t,? any one I I do not believe thal ur. money to speak of had h n exp nd."I in bringing about this wonderful rev? olution lt had only i.n km in. ss. a ateadv Indi j vldual backing lip, a a-,nut of a pp. il In all (flfficul , ties, personal ski, encouragement and oversight. There wr-- marie Intermediate steps, no doubt, some ? hortcomlnga and fallings luck but this was the conclusion ..f all. Now, such a system h.t* this In ps favor-lhat it h.,-ds no preparation, and require* very little es . pendlture. lt can be bemm any day, and. though ; to I.ffectual lt must be continuous, yet even a ] little friendship ls never '.brown sway, and nobody need h.-air..id of an undertaking which, if il lasted more than a mason, would still have ?. little ad ntaga lu lt. NBRYOUS sim,IA:s, Fr.m Atalanta. Tha* .'ff.',-ts .if nervousness are varied and annis ; lng On.. y,,img megso soprano waa prevented just in tim.- from walkin- on to the platform in a huge pa r of fur lied overshoe*, which were pm on above her sltpapers, and which contrasted comically with in r dainty gown, Another aongatress, who was gifted with n no.*\ verbal memory, waa singing without not*. 1 .ar? line a rather elaborate symphony, preceding the aecond vera* of her song, sha chanced Idly to niano. 1 Ht th.- book ..r woid< which sh.- waa holding Con? fusion followed. She could nol link the melody with th.- poem, lt w is a terrible moment; but nh,. stepped swiftly Uf the piano, glanced at th* ac a a.,np mist's COpy, ,11.1 tia.|sh"l ll.'l' loll.'. I ?!, amor.' lt apt,.'..i.d. on Inspection, lhal by .. printer*! error two line* of her -on- hoi .n lefl QUI of the book Ol '.Minis. This had confused li-'r. and was the cans,- ,,r her failure to blend words and music to g' '!.>T. i al In l lg rh, tin Th of onl hai pl. vii \v< vol del tai ina ?kl I is to sc: pn nil th tm Al en tlo to lo s >* da till pr, ar p ? , ful i.i .-" be m. ina pi. de mi 'i i of 1; i 41! po Sn I." se So .M N. qi fa \ is LBABNINO As sue ls IEABNED , Kr..tn The London Ul,.he. , a few of tie- beti, r Mundi rs (sifpstrated wt th. recent university examinations are given by a eon I temporary. One candidate deacrllted "primogeni? ture ns ,i phmt which beara only one dower: un other derived "Kquinox" from "equa," a mar.-. i ami "n,,x." niKlit. its meaning being a "nightmare"; , "*"* ? third in a paper on the character of Henry N. " wrote, "Catherin* i-arr. win. survived th.* ; King, was rotas to be beheaded, but he died the uiiy before h.- signed the warrant." ' Kroni Thi i in: ,,i n OVA no's London (".lobe. '/..I i I A rumor which ar,.s,. vhortly nft.r the ,|eHth of ? a-ilcr.l |'..t|t Unit th.- Hag of the old (lujil was to '?*?'i"'"'. nt m Para There ls nol the least founda? tion for th,- report. ?? the ruinous ataadard lo not Hely to fMss ou! of the hands or M. de li 11-iupU '' abo now inherits lt. Tire gag is kept in the r"'U'* in which the lat- Oaneral ?died, and though age has rendered the colors almost Indlsrlngiilsaah'e we names. ,,f the hstSmw rn which me Guard took part are ?ti;i legible. IK CHRONICLE OF ARTS. EXHTBHTONI AND OTHER TOPICS. , nriNda this w_tBK pi rrCBBB nr alex*' -NOBB HARBiaOM AMD vt. B THOI.KN THB ACADEMY'S BPWAftO CATAUMUI KMIIIllTKiNS IN Kl l: IPI Mi.vr .""I'MMi'.i:. iiis ls one of the most imtjortant weeks of th# rent art season. To-morrow morning the Sod Of American Artists will open to the public Interesting * shlbtUon which was touched upon la t-rday's Tribune. In toe aaernooii lhere will a press view at the American Art Galleries of -election of paintings and studlea by Alexander rril on, and Old a..pin se prints in color gath-' 1 together by S. Ring, of Parla Mr. Harrison's' ?k has alwaya aeea strong, and lt is probables t this display of hts pieter,-, will prove enjoy *. at least la aa far sa his marines are eon a?.l. The galleries will be opened to the public a-day morning, flsnrhsa & ?'o., at 126 West enty-tlilrd-sto show for the (ir- ? time to-mor ? a number of water colors and black-und-whltee le in Spain by Mr. II. Dearborn Gardiner. One two other exhibitions will bs font*. 1 mentioned nv. and we would add also thal BM pictures by Newman at the Knoedler gallery are to be loved after the (Stn. Every amateur with a t for beautiful ol jr and for poetry In painting uld see then*., lu its way the exhibition ls ene ih.* besl x.-w-v irk ha* witnessed In a long time. ? New-York Society of Kerami.- Arts opens its snd annual exhibition neat Tuesday at No. 231] th-ave. here remains one atora ! irge exhibit! >n ut Amer 11 panlatinga to bs opened thia asai ia. in lesa ,n a month tbs Spring kcademy will throw wide doon, and greal things may be txpaaaad of for great efforts are being BBBdS to Insure s cessful display. One new feature will he a pro ely Illustrated cataiosrue which ks to coatala aiao tters ..ii art ; iplcs from a number of the prom nt membei ." he hading characteristic of modern Dutch paint has frequently ba* a pointed out in this Journal. is a tendency to gen* rallz**, to achieve breadth 1 softness Of outline, and to parallel this treat ! uni by a similar treatment of color. arly all the painters of Holland coull be ana ed efter this fashion. Hut kars aad thara a man sss whose taste is f.,r a brighter, av 1 sharply rented scheme of color, snd who sees th? coa? ne of bis subject with a dsarness sad pre lon which he is fain to emulate on his canvas. ?h a nun Ls \\. B. 'I'lu.l-n. the pahttcr fr un un Mr. Avery bas toetuoA about a doaea pict of scenery ta il illand. Take hun in the large rrtlng, No. t', called "The .Washing I'lao," or No. **, "Autumn." Toa lind him exercising % jor aad s directness which are really uncommon Hutch art. There is vigor in the work of Israels i Nouhuys, In that of many others, but it is ?or of another kind, h is alway subservient io ? sympathy to which irs have alfuded, the symna. f..r 1 s,un. ivh.it vague strain of form and color. ls strength of Israels, for example, ij the source extraordinary beauty ir his work, but still it is V one kind. Tholen's ls frankly of another. He ? a crisp forcibleness which brings into his tun -i td- quality, rare among his countrymen, of acl ty. Hoiking at Sn. ll, "Autumn in ths ??xl*." a sunny seen*- with children, you feel in-self In the pr.s.n.e of S far mora nervous and ft personality than commonly emerges from the il of fogs and dik*-".. Another point worth BOC" r in connection with this little collection ls the llfulness in dealing arith values which lt II itratea There are ? issagee windi show the artist be something ..f s Blaster In this direction. <>b ve tn- truth with whi.-h the various tones are ?served tn that par: ,.f Ko. .:. "Winter, Scheve igen." where soms wagons with brown wheel es ar- grouped before a hm to dark blackish, or. That is what demonstrates th- technical ;,u .rv of a man. Tholen is technically acorn shed, and Her- ls K-enuln*j feeling in his work. .* exhibition ls worth Seeing, and. besides, ths -erv (iallerv at present contains some old por ilts (alr.-ady noticed in The Tribune) which are mselves extremely interesting. "hera is a collection of painting . porcelains, etch? es, miniatures, fans and oilier curios at the Fifth "anus Art Galleries which d*?es not yield a very ?ouragtag Impression apoa a cursory examtn n, but which i* found after more careful study embrace some unusually valua'od SBjoeta It longa to Mr Alexaasler G. mack, and i? to 09 d next Wiilnssdsy. Tburaday, Friday and satur y afternoons. Mr. lllack appears to have bought iBga for the pleasure of having them, anl his i-t.-iiiices have included a small multitude of ti--ic productions. He has bot bought Oriental' rceialns alone. "Thew are excellent examples of vr*-s. Dresden, xW"adgiraod and Worcester In hts ssa and one of hie most picturesque and deligTK I iKjFS.-a-lons ls No. 8, an old pitcher made in re-pool, and curlouly dscoratsd with nautical sub ?ts. of SaTsutni, which ia not often seen at ita st In New-York, ba baa S .me beautiful specl ?ns. No. Ul |a .1 vase which fully merlr* the II mon lt receives In th** catalogue ns a "'superb" ?ce. Thei.- is much good blue sn 1 white and gt I uar., in the collection, but the high witer irk is reached bi the groups .if aiagW color gi.u-s. 1- Bang *te Hoei*f vase catalogued as "U" ls one the mort glori us productions of tts kind which ?4 passed tnronah New-York au,-tlon morai. No. i. a largs red splash vase, f..rms a conspicuous Int. and there are pl* cs lik- Noa 4i>*. 4K 13a, '., ill and Mi which lift the exhibition to a high rel. Mr. Black's Jades ar.- numerous, and ln.*lui<t Vere! tine w,,rks. bot thara is r. >t. on the whole, much to admire in this section of the collection In others. Among the brotira * there ls a va.*-, 1 tu which are wish io signallas for lt* ?x rtslts color. Beveral cases sra Riled erith Jewelry, ns, miniatures, snuff boxes and orher trinket.. -pood deal of Intereattng material llgures. here, as Indeed the rase in whatever direction vou turn. ring the purely pictorial. Mr. Hla-k* Ivories. Eist n pipes, sword guards and netsukes are admirable, tere are two taros. Nos. *39 andie*, win,-har.- extra* dlnarily fin.* Bul his paintings ar? mostly of no trticulsr willi-, and his etchings, th ara goad of ??lr kind, ar- nearly all large i-eproducUve plates Waiin. r. Brat quemond, Koepptng, Chauvel snd her Prenchmen, which ar- masterpieces without ivlng ths pure fast nation ot etched platts uk* hi* tie r's or Meryon'a The paintings and prints ?e to be sold Thursday and Friday eveataga The iileetiiiii has a significance fur the amateur. He is ?rtaiu to lind thing* In lt for which he will be Hiing to comp*.te energetically. The list of big exhibitions in Europe this summer'" a long ona Madrid ls to open a great l-.t?r isttonal show In April; Antsv. rp bas a universal ihlMtlon of the line arts, which will be begun In ay; Milan op. ns aa exhibition in the same month, id Hotter,lam and Munich announce important i..\\s. At Paris, of course, there will be no end of tistl* affairs. Tbs Salon of the dhamp de Mars -tens on the Stta of April and last* until June 30. hat of the riiamps Kl\ ?=?'*. s closes on the same day. it opens OB the 1st of May. The Koslcru-lans re to appear again ta tbe Pri neb capital, holding 1 lr exhibition from the 7th of April to the 7th or liv. To this Hst the .lites ,.f other exhihttotis leas iportant might b ? added. The traveller on the Con? ti.-ur during the coming season need have no f-nr .1 n absence of pictorial and plis-b* entertainment, > to speak, outsit.- ot tba historic galleriea Concerning th- last annual report of th** Dl? ??tor nf the National (I ill- ry, "The Lord in Globe" ivs: "It ls not altogether iTisfactory r-idlng. he acqulsttlona during the last year sre neither umer.ius nor af sin-pas'tn.' t minni ance, the at ?ndance both ot visitors and StUdSBtS shows a Uneatable falling off, and ttl- inconveniences rising from itu* tasunVtetrt .ir ? ammo dalton in the uUdtog s.em more than svsr Irritating an 1 troubie ?me. Ths decline ta tateresi on the nari of the requenters of the gallery is i.-vonl doubt a re? lit of the policy toned upon the management. "Ithout funds adequately to increase the collection, I'ttout wall splice ..ri which t. tiing new pictures. ??? National Gallery e.in hardly fail to become tereotyped and out *?f ilate. and, by degenerating it., s mer.- museum of antiquities. t-> Bliss Its hb*t function of keeping alive au iBteUigeai papa) ir Interest lu matters of art history. A liberal iccin- and Space .ii ample prop inion t.v its ne-'ds re ttie tirst assfntlals for th- success aad u*iefui -ss of such ati institution. As matters are now ur National Oullery ls being left behind, not only y the public collections of other c.i.ir.triei. but v.-n by the municipal gallerlee in our own prov ices. These local galleries are. ensidering their las .ml scop.-, rou on far mon llbet i llaee, and ??.-ure many works of arl which would atora fitly elena to tne nution. liven the generous donor ls men tu.ii-.. inclined to beoto-a bis ?.v-> "oeeBS" nan to enrich the Inadequate and ill-housed exhf Itlon In Trafalgar Square. Simply from the ommerelal point of vi?.*w ii seenM a pity that, if re ara tu have ? national collection at all. lt li .uld ii >t be treated wit'i more consideration and outroiled with more (IbersJIty, The present |v-nny . de-ail l-poiind-f lollsh policy is simply WBStS of xith money and opportunity. Not only la the inking of oermanent collections, but also in the Bf? auging or tempakrary shows, the pravtaces sive nore evidence of correct Judgment thea IrS me ropoils. Poe instance, the present exhibition at the vaiker Art dalton*, Liverpool, ts s far more ssa mable artistic combination than w*- arc usually r.ated to in London. Two hundred and thirty oil latattaga and m w.n. r colors are pictures enough or any rational being to wi-*h to s .* all at once; h.* real of (he space available In tn.* gallery ka ..-Her occupied with other forms of art produtHkaa, Po show Bueb excellent examples of applied art s the Della Hobbia terra-cottaa the HBBpaaa* dxiresque >-arUie.iw.ir.-. and the IVrsian. Turkish ind Italian carpets, which have all be ti lent by the louth Kensington Museum, ls on the r*\n of tho .lunl.-lpal Committee I piece of excellent discretion; ind tO exhibit with these Uoulton stonew4re. p*? dorgan tiles. Tlnworth mode)*, and. above all. a ?"t of Parisian poster* bv such men hs ("beret, '.russet, gnd their fellow*, |* to evince a catho'.lcliy md an appreciation of the true functions of an rt exhibition which we may well wish to bee Iml ated elsewhere.''