Newspaper Page Text
ORDERS AND THEIK VALUE
Tl!!?: PRIVILEGES AND PREROGATIVES CARRIED BT FOREIGN DECORATIONS ?ALIENS Wilt? POSSESS TH EM PURCHASED DECORATIONS Although c i.i mptuoua references are fre? quently to be found in the columns of the American ? reas with regard to the bits >>f metal and of colored ribbon that adorn the uniform and Ihe evening dress of so mt-ny foreigners, yet ii is Impossible to deny that there is a strongly developed taste In this country for what are known us orders and de??..rations. ind.?. i, ?t ?s rare nowadays to find any military uniform In tin? i'nited States that is noi em? bellished by ..?.?? or more badges Indicating m al? l' rshlp in some patriotic association. They are ncthli g of which io be ashamed ?mite the con? trary'' and they contribute t.? the picturesqui effect "f u,,. uniform, ami tend l" lighten up ami r lleve th.? sombre simplicity ??* ordinary evening dress. P< r? ign orders ar?? every bit as decorative, and differ from tin- Insignia so much worn in this country in that their distribution is restricted to governments and to rulers, instead of being l? ft m the hands of patriotic organizations ?'f 'ii'? kind and another. As a gen?Tal rule, they ar.? conferred for services rendered by the ri.ipiiiit, whil?? sometimes they are accorded by way of compliment, >?r as a recognition for eminence iu art, science, literature, industry and c ?mm*tree, Th. ir value Is enhanced by the fact that in many instances their gift does not depiliti solely on the favor of some ruler, but bas t.. b.? sanctioned b? forehand by one or more of his .Ministersand constitutional advisers, who represent the nation as delegates ?if the parlia? mentary majority. This is particularly the case With the Order of the Legion of Honor in France, and that of Leopold In Belgium. Con? 6e>nn ntly, ln instances such as these, the grant rf a deci ration may 1>.? regarded by the person thus distinguished ?is a tribu??? of regard, not on the part of the executive alone, hut from the people ..f which he is th?? figurehead. Each ,\.ar shows an increasing number of Americans thus complimented by foreign na? tions, th.? last issue ..f the "Government Ga sette" at Taris containing the names ??f n couple of citizens of the United States among the newly created knights of the Legion of Honor, while it is liti.l.rsto >d that Congress has under consideration a requ 'st on the part of those Government representatives who attended the Czar's coronation for permission to wear the medals and ord? rs which w.re conferred upon them by tli? Muscovite Emperor in connection vitti the eel? bratlon. There are al the present moment at leasf a couple of hundred Americans who are commanders, officer? and knights of the French1 Legion of Honor; while a hurricl peru? sal 'f the rosters "f the national orders of knighthood of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, <;? in any, Scandinavia, Russia and Turkey will reveal th?? presence of many other names more or less familiar to the ears <.f people on this si.!?? . f th?? Atlantic as being those <.f fellow countrymen. tu:?: p? vision* into guamos. Napoleon I, when lie created tho Ligion of Honor, divided it up into five grades, a classifi? cation which has been adopted ln the case of all Continental orders except those very highest of all, such as the Golden Fleece in Austria and Spain, the Annunciation in Italy, the Black Eagle in Prussia, the Seraphim In Sweden, the Papacy's order of Christ, the St. Andrew of Russia, and the Elephant of Denmark, all of Which have oily one single class, namely, that of the Grand Cross. Tiie five grad'-s of the Legion of Honor an? as follows: tiie Knight Grand Cross, who wears a Silver star on his left breast, and a broad sash of red ribbon over his right shoulder and unit*??'. In a rosette, to which the cross of the order is at? tached. When donned with evening dress th?? red sash Is worn beneath the coat and over the waist??.wit, though soin?? people, such as for In atance President Paure, wear it under tbe waist? coat. The next grade is that of ?'rand Officer, nnd In this case the star is worn attached to the tight breast, there being, however, no scarlet Fash or cordon. The third grade la lhat of Com? mander, and In this ease tiie gold and white enamelled cross of the order Is worn around the neck attached to a sort of collar of r?-?i ribbon. NVxt cornea the grade of <????.?.?G. ????? the cross la smaller in size, and is pinned to the left breast by a pi'..? ?.f r?<l ribbon, which is embellished with a ros It.? <?f the sam.? color. The lowest and fifth grade is that of Chevalier, or ordinary knight. The cross ..f the latter is of white enam. ? ar.d silver, ani the ribbon to which it ia sus? pended is d. VOid Of rosette. Besides the Legion of Honor there are two other French orders, ??rie recently instituted, known aa the M?rlte Agricole, which la ?iiv ??!??? Into two .las.-.?, of officer? and ordinary knights, and whi.h Is devoid of much prestige or value. The decoration of the ..th.r, more highly prised, consists of a couple of small palm . avea attach, d to a violet ribbon, which In the lower gnu).?, known aa that ? f "( ?fflcler de G? cad? mie," ar?? of silver, while In th?? higher grade, thai of "Officier d< l'Instruction Publique," they are of g..:,]. Both the gold and sliver,palma are con? ferred In the main for literary and id ntlflc services, the gold palma being aa a rule p for thai particular claaa of peo* le b h ? h ? uld I ?? c; e, . . h? d In thli ' ? untry or in England with ?. . ry unlvei Ity d gre. s, whll. ??? ? ? ! th? w? an ra of th? silvt r palm are a lai ?? ni ml ? r of, emlm nl au ? is, universi! lor . aa well us some attuiti and even acli ? >, St least thro American pi ime donne being among the number. PREROOATITSS CARRIED BT DECORATIONS Much apprehension prevalla In the United States with regard to the privileges and pre? rogative??, that th";?? decorations are ropposed to confer. In several cases Ajnerlcaa citlsens hav?; received the lowest class <>f tbe most in? ferior of all the Italian orders and have be? lieved themselves to be authorized thereby t.? assume th?? armorial beatings, th.? coronel and even the title of a full-fledged marquis. This is altogetl er wrong. For no Continental order of decoration endows Its possess? r with ? ?ther personal or hereditary nobility, though there are .?ome orden the grant of which is customa? rily followed in tire case <?f natives-hut not in thai of foreigner! by tii ? concession of a spe? cial and Independent grant of titular nobility. Thus, In Austria, the award of the third ?'ass of the Order of the Iron Crown and of the Order of Leopold is usually followed by the presenta? tion of a patent conferring upon the person thus lion...? d the hereditary right to prefix the nobiliary particle ? ?" "von" to the family name, and t.. . Iirmounl the monogram an.i coat <>f arms with a live-pronged coronet It Is the same with the knights of th?? Prussian Order of the Black Bagle, tbe highest of tbe decora? tions In the gift Of Emperor William. Th.? su? perior grades of the Austrian orders of the WILLIAM C. WHITNLV'S Hol S'*. (Sixty-.-?Khth-Ft. ami ?Fifth-aye.) Iron Crown and of Leopold are usually followed by the concession of patents of the ?hereditary title of "Baron." Hut. with the exception of these cases, there Is no Continental order that m.'iy be said to carry even remotely with it any title of nobility. True, Italians are accus? tomed to addresa ?people who have the cross ??f ordinary Knight of the ?Order of BL Maurice and St. Lazarus as "Cavaliere," and th?? Knight Commanders of that order as "Commendatore." But that la merely a matter of courtesy and not of rinht, <>r even of official usage. With regard to the prerogatlvea <>f these Con? tinental orders, they are of a restricted charac? ter, ?spi. ?ally when possessed by foreigners. Thus, ?although a Frenchman is entitled t>> an infinitesimal annuity prop? iti nate to the grade <f his rank in th.- Legion of Honor, this is wlth held in the ?-as.? of alien wearera of the red rib? bon, whose sole privile?-?-.? is the light to the presence of a certain number of soldiers at ih?ir fumrai. '???? military honors at the obse i|ui? a of an ? rdlnary knight ar?? rendered by half a company of infantry, while it is a full company which fulfila this duty if th?? dead his ?..?, ? in officer ?>f th.? order. A command? r of tin Legion "f Honor is entitled t?> a ?regiment, a grand officer to a brigade, while th?? demise of a Knight Grand Crosa requlrea th?? presence of an entire division at his fumrai. Ridiculous though it may appear, th?? knowledge that hi? ret? alna w? re t.. ?..? thua honored has ??f!? ? ten l ?? to r??. th ' the last mom? nts of members ? f ii..? order, native as well :.s foreign, who ?have died in France, th? ir ?satlafastlon ?being tem? pered by a ????rt.rin ill defined feeling of regrel M::it thej could noi somehow ?.r other gel ..nt .?: their coflln in oi I? r t.. wltnesa the militar) h? ?ora pal 1 t ? their corpses. li. MYTH OK PI ilCIIASKD DECORATIONS. Another misapprehension to be ?sel ?right i.- that ? thi ? : ? ? I that decoretiona can ? d In Kurop?. It la perfectly tru?? that r .. ; ? . ng mon? y to .? ome philanthropic en ? or National Institution, or bj eau Ing ? ? the lati t t" take ?the form ?.f acl ? ? e or art ti one can obtain recognition , in the ehap ? of oi ti nferior gradi ? ? r the nd I. .. ? ?? alu l ? ntln? ntal orders. There even been ea ? ? ?! ? ral Iona IU< li La these bave ben secured Uuuueh juJiuuua buio ery of chiefs of government bureaus, who have Obtained for the bribery the patent of the order on the strength of mendacious reports which they had concocted concerning the services he Is alleged to have-n ii.l.red. But this cannot be conatrued to mean that any of the Continental gov. rumenta put up for barter and for sale their national orders and dec orations. The same de? nial appli? s to th.? equally a id ly ? Irculated story to th?? effect that nobiliary titles can lie pur chased as an ordinary article ?*f commerce and trad??. Then? is only on.? country lhat has ever rendered itself guilty of any such practice, and that, strangely enough, was a republic, the tintesi and oldest in the world, namely, San Ma rim?, whi? h devoted th.?? money thus obtained to th?? maint' nan.?? of its fine foundling asylum. English orders differ from those of the Con tin, tit in that the higher grades of m?,st nf them entitle the possessor to th.? prefix of "sir" to his Christian natii". 1rs wife acquiring tli" right to prd?x tic lit!?? of "lady" in lieu "f "Mrs." to her family patronymic. Kngllsh order?, that is to say. the Hath, th?? St. Michael and St. George, tie Star of India and the Indian Empire, are di? vided ini.? thr??.? clssses, namely. Knights Grand Cross, Knights Commander, ami, lastly, Com? panions. Tl?.? Companions do not receive tho till?? of "sir." wear the Itadg?? of th?? order pinned to their I? ft breast by a bit of colored ribbon. and ?have to remain content with an alphabetical Indication of their membership of the order ap? pended to the end of th.ir names when they haiipen to be ?addressed by letter. Thus a Com? panion of the Hath will be addressed as "Spen? cer Ponsonby, esq., C. R," while la the same way a Companion of the Order of Bt Michael and St George will have his name followed by the lettera "C If. G." The Order of the Bath has b?. ti conferred upon only one American citizen, namely, Commander Pearson, of th?? United States Navy, as a ?recognition for the assistance whi.-h he ?rendered to th?? British and interna? tional aquadron at the lime ?>f the bombardment of Bhimonosekl, In Japan. The Knlghta Com? mander of the various orders wear th?? cross or badge of the order fastened by ? ribbon around ?h.-ir neck, an.l a star on their l?*ft breast, while the Knlghta Grand Cross wear the cross <>r badge on their left hip appended to a broad ribbon, which crossi.; their breast obliquely from th right should?;?, the star alightly more ornate in character than that of a Knight Commander, beiti?- pinne.1 to their left breast. The Order of the Lath is divided into a civil and a military division, th?? insignia of the one being very unlike that of the other. ORDERS FOR PEERS, ?Besides these onl? rs. there is thai of th?? Thistle, which i? ?restricted t? Scotch ?.rs; that . r ?St. ?Patrick, whi h ?s in a similar man? ner destined for Irish ?peers, and the Order of te?? Cari ??. which is conferred by the Queen only on a few of th grandest nobles of her realm, upon certain members of her family, and upon tin* mosl distinguished ??f the foreign eov ???? Igne. ??? ih? '? three last-named ord? t ? ? p Bist only "f one Krade, namely, thai of Grand Cr? ?, ib.- Insignia ronalstlng <?f a star on th" !? ?; bi ?a.-i. and a broad sa h ? : ?.-? Ing the br? aal obliquel) from the right shoulder to th.? left iiip. excepl ?n the .a..? the Order ol th?? Gar? ter, th.* nnl..?? of which Is worn from th?? left should, r to the right hip, at whi? li point of ll?? anatom) -.;' the knighl II terminates In a rosette and th.? badge or jewel of the order. Moreot >r when ih?? Knlghta "f the Garter, arrayed in what la kn iwn a.; "frock dress," that is to say, an evening dress, wnh black knee bi.hes, black silk ?stocking* ami num???* encircle their left leg just below the knee with a garter of dark blue velvet, edged with gold, bearing the motto, "Hono soit ?jul mal y pense" In golden letters, th?? buckle and pendant being of gold richly chased. Tin? Knights ?'.rand Cross of ai the Knelish orders, no matter whether it be <>f th?? Garter or that of the Hath, are occasionally called upon by special order ..f th?? sovereign, conveyed through tli?? columns <>f "The Ofhclal Gazette" by the Lord Chamberlain, to don their "collars" at this or that state function. Tins somewhat Strange intimation, the meaning of which is unintelligible to those who ar.? not acquainted with English Court life, must not be held to imply that the knights of tin? various great English orders are guilty ..f auch s!ovenlin?'S3 as to appear habitually before their sovereign in a eollarless condition. The collari in ?jui'S ti.ui are but chains of gold t?? which tli?? jewels and badgea of their various orders are sus? pend, d. The chain is <>f considerable length, ai.'l Is fasten???! at the two shoulders by two bows of white ribbon to prevent it slipping down over the arms. It varies in snap?? and fashion with each order, but in every cauta is composed of g?>l?l and enamel, and is only worn on particularly grami occasiona. Its origin dates ha?'k to the mediaeval days when gold collars or neck chains constituted a token of lofty rank ami station and of high office. There is another onler recently instituted by Queen Victoria, known as the "Victorian." none of th?* grades of which carry with it any titular prelix, and which has merely been created by Her Majesty for th?? purpose of recognizing personal services to herself on the part of those with whom she is brought into contact either at home or abr ?ad. MEDALS roit QALLANTRT. Apart from these decorations, and a distinct class of their own, ar?? th?? crosses ami nii-dals conferred upon soldiers and sailors, either for good conduct, for participation in some war <>r campaign, or els.? for conspicuous gallantry on th.? Held of battle T.. reward acts <>f this last named category the Victoria Cross has been created in England, the Maria Theresa in Aus? tria, th?? iron Cross in Germany, th.? St. George's Cross iu Russia an?l th?? Cross of San Per? itando in spaia. French soldiers and officers, as well, limi an analogous reward in what is known as "La Medaille Militaire." which, when worn in conjunction with the Legion of Honor, Shows that its possessor i-? a true hero. These croases for valor, which differ from thi? other and grander decorations by th?? extreme ?Im? pllclty of their form, are mon? highly prized, and command greater respect than even the highest ordere "f knighthood, and there are few Englishmen who, if called t?i ? hots?? between th?? siip.r!. Jewelled Insignia of the Order of the Garter, with all th?? prestige it confers, on tha ?.??? hand, and th?? Victoria Cross on the other, would not, without a moment'? hesitation, choose th?? tiny bit of gun ?uta!, across the bar of which are Inscribed ?he magi?? words "For valor." EX-ATTACHE. MR. WHUIM.?'s FINE HOUE. ni: U TO mav?: it REDECORATED, AND TO ?'???.? ? ?BALLROOM. The announcement that ??-???< retary William C. Whitney is to spend |130,000 In extending and alt.-ring his house, th?? northeast corner of BlXty-elghth-St and I-'ifth-ave., indicates that he will make a superb mansion of it Mr. Whitney bought the house when he gave to his son, Harry Payne Whitney, his former home at Flfty-eeventh-et and ?Flfth-ave. The new Whitney house was originally the home of Mrs. Robert L. .Stuart, her husband having died while it was building. Amzi L Barber bought it from the Stuart estate for $.1??'-',.?<??, and sp.p.L considerable sums in improving it. B*K Governor Morton leased It for a season. The building is of brownstone, consisting of four stories and a ?basement It has BB feet of front and a depth of Ut)?) feet. Besides gen? eral redecoratlon, a ballroom is t.? be added, one story in height M?*Kim. Mead & White are the architects. II ID REASON TO REMEMBER. Prom Th?? Chicago Tribuir??. "Pard," said Mcsely Wraggs. as the two lounged up in front of a druggist's show win? dow, "I'll l?t ?a cold buckwb? at agin a last year's doughnut >ou don't know wot that thing Is that's a hangin' up there." "I know wot it is as well as you ?I.?," scorn? fully answered Tuffold Knutt. 'It's a hot water bottle. I laid down on a back porch In Mil? waukee wunst aa' groan??.! an' let on like I had the ploorisy, an' some durned fool in the house, 'stead of glvtn* mo a drink of beer, brought me out one o' th?-m things, full o' hot water, an" told me to put it agin my ?hist. I done it, an' the st ipper ? ime out. ur th?? thing busted, ur some thin', an' It" Here Tuffold Knutt shuddered visibly. it give me th?? fust ?bath I'd had fur nine? teen year! K.ck.m I'd furglt wot it looked like? Tou go an' sunk yer old head!" ? ICE CRE I '?! FOR BICCOl Gils. Prom The ?Chicago Times-Herald. George w. Ta;, ior. a retired Board of Trade man living at No. I.V.? South Green-st, is th?? victim ??f a remarkable malady, ll.? waa taken to the county hospital yesterday Buffering from hiccoughs, an?! ao aerloua was his condition that it waa feared he might die. Singular a ? la th-? ailn.cn; of Mr. Taylor, he has a ? m? iv Cat i?. Jui ? aa strange, and In previous attacks li ? has found it of wonderful efficacy, hm this time it fail?.! to work aucceesfully. It is nothing more nor lesa than ?. .? cream. Mr. Tit ?r put in th?? entire day yesterdaj eating :? ci ? rim w ilh. ut avail '???? iraient l.? leventy-four years old a;?J ia.it ?night hin condlUon wa?: au ??jus.